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CI(1)											    CI(1)

NAME
       ci - check in RCS revisions

SYNOPSIS
       ci [options] file ...

DESCRIPTION
       ci  stores new revisions into RCS files.  Each pathname matching an RCS suffix is taken to
       be an RCS file.	All others are assumed to be working files containing new revisions.   ci
       deposits  the  contents	of  each working file into the corresponding RCS file.	If only a
       working file is given, ci tries to find the corresponding RCS file in an RCS  subdirectory
       and then in the working file's directory.  For more details, see FILE NAMING below.

       For  ci	to work, the caller's login must be on the access list, except if the access list
       is empty or the caller is the superuser or the owner of the file.  To append a  new  revi-
       sion  to an existing branch, the tip revision on that branch must be locked by the caller.
       Otherwise, only a new branch can be created.  This restriction is  not  enforced  for  the
       owner of the file if non-strict locking is used (see rcs(1)).  A lock held by someone else
       can be broken with the rcs command.

       Unless the -f option is given, ci checks whether the revision to be deposited differs from
       the preceding one.  If not, instead of creating a new revision ci reverts to the preceding
       one.  To revert, ordinary ci removes the working file and any lock; ci -l keeps and  ci -u
       removes any lock, and then they both generate a new working file much as if co -l or co -u
       had been applied to the preceding revision.  When reverting, any -n and -s  options  apply
       to the preceding revision.

       For  each revision deposited, ci prompts for a log message.  The log message should summa-
       rize the change and must be terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself.
       If several files are checked in ci asks whether to reuse the previous log message.  If the
       standard input is not a terminal, ci suppresses the prompt and uses the same  log  message
       for all files.  See also -m.

       If  the	RCS  file  does not exist, ci creates it and deposits the contents of the working
       file as the initial revision (default number: 1.1).  The access	list  is  initialized  to
       empty.  Instead of the log message, ci requests descriptive text (see -t below).

       The  number  rev  of the deposited revision can be given by any of the options -f, -i, -I,
       -j, -k, -l, -M, -q, -r, or -u.  rev can be symbolic, numeric, or mixed.	Symbolic names in
       rev must already be defined; see the -n and -N options for assigning names during checkin.
       If rev is $, ci determines the revision number from keyword values in the working file.

       If rev begins with a period, then the default branch (normally the trunk) is prepended  to
       it.   If  rev  is  a  branch number followed by a period, then the latest revision on that
       branch is used.

       If rev is a revision number, it must be higher than the latest one on the branch to  which
       rev belongs, or must start a new branch.

       If  rev	is  a  branch rather than a revision number, the new revision is appended to that
       branch.	The level number is obtained by incrementing the  tip  revision  number  of  that
       branch.	 If  rev indicates a non-existing branch, that branch is created with the initial
       revision numbered rev.1.

       If rev is omitted, ci tries to derive the new revision number from the caller's last lock.
       If  the	caller	has  locked the tip revision of a branch, the new revision is appended to
       that branch.  The new revision number is obtained by incrementing the tip revision number.
       If  the	caller	locked	a  non-tip  revision, a new branch is started at that revision by
       incrementing the highest branch number at that revision.  The default initial  branch  and
       level numbers are 1.

       If  rev is omitted and the caller has no lock, but owns the file and locking is not set to
       strict, then the revision is appended to the default branch (normally the trunk;  see  the
       -b option of rcs(1)).

       Exception: On the trunk, revisions can be appended to the end, but not inserted.

OPTIONS
       -rrev  Check in revision rev.

       -r     The bare -r option (without any revision) has an unusual meaning in ci.  With other
	      RCS commands, a bare -r option specifies the most recent revision  on  the  default
	      branch, but with ci, a bare -r option reestablishes the default behavior of releas-
	      ing a lock and removing the working file, and is used to override any default -l or
	      -u options established by shell aliases or scripts.

       -l[rev]
	      works  like  -r, except it performs an additional co -l for the deposited revision.
	      Thus, the deposited revision is immediately checked out again and locked.  This  is
	      useful  for  saving  a revision although one wants to continue editing it after the
	      checkin.

       -u[rev]
	      works like -l, except that the deposited revision is not	locked.   This	lets  one
	      read the working file immediately after checkin.

	      The  -l,	bare -r, and -u options are mutually exclusive and silently override each
	      other.  For example, ci -u -r is equivalent to ci -r because bare -r overrides -u.

       -f[rev]
	      forces a deposit; the new revision is deposited even it is not different	from  the
	      preceding one.

       -k[rev]
	      searches the working file for keyword values to determine its revision number, cre-
	      ation date, state, and  author  (see  co(1)),  and  assigns  these  values  to  the
	      deposited  revision,  rather  than  computing  them  locally.   It also generates a
	      default login message noting the login of the caller and the actual  checkin  date.
	      This  option  is useful for software distribution.  A revision that is sent to sev-
	      eral sites should be checked in with the -k option at these sites to  preserve  the
	      original	number,  date,	author,  and state.  The extracted keyword values and the
	      default log message can be overridden with the options -d,  -m,  -s,  -w,  and  any
	      option that carries a revision number.

       -q[rev]
	      quiet  mode;  diagnostic	output	is not printed.  A revision that is not different
	      from the preceding one is not deposited, unless -f is given.

       -i[rev]
	      initial checkin; report an error if the RCS file already exists.	This avoids  race
	      conditions in certain applications.

       -j[rev]
	      just  checkin  and  do  not  initialize;	report	an error if the RCS file does not
	      already exist.

       -I[rev]
	      interactive mode; the user is prompted and questioned even if the standard input is
	      not a terminal.

       -d[date]
	      uses  date  for the checkin date and time.  The date is specified in free format as
	      explained in co(1).  This is useful for lying about the checkin date, and for -k if
	      no  date is available.  If date is empty, the working file's time of last modifica-
	      tion is used.

       -M[rev]
	      Set the modification time on any new working file to be the date of  the	retrieved
	      revision.  For example, ci -d -M -u f does not alter f's modification time, even if
	      f's contents change due to keyword substitution.	Use this option with care; it can
	      confuse make(1).

       -mmsg  uses  the  string  msg as the log message for all revisions checked in.  By conven-
	      tion, log messages that start with # are comments and are ignored by programs  like
	      GNU  Emacs's  vc package.  Also, log messages that start with {clumpname} (followed
	      by white space) are meant to be clumped together if  possible,  even  if	they  are
	      associated  with	different files; the {clumpname} label is used only for clumping,
	      and is not considered to be part of the log message itself.

       -nname assigns the symbolic name name to the number of the checked-in revision.	ci prints
	      an error message if name is already assigned to another number.

       -Nname same as -n, except that it overrides a previous assignment of name.

       -sstate
	      sets  the  state	of  the checked-in revision to the identifier state.  The default
	      state is Exp.

       -tfile writes descriptive text from the contents of the named  file  into  the  RCS  file,
	      deleting the existing text.  The file cannot begin with -.

       -t-string
	      Write  descriptive  text	from  the string into the RCS file, deleting the existing
	      text.

	      The -t option, in both its forms, has effect only during an initial checkin; it  is
	      silently ignored otherwise.

	      During  the  initial checkin, if -t is not given, ci obtains the text from standard
	      input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself.  The user  is
	      prompted for the text if interaction is possible; see -I.

	      For backward compatibility with older versions of RCS, a bare -t option is ignored.

       -T     Set  the RCS file's modification time to the new revision's time if the former pre-
	      cedes the latter and there is a new revision; preserve the RCS file's  modification
	      time  otherwise.	 If you have locked a revision, ci usually updates the RCS file's
	      modification time to the current time, because the lock is stored in the	RCS  file
	      and  removing the lock requires changing the RCS file.  This can create an RCS file
	      newer than the working file in one of two ways: first, ci -M can create  a  working
	      file  with  a  date before the current time; second, when reverting to the previous
	      revision the RCS file can change while the working file remains  unchanged.   These
	      two  cases  can cause excessive recompilation caused by a make(1) dependency of the
	      working file on the RCS file.  The -T option inhibits this recompilation	by  lying
	      about  the  RCS file's date.  Use this option with care; it can suppress recompila-
	      tion even when a checkin of one working file should  affect  another  working  file
	      associated  with	the  same  RCS file.  For example, suppose the RCS file's time is
	      01:00, the (changed) working file's time is 02:00, some other copy of  the  working
	      file  has  a  time of 03:00, and the current time is 04:00.  Then ci -d -T sets the
	      RCS file's time to 02:00 instead of the usual 04:00; this causes make(1)	to  think
	      (incorrectly) that the other copy is newer than the RCS file.

       -wlogin
	      uses  login for the author field of the deposited revision.  Useful for lying about
	      the author, and for -k if no author is available.

       -V     Print RCS's version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.

       -xsuffixes
	      specifies the suffixes for RCS files.  A nonempty suffix matches any pathname  end-
	      ing  in  the  suffix.  An empty suffix matches any pathname of the form RCS/path or
	      path1/RCS/path2.	The -x option can specify a list of suffixes separated by /.  For
	      example,	-x,v/  specifies  two  suffixes: ,v and the empty suffix.  If two or more
	      suffixes are specified, they are tried in order when looking for an RCS  file;  the
	      first  one  that	works  is used for that file.  If no RCS file is found but an RCS
	      file can be created, the suffixes are tried in  order  to  determine  the  new  RCS
	      file's  name.   The  default for suffixes is installation-dependent; normally it is
	      ,v/ for hosts like Unix that permit commas in filenames, and is  empty  (i.e.  just
	      the empty suffix) for other hosts.

       -zzone specifies the date output format in keyword substitution, and specifies the default
	      time zone for date in the -ddate option.	The zone should be empty, a  numeric  UTC
	      offset,  or  the	special  string LT for local time.  The default is an empty zone,
	      which uses the traditional RCS format of UTC without any time zone  indication  and
	      with  slashes  separating the parts of the date; otherwise, times are output in ISO
	      8601 format with time zone indication.  For example, if local time is  January  11,
	      1990,  8pm  Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of UTC, then the time is output
	      as follows:

		     option    time output
		     -z        1990/01/12 04:00:00	  (default)
		     -zLT      1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
		     -z+05:30  1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30

	      The -z option does not affect dates stored in RCS files, which are always UTC.

FILE NAMING
       Pairs of RCS files and working files can be specified in three ways (see also the  example
       section).

       1)  Both  the  RCS  file  and the working file are given.  The RCS pathname is of the form
       path1/workfileX and the working pathname is of the form path2/workfile  where  path1/  and
       path2/  are  (possibly  different or empty) paths, workfile is a filename, and X is an RCS
       suffix.	If X is empty, path1/ must start with RCS/ or must contain /RCS/.

       2) Only the RCS file is given.  Then the working file is created in the current	directory
       and its name is derived from the name of the RCS file by removing path1/ and the suffix X.

       3)  Only  the working file is given.  Then ci considers each RCS suffix X in turn, looking
       for an RCS file of the form path2/RCS/workfileX or (if the former is not found  and  X  is
       nonempty) path2/workfileX.

       If  the RCS file is specified without a path in 1) and 2), ci looks for the RCS file first
       in the directory ./RCS and then in the current directory.

       ci reports an error if an attempt to open an RCS file fails for an unusual reason, even if
       the  RCS  file's  pathname is just one of several possibilities.  For example, to suppress
       use of RCS commands in a directory d, create a regular file named  d/RCS  so  that  casual
       attempts to use RCS commands in d fail because d/RCS is not a directory.

EXAMPLES
       Suppose	,v is an RCS suffix and the current directory contains a subdirectory RCS with an
       RCS file io.c,v.  Then each of the following  commands  check  in  a  copy  of  io.c  into
       RCS/io.c,v as the latest revision, removing io.c.

	      ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c,v;   ci  io.c,v;
	      ci  io.c	RCS/io.c,v;    ci  io.c  io.c,v;
	      ci  RCS/io.c,v  io.c;    ci  io.c,v  io.c;

       Suppose	instead that the empty suffix is an RCS suffix and the current directory contains
       a subdirectory RCS with an RCS file io.c.  The each of the following commands checks in	a
       new revision.

	      ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c;
	      ci  io.c	RCS/io.c;
	      ci  RCS/io.c  io.c;

FILE MODES
       An RCS file created by ci inherits the read and execute permissions from the working file.
       If the RCS file exists already, ci preserves its read and execute permissions.  ci  always
       turns off all write permissions of RCS files.

FILES
       Temporary  files are created in the directory containing the working file, and also in the
       temporary directory (see TMPDIR under ENVIRONMENT).  A semaphore file or files are created
       in  the	directory  containing  the RCS file.  With a nonempty suffix, the semaphore names
       begin with the first character of the suffix; therefore, do not specify	an  suffix  whose
       first  character could be that of a working filename.  With an empty suffix, the semaphore
       names end with _ so working filenames should not end in _.

       ci never changes an RCS or working file.  Normally, ci unlinks the file and creates a  new
       one;  but  instead  of  breaking  a chain of one or more symbolic links to an RCS file, it
       unlinks the destination file instead.  Therefore, ci breaks any hard or symbolic links  to
       any  working  file  it  changes; and hard links to RCS files are ineffective, but symbolic
       links to RCS files are preserved.

       The effective user must be able to search and write the directory containing the RCS file.
       Normally,  the  real user must be able to read the RCS and working files and to search and
       write the directory containing the working file; however, some older hosts  cannot  easily
       switch  between real and effective users, so on these hosts the effective user is used for
       all accesses.  The effective user is the same as the real user unless your  copies  of  ci
       and  co	have setuid privileges.  As described in the next section, these privileges yield
       extra security if the effective user owns all RCS files and directories, and if	only  the
       effective user can write RCS directories.

       Users can control access to RCS files by setting the permissions of the directory contain-
       ing the files; only users with write access to the  directory  can  use	RCS  commands  to
       change  its  RCS  files.   For  example,  in  hosts that allow a user to belong to several
       groups, one can make a group's RCS directories writable to that group only.  This approach
       suffices  for informal projects, but it means that any group member can arbitrarily change
       the group's RCS files, and can even remove them	entirely.   Hence  more  formal  projects
       sometimes  distinguish between an RCS administrator, who can change the RCS files at will,
       and other project members, who can check in new revisions but cannot otherwise change  the
       RCS files.

SETUID USE
       To prevent anybody but their RCS administrator from deleting revisions, a set of users can
       employ setuid privileges as follows.

       o Check that the host supports RCS setuid use.  Consult a trustworthy expert if there  are
	 any  doubts.	It is best if the seteuid system call works as described in Posix 1003.1a
	 Draft 5, because RCS can switch back and forth easily between real and effective  users,
	 even  if  the	real  user is root.  If not, the second best is if the setuid system call
	 supports saved setuid (the {_POSIX_SAVED_IDS} behavior of Posix 1003.1-1990); this fails
	 only  if  the	real or effective user is root.  If RCS detects any failure in setuid, it
	 quits immediately.

       o Choose a user A to serve as RCS administrator for the set of users.  Only A  can  invoke
	 the  rcs  command  on the users' RCS files.  A should not be root or any other user with
	 special powers.  Mutually suspicious sets of users should use different administrators.

       o Choose a pathname B to be a directory of files to be executed by the users.

       o Have A set up B to contain copies of ci and co that are setuid to A by copying the  com-
	 mands from their standard installation directory D as follows:

	      mkdir  B
	      cp  D/c[io]  B
	      chmod  go-w,u+s  B/c[io]

       o Have each user prepend B to their path as follows:

	      PATH=B:$PATH;  export  PATH  # ordinary shell
	      set  path=(B  $path)  # C shell

       o Have A create each RCS directory R with write access only to A as follows:

	      mkdir  R
	      chmod  go-w  R

       o If  you want to let only certain users read the RCS files, put the users into a group G,
	 and have A further protect the RCS directory as follows:

	      chgrp  G	R
	      chmod  g-w,o-rwx	R

       o Have A copy old RCS files (if any) into R, to ensure that A owns them.

       o An RCS file's access list limits who can check  in  and  lock	revisions.   The  default
	 access  list  is empty, which grants checkin access to anyone who can read the RCS file.
	 If you want limit checkin access, have A invoke rcs -a on the file; see rcs(1).  In par-
	 ticular, rcs -e -aA limits access to just A.

       o Have  A  initialize  any new RCS files with rcs -i before initial checkin, adding the -a
	 option if you want to limit checkin access.

       o Give setuid privileges only to ci, co, and rcsclean; do not give them to rcs or  to  any
	 other command.

       o Do  not  use  other  setuid commands to invoke RCS commands; setuid is trickier than you
	 think!

ENVIRONMENT
       RCSINIT
	      options prepended to the argument list, separated by spaces.  A  backslash  escapes
	      spaces  within  an option.  The RCSINIT options are prepended to the argument lists
	      of most RCS commands.  Useful RCSINIT options include -q, -V, -x, and -z.

       TMPDIR Name of the temporary directory.	If not set, the  environment  variables  TMP  and
	      TEMP  are inspected instead and the first value found is taken; if none of them are
	      set, a host-dependent default is used, typically /tmp.

DIAGNOSTICS
       For each revision, ci prints the RCS file, the working file, and the number  of	both  the
       deposited  and  the preceding revision.	The exit status is zero if and only if all opera-
       tions were successful.

IDENTIFICATION
       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision: 1.1.1.1; Release Date: 2002/04/30.
       Copyright (C) 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.
       Copyright (C) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.

SEE ALSO
       co(1),  emacs(1),  ident(1),  make(1),  rcs(1),	rcsclean(1),   rcsdiff(1),   rcsintro(1),
       rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), setuid(2), rcsfile(5)
       Walter  F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice & Experience 15, 7
       (July 1985), 637-654.

GNU					    2002/04/30					    CI(1)
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