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rescue(8) [netbsd man page]

RESCUE(8)						    BSD System Manager's Manual 						 RESCUE(8)

rescue -- rescue utilities in /rescue DESCRIPTION
The /rescue directory contains a collection of common utilities intended for use in recovering a badly damaged system. With the transition to a dynamically-linked root beginning with NetBSD 2.0, there is a real possibility that the standard tools in /bin and /sbin may become non- functional due to a failed upgrade or a disk error. The tools in /rescue are statically linked and should therefore be more resistant to damage. However, being statically linked, the tools in /rescue are also less functional than the standard utilities. In particular, they do not have full use of the locale, pam(3), and nsswitch libraries. If your system fails to boot, and it shows an error message similar to: init: not found try booting the system with the boot flag ``-a'' and supplying /rescue/init, which is the rescue init(8), as the init path. If your system fails to boot, and it shows a prompt similar to: Enter full pathname of shell or RETURN for /bin/sh: the first thing to try running is the standard shell, /bin/sh. If that fails, try running /rescue/sh, which is the rescue shell. To repair the system, the root partition must first be remounted read-write. This can be done with the following mount(8) command: /rescue/mount -uw / The next step is to double-check the contents of /bin, /lib, /libexec, and /sbin, possibly mounting a NetBSD installation CD-ROM and copying files from there. Once it is possible to successfully run /bin/sh, /bin/ls, and other standard utilities, try rebooting back into the stan- dard system. The /rescue tools are compiled using crunchgen(1), which makes them considerably more compact than the standard utilities. FILES
/rescue Root of the rescue hierarchy. SEE ALSO
crunchgen(1) HISTORY
The rescue utilities first appeared in NetBSD 2.0. AUTHORS
The rescue system was written by Luke Mewburn <>. This manual page was written by Simon L. Nielsen <>, based on text by Tim Kientzle <>. BUGS
Most of the rescue tools work even in a fairly crippled system. The most egregious exception is the rescue version of vi(1), which currently requires that /usr be mounted so that it can access the termcap(5) files. Hopefully, a failsafe termcap(3) entry will eventually be added into the curses(3) library, so that /rescue/vi can be used even in a system where /usr cannot immediately be mounted. In the meantime, the rescue version of the ed(1) editor can be used from /rescue/ed if you need to edit files, but cannot mount /usr. BSD
January 20, 2009 BSD

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MKRESCUE(8)						      System Manager's Manual						       MKRESCUE(8)

mkrescue - make rescue floppy or CD SYNOPSIS
/sbin/mkrescue makes a bootable rescue floppy or CD using the default kernel specified in lilo.conf. DESCRIPTION
mkrescue takes its specifation for the kernel from the default image specified in /etc/lilo.conf. If the actual default is an other= spec- ification, then use the first image= specification. Any associated initial ramdisk (initrd=), and append= options will also be used. The root directory will be taken to be the current root. A bootable floppy or CD-image will be created using LILO version 22.5.5 or later. mkrescue normally requires no options, unless a CD-image is desired (--iso). OPTIONS
--append <string> Override any append= options taken from the default image. If there is any doubt about whether the lilo.conf options are correct, then specify no kernel parameters by providing the null string (--append ""). --debug Provide verbose output of the operation of mkrescue, pausing to allow the setting of internal operating parameters to be viewed. <CR> must be hit to proceed from these pauses. --device <device> Make the floppy on a device other than /dev/fd0. The floppy disk will always be made to boot on BIOS device code 0x00 (A: drive), without regard to the drive on which it is created. --fast Use a faster method of creating the boot floppy. This involves first creating a file of --size 1k blocks (default is 1440) mounted using a loopback device, creating the bootable floppy, then copying the entire file to the disk. --fs [ ext2 | msdos | minix ] Specify the type of filesystem to create on the drive. ext2 is the default, but msdos and minix allow slightly more disk sectors for really big kernels. --help Print a short usage synopsis, including a list of command options. --image <label> Specifies the label or alias of the particular image from which the append, initial ramdisk, root, keytable, and kernel information is to be taken. --initrd <filepath> and --kernel <filepath> These options, which must be used together, allow specification of an arbitrary kernel file and initial ramdisk file to be used on the created boot floppy. Be sure you know what you are doing before you use these options. If no inital ramdisk is needed with a particular kernel, then you MUST specify --initrd "", meaning a null pathname. --install [ text | menu ] Allows overriding the default human interface used with the rescue bootloader (configuration file "install=" option). text is the default on 1.2MB and 1.44MB floppy disks, and menu is the default on 2.88MB floppies and HD emulation on CD-R media. --iso Create an ISO-9660 bootable CD image (El Torito Format) suitable for burning to a CD-R or CD-RW. The --device specification defaults to the filename rescue.iso, and the --size defaults to 2880. A utility such as "wodim" may be used to burn the ISO file to a recordable CD medium. With this ISO option, the --size HD option is allowed. --nocompact For faster kernel loading from a floppy, LILO map compaction is normally enabled. This option will disable map compaction by omit- ting the lilo -c switch. --noformat Suppresses creation of a new filesystem on the boot floppy. This option may be used ONLY when you know that the floppy you will be writing upon is formatted with the same filesystem as specified by --fs XXX (default is ext2). --root <device> Specify the root filesystem for the kernel on the boot floppy. The currently mounted root is taken as the default specification. --size [ 1440 | 1200 | 2880 | HD ] The default floppy disk size is 1440, meaning a 1.44MB floppy. When --iso is specified, the default size is 2880. Allowed specifi- cations are 1200, 1440, or 2880, meaning a 1.2MB, 1.44MB or 2.88MB floppy, respectively. No other floppy disk sizes are supported. The HD specification, meaning "hard disk", may only be used with the --iso option, to indicate a 16MB hard disk is to be generated for emulation. This allows for very large kernel/initial ramdisk combinations on CD-R. The hard disk image is created using loop- back devices /dev/loop0 and /dev/loop1, which must be free to utilize this size option. --version Print the version number of mkrescue, then terminate. SEE ALSO
cdrecord(1), dd(1), wodim(1), lilo.conf(5), lilo(8), mkfs(8), mkinitrd(8), mkisofs(8), mount(8) 6 Mar 2011 MKRESCUE(8)
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