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LOCAL(8)										 LOCAL(8)

NAME
       local - Postfix local mail delivery

SYNOPSIS
       local [generic Postfix daemon options]

DESCRIPTION
       The  local(8) daemon processes delivery requests from the Postfix queue manager to deliver
       mail to local recipients.  Each delivery request specifies a queue file, a sender address,
       a  domain  or  host to deliver to, and one or more recipients.  This program expects to be
       run from the master(8) process manager.

       The local(8) daemon updates queue files and marks recipients as finished,  or  it  informs
       the  queue  manager  that  delivery should be tried again at a later time. Delivery status
       reports are sent to the bounce(8), defer(8) or trace(8) daemon as appropriate.

CASE FOLDING
       All delivery decisions are made using the bare recipient name  (i.e.  the  address  local-
       part), folded to lower case.  See also under ADDRESS EXTENSION below for a few exceptions.

SYSTEM-WIDE AND USER-LEVEL ALIASING
       The  system  administrator  can	set up one or more system-wide sendmail-style alias data-
       bases.  Users can have sendmail-style ~/.forward files.	Mail for name is delivered to the
       alias  name,  to destinations in ~name/.forward, to the mailbox owned by the user name, or
       it is sent back as undeliverable.

       The system administrator can specify a comma/space separated list of ~/.forward like files
       through	the forward_path configuration parameter. Upon delivery, the local delivery agent
       tries each pathname in the list until a file is found.

       Delivery via ~/.forward files is done with the privileges of the recipient.  Thus, ~/.for-
       ward  like  files  must	be readable by the recipient, and their parent directory needs to
       have "execute" permission for the recipient.

       The forward_path parameter is subject to  interpolation	of  $user  (recipient  username),
       $home (recipient home directory), $shell (recipient shell), $recipient (complete recipient
       address), $extension (recipient address extension),  $domain  (recipient  domain),  $local
       (entire recipient address localpart) and $recipient_delimiter. The forms ${name?value} and
       ${name:value} expand conditionally to value when $name is (is  not)  defined.   Characters
       that  may  have	special  meaning to the shell or file system are replaced by underscores.
       The list of acceptable characters is specified with the forward_expansion_filter  configu-
       ration parameter.

       An  alias  or  ~/.forward  file may list any combination of external commands, destination
       file names, :include: directives,  or  mail  addresses.	 See  aliases(5)  for  a  precise
       description.  Each  line  in  a user's .forward file has the same syntax as the right-hand
       part of an alias.

       When an address is found in its own alias expansion, delivery is made to the user instead.
       When  a	user  is listed in the user's own ~/.forward file, delivery is made to the user's
       mailbox instead.  An empty ~/.forward file means do not forward mail.

       In order to prevent the mail system from using up unreasonable amounts  of  memory,  input
       records	read  from :include: or from ~/.forward files are broken up into chunks of length
       line_length_limit.

       While expanding aliases, ~/.forward files, and so on, the program attempts to avoid dupli-
       cate  deliveries.  The duplicate_filter_limit configuration parameter limits the number of
       remembered recipients.

MAIL FORWARDING
       For the sake of reliability, forwarded mail is re-submitted as a new message, so that each
       recipient has a separate on-file delivery status record.

       In  order to stop mail forwarding loops early, the software adds an optional Delivered-To:
       header with the final envelope recipient address. If mail arrives for a recipient that  is
       already listed in a Delivered-To: header, the message is bounced.

MAILBOX DELIVERY
       The default per-user mailbox is a file in the UNIX mail spool directory (/var/mail/user or
       /var/spool/mail/user); the location can be specified with the mail_spool_directory config-
       uration parameter. Specify a name ending in / for qmail-compatible maildir delivery.

       Alternatively, the per-user mailbox can be a file in the user's home directory with a name
       specified via the home_mailbox configuration parameter.	Specify  a  relative  path  name.
       Specify a name ending in / for qmail-compatible maildir delivery.

       Mailbox	delivery  can be delegated to an external command specified with the mailbox_com-
       mand_maps and mailbox_command configuration parameters.	The  command  executes	with  the
       privileges of the recipient user (exceptions: secondary groups are not enabled; in case of
       delivery as root, the command executes with the privileges of default_privs).

       Mailbox delivery can be delegated to alternative message transports specified in the  mas-
       ter.cf  file.   The  mailbox_transport_maps and mailbox_transport configuration parameters
       specify an optional message transport that is to be used for all local recipients, regard-
       less  of  whether they are found in the UNIX passwd database.  The fallback_transport_maps
       and fallback_transport parameters specify an optional  message  transport  for  recipients
       that are not found in the aliases(5) or UNIX passwd database.

       In  the	case  of UNIX-style mailbox delivery, the local(8) daemon prepends a "From sender
       time_stamp" envelope header to each message, prepends an X-Original-To:	header	with  the
       recipient  address as given to Postfix, prepends an optional Delivered-To: header with the
       final envelope recipient address, prepends a Return-Path: header with the envelope  sender
       address,  prepends  a  >  character  to lines beginning with "From ", and appends an empty
       line.  The mailbox is locked for exclusive access while delivery is in progress.  In  case
       of problems, an attempt is made to truncate the mailbox to its original length.

       In  the	case  of  maildir  delivery,  the local daemon prepends an optional Delivered-To:
       header with the final envelope recipient address, prepends an X-Original-To:  header  with
       the  recipient  address	as  given to Postfix, and prepends a Return-Path: header with the
       envelope sender address.

EXTERNAL COMMAND DELIVERY
       The allow_mail_to_commands configuration parameter restricts  delivery  to  external  com-
       mands.  The  default  setting  (alias,  forward) forbids command destinations in :include:
       files.

       Optionally, the process working directory is changed  to  the  path  specified  with  com-
       mand_execution_directory  (Postfix 2.2 and later). Failure to change directory causes mail
       to be deferred.

       The command_execution_directory parameter value	is  subject  to  interpolation	of  $user
       (recipient username), $home (recipient home directory), $shell (recipient shell), $recipi-
       ent (complete  recipient  address),  $extension	(recipient  address  extension),  $domain
       (recipient  domain), $local (entire recipient address localpart) and $recipient_delimiter.
       The forms ${name?value} and ${name:value} expand conditionally to value when $name is  (is
       not)  defined.	Characters  that may have special meaning to the shell or file system are
       replaced by underscores.  The list of acceptable characters is specified with  the  execu-
       tion_directory_expansion_filter configuration parameter.

       The  command is executed directly where possible. Assistance by the shell (/bin/sh on UNIX
       systems) is used only when the command contains shell magic characters, or when	the  com-
       mand invokes a shell built-in command.

       A  limited  amount  of command output (standard output and standard error) is captured for
       inclusion with non-delivery status reports.  A command is forcibly terminated if  it  does
       not complete within command_time_limit seconds.	Command exit status codes are expected to
       follow the conventions defined in <sysexits.h>.	Exit status  0	means  normal  successful
       completion.

       Postfix	version 2.3 and later support RFC 3463-style enhanced status codes.  If a command
       terminates with a non-zero exit status, and the command output  begins  with  an  enhanced
       status code, this status code takes precedence over the non-zero exit status.

       A limited amount of message context is exported via environment variables. Characters that
       may have special meaning to the shell are replaced by underscores.  The list of acceptable
       characters is specified with the command_expansion_filter configuration parameter.

       SHELL  The recipient user's login shell.

       HOME   The recipient user's home directory.

       USER   The bare recipient name.

       EXTENSION
	      The optional recipient address extension.

       DOMAIN The recipient address domain part.

       LOGNAME
	      The bare recipient name.

       LOCAL  The entire recipient address localpart (text to the left of the rightmost @ charac-
	      ter).

       ORIGINAL_RECIPIENT
	      The entire recipient address, before any address rewriting or aliasing (Postfix 2.5
	      and later).

       RECIPIENT
	      The entire recipient address.

       SENDER The entire sender address.

       Additional remote client information is made available via the following environment vari-
       ables:

       CLIENT_ADDRESS
	      Remote client network address. Available as of Postfix 2.2.

       CLIENT_HELO
	      Remote client EHLO command parameter. Available as of Postfix 2.2.

       CLIENT_HOSTNAME
	      Remote client hostname. Available as of Postfix 2.2.

       CLIENT_PROTOCOL
	      Remote client protocol. Available as of Postfix 2.2.

       SASL_METHOD
	      SASL authentication method specified in the remote client AUTH  command.	Available
	      as of Postfix 2.2.

       SASL_SENDER
	      SASL  sender address specified in the remote client MAIL FROM command. Available as
	      of Postfix 2.2.

       SASL_USERNAME
	      SASL username specified in the remote client AUTH command.  Available as of Postfix
	      2.2.

       The  PATH  environment  variable  is  always reset to a system-dependent default path, and
       environment variables whose names are  blessed  by  the	export_environment  configuration
       parameter are exported unchanged.

       The current working directory is the mail queue directory.

       The  local(8)  daemon prepends a "From sender time_stamp" envelope header to each message,
       prepends an X-Original-To: header with the recipient address as given to Postfix, prepends
       an  optional  Delivered-To:  header  with the final recipient envelope address, prepends a
       Return-Path: header with the sender envelope address, and appends no empty line.

EXTERNAL FILE DELIVERY
       The delivery format depends on the destination filename syntax.	The  default  is  to  use
       UNIX-style mailbox format.  Specify a name ending in / for qmail-compatible maildir deliv-
       ery.

       The allow_mail_to_files configuration parameter restricts delivery to external files.  The
       default setting (alias, forward) forbids file destinations in :include: files.

       In  the	case  of UNIX-style mailbox delivery, the local(8) daemon prepends a "From sender
       time_stamp" envelope header to each message, prepends an X-Original-To:	header	with  the
       recipient  address as given to Postfix, prepends an optional Delivered-To: header with the
       final recipient envelope address, prepends a > character to lines beginning with "From  ",
       and  appends  an empty line.  The envelope sender address is available in the Return-Path:
       header.	When the destination is a regular file, it is locked for exclusive  access  while
       delivery  is  in  progress.  In case of problems, an attempt is made to truncate a regular
       file to its original length.

       In the case of maildir delivery, the  local  daemon  prepends  an  optional  Delivered-To:
       header  with  the  final envelope recipient address, and prepends an X-Original-To: header
       with the recipient address as given to Postfix.	The envelope sender address is	available
       in the Return-Path: header.

ADDRESS EXTENSION
       The optional recipient_delimiter configuration parameter specifies how to separate address
       extensions from local recipient names.

       For example, with "recipient_delimiter = +", mail for name+foo is delivered to  the  alias
       name+foo  or  to  the  alias  name, to the destinations listed in ~name/.forward+foo or in
       ~name/.forward, to the mailbox owned by the user name, or it is sent  back  as  undeliver-
       able.

DELIVERY RIGHTS
       Deliveries to external files and external commands are made with the rights of the receiv-
       ing user on whose behalf the delivery is made.  In the absence  of  a  user  context,  the
       local(8) daemon uses the owner rights of the :include: file or alias database.  When those
       files are owned by the superuser, delivery is made with	the  rights  specified	with  the
       default_privs configuration parameter.

STANDARDS
       RFC 822 (ARPA Internet Text Messages)
       RFC 3463 (Enhanced status codes)

DIAGNOSTICS
       Problems and transactions are logged to syslogd(8).  Corrupted message files are marked so
       that the queue manager can move them to the corrupt queue afterwards.

       Depending on the setting of the notify_classes parameter, the postmaster  is  notified  of
       bounces and of other trouble.

SECURITY
       The  local(8)  delivery	agent  needs  a dual personality 1) to access the private Postfix
       queue and IPC mechanisms, 2) to impersonate the recipient and deliver to  recipient-speci-
       fied files or commands. It is therefore security sensitive.

       The  local(8)  delivery	agent  disallows  regular  expression  substitution of $1 etc. in
       alias_maps, because that would open a security hole.

       The local(8) delivery agent will silently ignore requests to use  the  proxymap(8)  server
       within  alias_maps.  Instead it will open the table directly.  Before Postfix version 2.2,
       the local(8) delivery agent will terminate with a fatal error.

BUGS
       For security reasons, the message delivery status of  external  commands  or  of  external
       files  is  never  checkpointed  to file. As a result, the program may occasionally deliver
       more than once to a command or external file. Better safe than sorry.

       Mutually-recursive aliases or ~/.forward files are not detected early.  The resulting mail
       forwarding loop is broken by the use of the Delivered-To: message header.

CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS
       Changes	to main.cf are picked up automatically, as local(8) processes run for only a lim-
       ited amount of time. Use the command "postfix reload" to speed up a change.

       The text below provides only a parameter summary. See postconf(5) for more details includ-
       ing examples.

COMPATIBILITY CONTROLS
       biff (yes)
	      Whether or not to use the local biff service.

       expand_owner_alias (no)
	      When  delivering	to  an	alias "aliasname" that has an "owner-aliasname" companion
	      alias, set the envelope sender address to the expansion  of  the	"owner-aliasname"
	      alias.

       owner_request_special (yes)
	      Give  special  treatment to owner-listname and listname-request address localparts:
	      don't split such addresses when the recipient_delimiter is set to "-".

       sun_mailtool_compatibility (no)
	      Obsolete SUN mailtool compatibility feature.

       Available in Postfix version 2.3 and later:

       frozen_delivered_to (yes)
	      Update the local(8)  delivery  agent's  idea  of	the  Delivered-To:  address  (see
	      prepend_delivered_header)  only  once,  at  the start of a delivery attempt; do not
	      update the Delivered-To: address while expanding aliases or .forward files.

       Available in Postfix version 2.5.3 and later:

       strict_mailbox_ownership (yes)
	      Defer delivery when a mailbox file is not owned by its recipient.

       reset_owner_alias (no)
	      Reset the local(8) delivery agent's idea of the owner-alias attribute, when  deliv-
	      ering mail to a child alias that does not have its own owner alias.

DELIVERY METHOD CONTROLS
       The  precedence of local(8) delivery methods from high to low is: aliases, .forward files,
       mailbox_transport_maps,	  mailbox_transport,	mailbox_command_maps,	 mailbox_command,
       home_mailbox,   mail_spool_directory,   fallback_transport_maps,  fallback_transport,  and
       luser_relay.

       alias_maps (see 'postconf -d' output)
	      The alias databases that are used for local(8) delivery.

       forward_path (see 'postconf -d' output)
	      The local(8) delivery agent search list for finding a .forward file with user-spec-
	      ified delivery methods.

       mailbox_transport_maps (empty)
	      Optional	lookup	tables	with per-recipient message delivery transports to use for
	      local(8) mailbox delivery, whether or not the recipients	are  found  in	the  UNIX
	      passwd database.

       mailbox_transport (empty)
	      Optional message delivery transport that the local(8) delivery agent should use for
	      mailbox delivery to all local recipients, whether or not they are found in the UNIX
	      passwd database.

       mailbox_command_maps (empty)
	      Optional	lookup	tables	with  per-recipient external commands to use for local(8)
	      mailbox delivery.

       mailbox_command (empty)
	      Optional external command that the local(8) delivery agent should use  for  mailbox
	      delivery.

       home_mailbox (empty)
	      Optional pathname of a mailbox file relative to a local(8) user's home directory.

       mail_spool_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
	      The directory where local(8) UNIX-style mailboxes are kept.

       fallback_transport_maps (empty)
	      Optional	lookup	tables with per-recipient message delivery transports for recipi-
	      ents that the local(8) delivery agent could not find  in	the  aliases(5)  or  UNIX
	      password database.

       fallback_transport (empty)
	      Optional message delivery transport that the local(8) delivery agent should use for
	      names that are not found in the aliases(5) or UNIX password database.

       luser_relay (empty)
	      Optional catch-all destination for unknown local(8) recipients.

       Available in Postfix version 2.2 and later:

       command_execution_directory (empty)
	      The local(8) delivery agent working directory for delivery to external command.

MAILBOX LOCKING CONTROLS
       deliver_lock_attempts (20)
	      The maximal number of attempts to acquire an exclusive lock on a	mailbox  file  or
	      bounce(8) logfile.

       deliver_lock_delay (1s)
	      The  time  between  attempts  to	acquire  an  exclusive	lock on a mailbox file or
	      bounce(8) logfile.

       stale_lock_time (500s)
	      The time after which a stale exclusive mailbox lockfile is removed.

       mailbox_delivery_lock (see 'postconf -d' output)
	      How to lock a UNIX-style local(8) mailbox before attempting delivery.

RESOURCE AND RATE CONTROLS
       command_time_limit (1000s)
	      Time limit for delivery to external commands.

       duplicate_filter_limit (1000)
	      The maximal number of addresses remembered by  the  address  duplicate  filter  for
	      aliases(5) or virtual(5) alias expansion, or for showq(8) queue displays.

       local_destination_concurrency_limit (2)
	      The  maximal number of parallel deliveries via the local mail delivery transport to
	      the same recipient (when "local_destination_recipient_limit = 1")  or  the  maximal
	      number  of  parallel  deliveries	to  the  same  local domain (when "local_destina-
	      tion_recipient_limit > 1").

       local_destination_recipient_limit (1)
	      The maximal number of recipients per message delivery via the local  mail  delivery
	      transport.

       mailbox_size_limit (51200000)
	      The  maximal  size  of any local(8) individual mailbox or maildir file, or zero (no
	      limit).

SECURITY CONTROLS
       allow_mail_to_commands (alias, forward)
	      Restrict local(8) mail delivery to external commands.

       allow_mail_to_files (alias, forward)
	      Restrict local(8) mail delivery to external files.

       command_expansion_filter (see 'postconf -d' output)
	      Restrict the characters that the local(8) delivery agent allows in $name expansions
	      of $mailbox_command and $command_execution_directory.

       default_privs (nobody)
	      The  default  rights  used  by the local(8) delivery agent for delivery to external
	      file or command.

       forward_expansion_filter (see 'postconf -d' output)
	      Restrict the characters that the local(8) delivery agent allows in $name expansions
	      of $forward_path.

       Available in Postfix version 2.2 and later:

       execution_directory_expansion_filter (see 'postconf -d' output)
	      Restrict the characters that the local(8) delivery agent allows in $name expansions
	      of $command_execution_directory.

       Available in Postfix version 2.5.3 and later:

       strict_mailbox_ownership (yes)
	      Defer delivery when a mailbox file is not owned by its recipient.

MISCELLANEOUS CONTROLS
       config_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
	      The default location of the Postfix main.cf and master.cf configuration files.

       daemon_timeout (18000s)
	      How much time a Postfix daemon process may take to handle a request  before  it  is
	      terminated by a built-in watchdog timer.

       delay_logging_resolution_limit (2)
	      The  maximal number of digits after the decimal point when logging sub-second delay
	      values.

       export_environment (see 'postconf -d' output)
	      The list of environment variables that a Postfix process will export to non-Postfix
	      processes.

       ipc_timeout (3600s)
	      The  time limit for sending or receiving information over an internal communication
	      channel.

       local_command_shell (empty)
	      Optional shell program for local(8) delivery to non-Postfix command.

       max_idle (100s)
	      The maximum amount of time that an idle Postfix daemon process waits for an  incom-
	      ing connection before terminating voluntarily.

       max_use (100)
	      The  maximal number of incoming connections that a Postfix daemon process will ser-
	      vice before terminating voluntarily.

       prepend_delivered_header (command, file, forward)
	      The message delivery contexts where the Postfix local(8) delivery agent prepends	a
	      Delivered-To:  message header with the address that the mail was delivered to.

       process_id (read-only)
	      The process ID of a Postfix command or daemon process.

       process_name (read-only)
	      The process name of a Postfix command or daemon process.

       propagate_unmatched_extensions (canonical, virtual)
	      What  address  lookup  tables  copy an address extension from the lookup key to the
	      lookup result.

       queue_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
	      The location of the Postfix top-level queue directory.

       recipient_delimiter (empty)
	      The separator between user names and address extensions (user+foo).

       require_home_directory (no)
	      Require that a local(8) recipient's home directory exists before mail  delivery  is
	      attempted.

       syslog_facility (mail)
	      The syslog facility of Postfix logging.

       syslog_name (see 'postconf -d' output)
	      The  mail  system  name that is prepended to the process name in syslog records, so
	      that "smtpd" becomes, for example, "postfix/smtpd".

FILES
       The following are examples; details differ between systems.
       $HOME/.forward, per-user aliasing
       /etc/aliases, system-wide alias database
       /var/spool/mail, system mailboxes

SEE ALSO
       qmgr(8), queue manager
       bounce(8), delivery status reports
       newaliases(1), create/update alias database
       postalias(1), create/update alias database
       aliases(5), format of alias database
       postconf(5), configuration parameters
       master(5), generic daemon options
       syslogd(8), system logging

LICENSE
       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.

HISTORY
       The Delivered-To: message header appears in the qmail system by Daniel Bernstein.

       The maildir structure appears in the qmail system by Daniel Bernstein.

AUTHOR(S)
       Wietse Venema
       IBM T.J. Watson Research
       P.O. Box 704
       Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA

											 LOCAL(8)
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