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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for sail (netbsd section 6)

SAIL(6) 				 BSD Games Manual				  SAIL(6)

NAME
     sail -- multi-user wooden ships and iron men

SYNOPSIS
     sail [-bx] [-s [-l]] [num]

DESCRIPTION
     sail is a computer version of Avalon Hill's game of fighting sail originally developed by S.
     Craig Taylor.

     Players of sail take command of an old-fashioned Man of War and fight other players or the
     computer.	They may re-enact one of the many historical sea battles recorded in the game, or
     they can choose a fictional battle.

     As a sea captain in the Sail Navy, the player has complete control over the workings of his
     ship.  He must order every maneuver, change the set of his sails, and judge the right moment
     to let loose the terrible destruction of his broadsides.  In addition to fighting the enemy,
     he must harness the powers of the wind and sea to make them work for him.	The outcome of
     many battles during the age of sail was decided by the ability of one captain to hold the
     'weather gage'.

     The flags are:
     -b    No bells.
     -l    Show the login name.  Only effective with -s.
     -s    Print the names and ships of the top ten sailors.
     -x    Play the first available ship instead of prompting for a choice.

IMPLEMENTATION
     sail is a multiplayer game.  Each player runs sail to either connect to an existing game or
     start a new one.  The game server (or ``driver'') is an extra fork of the sail program cre-
     ated when a game is started.  The driver coordinates the game and runs the computer ships.

     If a player joins a game in progress, a synchronization process occurs (a rather slow
     process for everyone), and then the game continues.

     Note that while each scenario can be running independently with different players, each sce-
     nario can also only be running once at any given time.

   COMMUNICATION
     To implement a multi-user game in Version 7 UNIX, which was the operating system sail was
     first written under, the communicating processes must use a common temporary file as a place
     to read and write messages.  For e.g. scenario 21, this file is
     /var/games/sail/#sailsink.21.  Corresponding file names are used for the other scenarios.

     In addition, a locking mechanism must be provided to ensure exclusive access to the shared
     file.  sail uses a technique stolen from an old game called ``pubcaves'' by Jeff Cohen.
     Processes do a busy wait in the loop

	   for (n = 0; link(sync_file, sync_lock) < 0 && n < 30; n++)
		   sleep(2);

     until they are able to create a hard link named e.g.  /var/games/sail/#saillock.21.  where
     21 is again the scenario number.  Since creating a hard link is atomic, a process where this
     succeeds will have exclusive access to the temporary file.

   CONSEQUENCES OF SEPARATE PLAYER AND DRIVER PROCESSES
     When players do something of global interest, such as moving or firing, the driver must
     coordinate the action with the other ships in the game.  For example, if a player wants to
     move in a certain direction, he writes a message into the temporary file requesting the
     driver to move his ship.  Each ``turn'', the driver reads all the messages sent from the
     players and decides what happened.  It then writes back into the temporary file new values
     of variables, etc.

     The most noticeable effect this communication has on the game is the delay in moving.  Sup-
     pose a player types a move for his ship and hits return.  What happens then?  The player
     process saves up messages to be written to the temporary file in a buffer.  Every 7 seconds
     or so, the player process gets exclusive access to the temporary file and writes out its
     buffer to the file.  The driver, running asynchronously, must read in the movement command,
     process it, and write out the results.  This takes two exclusive accesses to the temporary
     file.  Finally, when the player process gets around to doing another 7-second update, the
     results of the move are displayed on the screen.  Hence, every movement requires four exclu-
     sive accesses to the temporary file (anywhere from 7 to 21 seconds depending upon asyn-
     chrony) before the player sees the results of his moves.

     In practice, the delays are not as annoying as they would appear.	There is room for
     ``pipelining'' in the movement.  After the player writes out a first movement message, a
     second movement command can then be issued.  The first message will be in the temporary file
     waiting for the driver, and the second will be in the file buffer waiting to be written to
     the file.	Thus, by always typing moves a turn ahead of the time, the player can sail around
     quite quickly.

     If the player types several movement commands between two 7-second updates, only the last
     movement command typed will be seen by the driver.  Movement commands within the same update
     ``overwrite'' each other, in a sense.

   DEFECTS OF THIS SYSTEM IN THE MODERN WORLD
     Quite a few.

     It should be thrown out and replaced with something socket-based.

HISTORICAL INFO
     Old square-riggers were very maneuverable ships capable of intricate sailing.  Their only
     disadvantage was an inability to sail very close to the wind.  The design of a wooden ship
     allowed for the guns to bear only to the left and right sides.  A few guns of small aspect
     (usually 6 or 9 pounders) could point forward, but their effect was small compared to a 68
     gun broadside of 24- or 32-pounders.  The guns bear approximately like so:

		  \
		   b----------------
	       ---0
		   \
		    \
		     \	   up to a range of ten (for round shot)
		      \
		       \
			\

     Firing a broadside into a ship lengthwise, from bow to stern or stern to bow, is called
     raking.  This did a great deal more damage, because the shot tended to bounce along the
     deck.  Because the bows of a ship are very strong and present a smaller target than the
     stern, a stern rake (firing from the stern to the bow) causes more damage than a bow rake.

				   b
				  00   ----  Stern rake!
				    a

     Most ships were equipped with carronades, which were very large, close range cannons.  Amer-
     ican ships from the revolution until the War of 1812 were almost entirely armed with car-
     ronades.

     The period of history covered in sail is approximately from the 1770's until the end of
     Napoleonic France in 1815.  There are many excellent books about the age of sail.	(See
     REFERENCES).

     Fighting ships came in several sizes classed by armament.	The mainstays of any fleet were
     its ships of the line, or line of battle ships.  These were so named because in fleet
     actions they would sail in lines so as to present all broadsides to the enemy at once.  The
     modern terms ``ocean liner'', and ``battleship'' are derived from ``ship of the line''.

     The pride of the fleet were the ``first-rates''.  These were huge three decked ships of the
     line mounting 80 to 136 guns.  The guns in the three tiers were usually 18, 24, and 32
     pounders in that order from top to bottom.

     Lesser ships were known as ``second-rates'', ``third-rates'', and even ``fourth-rates''.
     The most common size was the 74 gun two-decked ship of the line.  The two gun decks usually
     mounted 18 and 24 pounder guns.

     Razees were ships of the line with one deck sawed off.  These mounted 40-64 guns and were a
     poor cross between a frigate and a line of battle ship.  They neither had the speed of the
     former nor the firepower of the latter.

     The next class was the frigate.  Often called the ``eyes of the fleet'', frigates came in
     many sizes mounting anywhere from 32 to 44 guns.  These were very handy vessels.  They could
     outsail anything bigger and outshoot anything smaller.  Frigates did not generally fight in
     lines of battle as the much bigger 74s did.  Instead, they were sent on individual missions
     or in small groups to harass the enemy's rear or capture crippled ships.  They were much
     more useful this way, in missions away from the fleet.  They could hit hard and get away
     fast.

     Lastly, there were the corvettes, sloops, and brigs.  These were smaller ships mounting typ-
     ically fewer than 20 guns.  A corvette was only slightly smaller than a frigate, so one
     might have up to 30 guns.	Sloops were used for carrying despatches or passengers.  Brigs
     were small vessels typically built for land-locked lakes.

SAIL PARTICULARS
     Ships in sail are represented on the screen by two characters.  One character represents the
     bow of the ship, and the other represents the stern.  Ships have nationalities and numbers.
     The first ship of a nationality is number 0, the second number 1, etc.  Therefore, the first
     British ship in a game would be printed as ``b0''.  The second Brit would be ``b1'', and the
     fifth Don would be ``s4''.

     Ships can set normal sails, called Battle Sails, or bend on extra canvas called Full Sails.
     A ship under full sail is a beautiful sight indeed, and it can move much faster than a ship
     under battle sails.  The only trouble is, with full sails set, there is so much tension on
     sail and rigging that a well aimed round shot can burst a sail into ribbons where it would
     only cause a little hole in a loose sail.	For this reason, rigging damage is doubled on a
     ship with full sails set.	This does not mean that full sails should never be used; the
     author recommends keeping them up right into the heat of battle.  When a ship has full sails
     set, the letter for its nationality is capitalized.  E.g., a Frog, ``f0'', with full sails
     set would be printed as ``F0''.

     When a ship is battered into a listing hulk, the last man aboard strikes the colors.  This
     ceremony is the ship's formal surrender.  The nationality character of a surrendered ship is
     printed as '!'.  E.g., the Frog of our last example would soon be ``!0''.

     A ship that reaches this point has a chance of catching fire or sinking.  A sinking ship has
     a '~' printed for its nationality, and a ship on fire and about to explode has a '#'
     printed.

     Ships that have struck can be captured; captured ships become the nationality of the prize
     crew.  Therefore, if an American ship captures a British ship, the British ship will thence-
     forth have an 'a' printed for its nationality.  In addition, the ship number is changed to
     one of the characters '&'()*+' corresponding to its original number '012345'.  E.g., the
     ``b0'' captured by an American becomes the ``a&''.  The ``s4'' captured by a Frog becomes
     the ``f*''.

     The ultimate example is, of course, an exploding Brit captured by an American: ``#&''.

MOVEMENT
     Movement is the most confusing part of sail to many.  Ships can head in 8 directions:

				    0	   0	  0
	   b	   b	   b0	   b	   b	   b	   0b	   b
	   0	    0						  0

     The stern of a ship moves when it turns.  The bow remains stationary.  Ships can always
     turn, regardless of the wind (unless they are becalmed).  All ships drift when they lose
     headway.  If a ship doesn't move forward at all for two turns, it will begin to drift.  If a
     ship has begun to drift, then it must move forward before it turns, if it plans to do more
     than make a right or left turn, which is always possible.

     Movement commands to sail are a string of forward moves and turns.  An example is ``l3''.
     It will turn a ship left and then move it ahead 3 spaces.	In the drawing above, the ``b0''
     made 7 successive left turns.  When sail prompts you for a move, it prints three characters
     of import.  E.g.,
	   move (7, 4):
     The first number is the maximum number of moves you can make, including turns.  The second
     number is the maximum number of turns you can make.  Between the numbers is sometimes
     printed a quote (').  If the quote is present, it means that your ship has been drifting,
     and you must move ahead to regain headway before you turn (see note above).  Some of the
     possible moves for the example above are as follows:

	   move (7, 4): 7
	   move (7, 4): 1
	   move (7, 4): d	   /* drift, or do nothing */
	   move (7, 4): 6r
	   move (7, 4): 5r1
	   move (7, 4): 4r1r
	   move (7, 4): l1r1r2
	   move (7, 4): 1r1r1r1

     Because square riggers performed so poorly sailing into the wind, if at any point in a move-
     ment command you turn into the wind, the movement stops there.  E.g.,

	   move (7, 4): l1l4
	   Movement Error;
	   Helm: l1l

     Moreover, upon making a turn, the movement allowance drops to the lesser of what remains
     this turn and what would be available when going in the new direction.  Thus, any turn
     closer to the wind will generally preclude sailing the full distance printed in the ``move''
     prompt.

     Old sailing captains had to keep an eye constantly on the wind.  Captains in sail are no
     different.  A ship's ability to move depends on its attitude to the wind.	The best angle
     possible is to have the wind off your quarter, that is, just off the stern.  The direction
     rose on the side of the screen gives the possible movements for your ship at all positions
     to the wind.  Battle sail speeds are given first, and full sail speeds are given in paren-
     thesis.

				      0 1(2)
				     \|/
				     -^-3(6)
				     /|\
				      | 4(7)
				     3(6)

     Pretend the bow of your ship (the ``^'') is pointing upward and the wind is blowing from the
     bottom to the top of the page.  The numbers at the bottom ``3(6)'' will be your speed under
     battle or full sails in such a situation.	If the wind is off your quarter, then you can
     move ``4(7)''.  If the wind is off your beam, ``3(6)''.  If the wind is off your bow, then
     you can only move ``1(2)''.  Facing into the wind, you cannot move at all.  Ships facing
     into the wind are said to be in irons.

WINDSPEED AND DIRECTION
     The windspeed and direction is displayed as a weather vane on the side of the screen.  The
     number in the middle of the vane indicates the wind speed, and the + to - indicates the wind
     direction.  The wind blows from the + sign (high pressure) to the - sign (low pressure).
     E.g.,

				     |
				     3
				     +

     The wind speeds are:
	   0	becalmed
	   1	light breeze
	   2	moderate breeze
	   3	fresh breeze
	   4	strong breeze
	   5	gale
	   6	full gale
	   7	hurricane
     If a hurricane shows up, all ships are destroyed.

GRAPPLING AND FOULING
     If two ships collide, they run the risk of becoming tangled together.  This is called
     fouling.  Fouled ships are stuck together, and neither can move.  They can unfoul each other
     if they want to.  Boarding parties can only be sent across to ships when the antagonists are
     either fouled or grappled.

     Ships can grapple each other by throwing grapnels into the rigging of the other.

     The number of fouls and grapples you have are displayed on the upper right of the screen.

BOARDING
     Boarding was a very costly venture in terms of human life.  Boarding parties may be formed
     in sail to either board an enemy ship or to defend your own ship against attack.  Men orga-
     nized as Defensive Boarding Parties fight twice as hard to save their ship as men left unor-
     ganized.

     The boarding strength of a crew depends upon its quality and upon the number of men sent.

CREW QUALITY
     The British seaman was world renowned for his sailing abilities.  American sailors, however,
     were actually the best seamen in the world.  Because the American Navy offered twice the
     wages of the Royal Navy, British seamen who liked the sea defected to America by the thou-
     sands.

     In sail, crew quality is quantized into 5 energy levels.  Elite crews can outshoot and out-
     fight all other sailors.  Crack crews are next.  Mundane crews are average, and Green and
     Mutinous crews are below average.	A good rule of thumb is that Crack or Elite crews get one
     extra hit per broadside compared to Mundane crews.  Don't expect too much from Green crews.

BROADSIDES
     Your two broadsides may be loaded with four kinds of shot: grape, chain, round, and double.
     You have guns and carronades in both the port and starboard batteries.  Carronades only have
     a range of two, so you have to get in close to be able to fire them.  You have the choice of
     firing at the hull or rigging of another ship.  If the range of the ship is greater than 6,
     then you may only shoot at the rigging.

     The types of shot and their advantages are:

     ROUND    Range of 10.  Good for hull or rigging hits.

     DOUBLE   Range of 1.  Extra good for hull or rigging hits.  Double takes two turns to load.

     CHAIN    Range of 3.  Excellent for tearing down rigging.	Cannot damage hull or guns,
	      though.

     GRAPE    Range of 1.  Sometimes devastating against enemy crews.

     On the side of the screen is displayed some vital information about your ship:

	   Load  D! R!
	   Hull  9
	   Crew  4  4  2
	   Guns  4  4
	   Carr  2  2
	   Rigg  5 5 5 5

     ``Load'' shows what your port (left) and starboard (right) broadsides are loaded with.  A
     '!'  after the type of shot indicates that it is an initial broadside.  Initial broadside
     were loaded with care before battle and before the decks ran red with blood.  As a conse-
     quence, initial broadsides are a little more effective than broadsides loaded later.  A '*'
     after the type of shot indicates that the gun crews are still loading it, and you cannot
     fire yet.	``Hull'' shows how much hull you have left.  ``Crew'' shows your three sections
     of crew.  As your crew dies off, your ability to fire decreases.  ``Guns'' and ``Carr'' show
     your port and starboard guns.  As you lose guns, your ability to fire decreases.  ``Rigg''
     shows how much rigging you have on your 3 or 4 masts.  As rigging is shot away, you lose
     mobility.

EFFECTIVENESS OF FIRE
     It is very dramatic when a ship fires its thunderous broadsides, but the mere opportunity to
     fire them does not guarantee any hits.  Many factors influence the destructive force of a
     broadside.  First of all, and the chief factor, is distance.  It is harder to hit a ship at
     range ten than it is to hit one sloshing alongside.  Next is raking.  Raking fire, as men-
     tioned before, can sometimes dismast a ship at range ten.	Next, crew size and quality
     affects the damage done by a broadside.  The number of guns firing also bears on the point,
     so to speak.  Lastly, weather affects the accuracy of a broadside.  If the seas are high (5
     or 6), then the lower gunports of ships of the line can't even be opened to run out the
     guns.  This gives frigates and other flush decked vessels an advantage in a storm.  The sce-
     nario Pellew vs. The Droits de L'Homme takes advantage of this peculiar circumstance.

REPAIRS
     Repairs may be made to your Hull, Guns, and Rigging at the slow rate of two points per three
     turns.  The message "Repairs Completed" will be printed if no more repairs can be made.

PECULIARITIES OF COMPUTER SHIPS
     Computer ships in sail follow all the rules above with a few exceptions.  Computer ships
     never repair damage.  If they did, the players could never beat them.  They play well enough
     as it is.	As a consolation, the computer ships can fire double shot every turn.  That fluke
     is a good reason to keep your distance.  The driver figures out the moves of the computer
     ships.  It computes them with a typical A.I. distance function and a depth first search to
     find the maximum ``score''.  It seems to work fairly well, although I'll be the first to
     admit it isn't perfect.

HOW TO PLAY
     Commands are given to sail by typing a single character.  You will then be prompted for fur-
     ther input.  A brief summary of the commands follows.

   COMMAND SUMMARY
     'f'      Fire broadsides if they bear
     'l'      Reload
     'L'      Unload broadsides (to change ammo)
     'm'      Move
     'i'      Print the closest ship
     'I'      Print all ships
     'F'      Find a particular ship or ships (e.g. "a?" for all Americans)
     's'      Send a message around the fleet
     'b'      Attempt to board an enemy ship
     'B'      Recall boarding parties
     'c'      Change set of sail
     'r'      Repair
     'u'      Attempt to unfoul
     'g'      Grapple/ungrapple
     'v'      Print version number of game
     '^L'     Redraw screen
     'Q'      Quit

     'C'      Center your ship in the window
     'U'      Move window up
     'D, N'   Move window down
     'H'      Move window left
     'J'      Move window right
     'S'      Toggle window to follow your ship or stay where it is

SCENARIOS
     Here is a summary of the scenarios in sail:

   Ranger vs. Drake:
     Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Ranger 	   19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
     (b) Drake		   17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

   The Battle of Flamborough Head:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     This is John Paul Jones' first famous battle.  Aboard the Bonhomme Richard, he was able to
     overcome the Serapis's greater firepower by quickly boarding her.

     (a) Bonhomme Rich	   42 gun Corvette (crack crew) (11 pts)
     (b) Serapis	   44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (12 pts)

   Arbuthnot and Des Touches:
     Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

     (b) America	   64 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (20 pts)
     (b) Befford	   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (b) Adamant	   50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (b) London 	   98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
     (b) Royal Oak	   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (f) Neptune	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Duc de Bourgogne  80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Conquerant	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Provence	   64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
     (f) Romulus	   44 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (10 pts)

   Suffren and Hughes:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Monmouth	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Hero		   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (b) Isis		   50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (b) Superb 	   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
     (b) Burford	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Flamband	   50 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (14 pts)
     (f) Annibal	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Severe 	   64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
     (f) Brilliant	   80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
     (f) Sphinx 	   80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)

   Nymphe vs. Cleopatre:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Nymphe 	   36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (11 pts)
     (f) Cleopatre	   36 gun Frigate (average crew) (10 pts)

   Mars vs. Hercule:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Mars		   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (f) Hercule	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (23 pts)

   Ambuscade vs. Baionnaise:
     Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Ambuscade	   32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
     (f) Baionnaise	   24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)

   Constellation vs. Insurgent:
     Wind from the S, blowing a gale.

     (a) Constellation	   38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
     (f) Insurgent	   36 gun Corvette (average crew) (11 pts)

   Constellation vs. Vengeance:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Constellation	   38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
     (f) Vengeance	   40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)

   The Battle of Lissa:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Amphion	   32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
     (b) Active 	   38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (18 pts)
     (b) Volage 	   22 gun Frigate (elite crew) (11 pts)
     (b) Cerberus	   32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
     (f) Favorite	   40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
     (f) Flore		   40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
     (f) Danae		   40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (f) Bellona	   32 gun Frigate (green crew) (9 pts)
     (f) Corona 	   40 gun Frigate (green crew) (12 pts)
     (f) Carolina	   32 gun Frigate (green crew) (7 pts)

   Constitution vs. Guerriere:
     Wind from the SW, blowing a gale.

     (a) Constitution	   44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Guerriere	   38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

   United States vs. Macedonian:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) United States	   44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Macedonian	   38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

   Constitution vs. Java:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Constitution	   44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Java		   38 gun Corvette (crack crew) (19 pts)

   Chesapeake vs. Shannon:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Chesapeake	   38 gun Frigate (average crew) (14 pts)
     (b) Shannon	   38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (17 pts)

   The Battle of Lake Erie:
     Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

     (a) Lawrence	   20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
     (a) Niagara	   20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
     (b) Lady Prevost	   13 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
     (b) Detroit	   19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
     (b) Q. Charlotte	   17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

   Wasp vs. Reindeer:
     Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

     (a) Wasp		   20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
     (b) Reindeer	   18 gun Sloop (elite crew) (9 pts)

   Constitution vs. Cyane and Levant:
     Wind from the S, blowing a moderate breeze.

     (a) Constitution	   44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Cyane		   24 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
     (b) Levant 	   20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (10 pts)

   Pellew vs. Droits de L'Homme:
     Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

     (b) Indefatigable	   44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
     (b) Amazon 	   36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
     (f) Droits L'Hom	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

   Algeciras:
     Wind from the SW, blowing a moderate breeze.

     (b) Caesar 	   80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
     (b) Pompee 	   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
     (b) Spencer	   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (b) Hannibal	   98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
     (s) Real-Carlos	   112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
     (s) San Fernando	   96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
     (s) Argonauta	   80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)
     (s) San Augustine	   74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)
     (f) Indomptable	   80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Desaix 	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

   Lake Champlain:
     Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Saratoga	   26 gun Sloop (crack crew) (12 pts)
     (a) Eagle		   20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
     (a) Ticonderoga	   17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
     (a) Preble 	   7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
     (b) Confiance	   37 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
     (b) Linnet 	   16 gun Sloop (elite crew) (10 pts)
     (b) Chubb		   11 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)

   Last Voyage of the USS President:
     Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) President	   44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Endymion	   40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (b) Pomone 	   44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (20 pts)
     (b) Tenedos	   38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

   Hornblower and the Natividad:
     Wind from the E, blowing a gale.

     A scenario for you Horny fans.  Remember, he sank the Natividad against heavy odds and
     winds.  Hint: don't try to board the Natividad; her crew is much bigger, albeit green.

     (b) Lydia		   36 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
     (s) Natividad	   50 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (14 pts)

   Curse of the Flying Dutchman:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     Just for fun, take the Piece of cake.

     (s) Piece of Cake	   24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
     (f) Flying Dutchy	   120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)

   The South Pacific:
     Wind from the S, blowing a strong breeze.

     (a) USS Scurvy	   136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
     (b) HMS Tahiti	   120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
     (s) Australian	   32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
     (f) Bikini Atoll	   7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)

   Hornblower and the battle of Rosas bay:
     Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

     The only battle Hornblower ever lost.  He was able to dismast one ship and stern rake the
     others though.  See if you can do as well.

     (b) Sutherland	   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (f) Turenne	   80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Nightmare	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Paris		   112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Napoleon	   74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)

   Cape Horn:
     Wind from the NE, blowing a strong breeze.

     (a) Concord	   80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
     (a) Berkeley	   98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
     (b) Thames 	   120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
     (s) Madrid 	   112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Musket 	   80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)

   New Orleans:
     Wind from the SE, blowing a fresh breeze.

     Watch that little Cypress go!

     (a) Alligator	   120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
     (b) Firefly	   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
     (b) Cypress	   44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)

   Botany Bay:
     Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Shark		   64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
     (f) Coral Snake	   44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Sea Lion	   44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)

   Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea:
     Wind from the NW, blowing a fresh breeze.

     This one is dedicated to Richard Basehart and David Hedison.

     (a) Seaview	   120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
     (a) Flying Sub	   40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (b) Mermaid	   136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
     (s) Giant Squid	   112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)

   Frigate Action:
     Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Killdeer	   40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
     (b) Sandpiper	   40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
     (s) Curlew 	   38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

   The Battle of Midway:
     Wind from the E, blowing a moderate breeze.

     (a) Enterprise	   80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
     (a) Yorktown	   80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
     (a) Hornet 	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (j) Akagi		   112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
     (j) Kaga		   96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
     (j) Soryu		   80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)

   Star Trek:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Enterprise	   450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (a) Yorktown	   450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (a) Reliant	   450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (a) Galileo	   450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (k) Kobayashi Maru    450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (k) Klingon II	   450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (o) Red Orion	   450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (o) Blue Orion	   450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)

HISTORY
     Dave Riggle wrote the first version of sail on a PDP-11/70 in the fall of 1980.  Needless to
     say, the code was horrendous, not portable in any sense of the word, and didn't work.  The
     program was not very modular and had fseek(3) and fwrite(3) calls every few lines.  After a
     tremendous rewrite from the top down, the first working version was up and running by 1981.
     There were several annoying bugs concerning firing broadsides and finding angles.

     Ed Wang rewrote the angle() routine in 1981 to be more correct.  He also added code to let a
     player select which ship he wanted at the start of the game, instead of always taking the
     first one available.

     Captain Happy (Craig Leres) is responsible for making sail portable for the first time.
     This was no easy task.  Constants like 2 and 10 were very frequent in the code.  The sail
     code was also notorious for the use of ``Riggle Memorial Structures''.  Many structure ref-
     erences were so long that they ran off the line printer page.  Here is an example, if you
     promise not to laugh:

	   specs[scene[flog.fgamenum].ship[flog.fshipnum].shipnum].pts

     sail received its fourth and most thorough rewrite in the summer and fall of 1983.  Ed Wang
     rewrote and modularized the code (a monumental feat) almost from scratch.	Although he
     introduced many new bugs, the final result was very much cleaner and (?) faster.  He added
     window movement commands and find ship commands.

     At some currently unknown time, sail was imported into BSD.

AUTHORS
     sail has been a group effort.

   AUTHOR
     Dave Riggle

   CO-AUTHOR
     Ed Wang

   REFITTING
     Craig Leres

   CONSULTANTS
     Chris Guthrie
     Captain Happy
     Horatio Nelson
     and many valiant others...

REFERENCES
     Avalon Hill, Wooden Ships & Iron Men.

     Patrick O'Brian, Master and Commander, and 20 more volumes.

     C.S. Forester, Captain Horatio Hornblower Novels, (13 of them).

     Alexander Kent, Captain Richard Bolitho Novels, (12 of them).

     The Complete Works of Captain Frederick Marryat, (about 20).

     Of these, consider especially
	   Mr. Midshipman Easy
	   Peter Simple
	   Jacob Faithful
	   Japhet in Search of a Father
	   Snarleyyow, or The Dog Fiend
	   Frank Mildmay, or The Naval Officer

BSD					  March 2, 2009 				      BSD


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