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RPCGEN(1)			   BSD General Commands Manual				RPCGEN(1)

NAME
     rpcgen -- Remote Procedure Call (RPC) protocol compiler

SYNOPSIS
     rpcgen infile
     rpcgen [-A] [-a] [-b] [-C] [-D name [=value]] [-I] [-i size] [-K secs] [-L] [-M] [-N] [-T]
	    [-v] [-Y pathname] infile
     rpcgen -c | -h | -l | -m | -t | -Sc | -Ss [-o outfile] [infile]
     rpcgen [-s nettype] [-o outfile] [infile]
     rpcgen [-n netid] [-o outfile] [infile]

DESCRIPTION
     rpcgen is a tool that generates C code to implement an RPC protocol.  The input to rpcgen is
     a language similar to C known as RPC Language (Remote Procedure Call Language).  rpcgen is
     normally used as in the first synopsis where it takes an input file and generates up to four
     output files.  If the infile is named proto.x, then rpcgen will generate a header file in
     proto.h, XDR routines in proto_xdr.c, server-side stubs in proto_svc.c, and client-side
     stubs in proto_clnt.c.  With the -T option, it will also generate the RPC dispatch table in
     proto_tbl.i.  With the -Sc option, it will also generate sample code which would illustrate
     how to use the remote procedures on the client side.  This code would be created in
     proto_client.c.  With the -Ss option, it will also generate a sample server code which would
     illustrate how to write the remote procedures.  This code would be created in
     proto_server.c.

     The server created can be started both by the port monitors (for example, inetd or listen)
     or by itself.  When it is started by a port monitor, it creates servers only for the trans-
     port for which the file descriptor 0 was passed.  The name of the transport must be speci-
     fied by setting up the environmental variable PM_TRANSPORT.  When the server generated by
     rpcgen is executed, it creates server handles for all the transports specified in NETPATH
     environment variable, or if it is unset, it creates server handles for all the visible
     transports from /etc/netconfig file.

     Note: the transports are chosen at run time and not at compile time.  When the server is
     self-started, it backgrounds itself by default.  A special define symbol RPC_SVC_FG can be
     used to run the server process in foreground.

     The second synopsis provides special features which allow for the creation of more sophisti-
     cated RPC servers.  These features include support for user provided #defines and RPC dis-
     patch tables.  The entries in the RPC dispatch table contain:

	   + pointers to the service routine corresponding to that procedure,
	   + a pointer to the input and output arguments,
	   + the size of these routines

     A server can use the dispatch table to check authorization and then to execute the service
     routine; a client library may use it to deal with the details of storage management and XDR
     data conversion.

     The other three synopses shown above are used when one does not want to generate all the
     output files, but only a particular one.  Some examples of their usage is described in the
     EXAMPLES section below.  When rpcgen is executed with the -s option, it creates servers for
     that particular class of transports.  When executed with the -n option, it creates a server
     for the transport specified by netid.  If infile is not specified, rpcgen accepts the stan-
     dard input.

     The C preprocessor, cpp(1) is run on the input file before it is actually interpreted by
     rpcgen For each type of output file, rpcgen defines a special preprocessor symbol for use by
     the rpcgen programmer:

     RPC_HDR   defined when compiling into header files

     RPC_XDR   defined when compiling into XDR routines

     RPC_SVC   defined when compiling into server-side stubs

     RPC_CLNT  defined when compiling into client-side stubs

     RPC_TBL   defined when compiling into RPC dispatch tables

     Any line beginning with '%' is passed directly into the output file, uninterpreted by
     rpcgen.

     For every data type referred to in infile rpcgen assumes that there exists a routine with
     the string ``xdr_'' prepended to the name of the data type.  If this routine does not exist
     in the RPC/XDR library, it must be provided.  Providing an undefined data type allows cus-
     tomization of XDR routines.

OPTIONS
     -a      Generate all the files including sample code for client and server side.

     -A      Generate an svc_caller() function.

     -b      Compile stubs in "backwards compatible" mode, disabling support for transport-inde-
	     pendent RPC.  The -b should always be specified when generating files for NetBSD,
	     since there is no transport-independent RPC support in NetBSD.

     -c      Compile into XDR routines.

     -C      Generate code in ANSI C.  This option also generates code that could be compiled
	     with the C++ compiler.

     -D name[=value]
	     Define a symbol name.  Equivalent to the #define directive in the source.	If no
	     value is given, value is defined as 1.  This option may be specified more than once.

     -h      Compile into C data-definitions (a header file).  The -T option can be used in con-
	     junction to produce a header file which supports RPC dispatch tables.

     -i size
	     Size to decide when to start generating inline code.  The default size is 3.

     -I      Support inetd(8) in the server side stubs.  Servers generated using this flag can
	     either be standalone or started from inetd(8).  If a server is started as stand-
	     alone, then it places itself in the background, unless RCP_SVC_FG is defined, or the
	     server is compiled without -I.

     -K secs
	     By default, services created using rpcgen wait 120 seconds after servicing a request
	     before exiting.  That interval can be changed using the -K flag.  To create a server
	     that exits immediately upon servicing a request, ``-K 0'' can be used.  To create a
	     server that never exits, the appropriate argument is ``-K -1''.

	     When monitoring for a server, some port monitors, like the AT&T System V Release 4
	     UNIX utility listen, always spawn a new process in response to a service request.
	     If it is known that a server will be used with such a monitor, the server should
	     exit immediately on completion.  For such servers, rpcgen should be used with ``-K
	     -1''.

     -l      Compile into client-side stubs.  inetd(8).

     -I      Compile stubs meant for use in programs started by inetd(8).

     -L      Server errors will be sent to syslog instead of stderr.

     -m      Compile into server-side stubs, but do not generate a main() routine.  This option
	     is useful for doing callback-routines and for users who need to write their own
	     main() routine to do initialization.

     -M      Generate thread-safe stubs.  This alters the calling pattern of client and server
	     stubs so that storage for results is allocated by the caller.  Note that all compo-
	     nents for a particular service (stubs, client and service wrappers, etc.) must be
	     built either with or without the -M flag.

     -N      Use the newstyle of rpcgen.  This allows procedures to have multiple arguments.  It
	     also uses the style of parameter passing that closely resembles C.  So, when passing
	     an argument to a remote procedure you do not have to pass a pointer to the argument
	     but the argument itself.  This behaviour is different from the oldstyle of rpcgen
	     generated code.  The newstyle is not the default case because of backward compati-
	     bility.

     -n netid
	     Compile into server-side stubs for the transport specified by netid.  There should
	     be an entry for netid in the netconfig database.  This option may be specified more
	     than once, so as to compile a server that serves multiple transports.

     -o outfile
	     Specify the name of the output file.  If none is specified, standard output is used
	     (-c -h -l -m -n -s modes only)

     -n netid
	     Specify the transport for the server-side stubs.  netid should be defined in
	     netconfig(5).  This option can be repeated in order to support more than one trans-
	     port.

     -s nettype
	     Compile into server-side stubs for all the transports belonging to the class
	     nettype.  The supported classes are netpath, visible, circuit_n, circuit_v,
	     datagram_n, datagram_v, tcp, and udp [see rpc(3) for the meanings associated with
	     these classes.  Note: BSD currently supports only the tcp and udp classes].  This
	     option may be specified more than once.  Note: the transports are chosen at run time
	     and not at compile time.

     -Sc     Generate sample code to show the use of remote procedure and how to bind to the
	     server before calling the client side stubs generated by rpcgen.

     -Ss     Generate skeleton code for the remote procedures on the server side.  You would need
	     to fill in the actual code for the remote procedures.

     -t      Compile into RPC dispatch table.

     -T      Generate the code to support RPC dispatch tables.

     -v      Display the version number.

     -Y pathname
	     Specify the directory where rpcgen looks for the C pre-processor.

     The options -c, -h, -l, -m, -s, and -t are used exclusively to generate a particular type of
     file, while the options -D and -T are global and can be used with the other options.

ENVIRONMENT
     If the RPCGEN_CPP environment variable is set, its value is used as the pathname of the C
     preprocessor to be run on the input file.

NOTES
     The RPC Language does not support nesting of structures.  As a work-around, structures can
     be declared at the top-level, and their name used inside other structures in order to
     achieve the same effect.

     Name clashes can occur when using program definitions, since the apparent scoping does not
     really apply.  Most of these can be avoided by giving unique names for programs, versions,
     procedures and types.

     The server code generated with -n option refers to the transport indicated by netid and
     hence is very site specific.

EXAMPLES
     The command

	   $ rpcgen -T prot.x

     generates the five files: prot.h, prot_clnt.c, prot_svc.c, prot_xdr.c and prot_tbl.i.

     The following example sends the C data-definitions (header file) to standard output.

	   $ rpcgen -h prot.x

     To send the test version of the -DTEST, server side stubs for all the transport belonging to
     the class datagram_n to standard output, use:

	   $ rpcgen -s datagram_n -DTEST prot.x

     To create the server side stubs for the transport indicated by netid tcp, use:

	   $ rpcgen -n tcp -o prot_svc.c prot.x

SEE ALSO
     cpp(1), inetd(8)

HISTORY
     The -M option was first implemented in RedHat Linux, and was reimplemented by Charles M.
     Hannum in NetBSD 1.6.

BSD					 January 19, 2008				      BSD
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