👤
Home Man
Search Register

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages
Man Page or Keyword Search:
Select Section of Man Page:
Select Man Page Repository:

# NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for cvs (netbsd section 1)

CVS(1)											   CVS(1)

NAME
cvs - Concurrent Versions System

SYNOPSIS
cvs [ cvs_options ]
cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

NOTE
This  manpage  is  a summary of some of the features of cvs.  It is auto-generated from an
appendix of the CVS manual.  For more in-depth  documentation,  please  consult	the  Ced-
erqvist	manual	(via the info CVS command or otherwise, as described in the SEE ALSO sec-
tion of this manpage).  Cross-references in this man page refer to nodes in the same.

CVS commands
Guide to CVS commands
This appendix describes the overall structure of cvs commands, and describes some commands
in detail (others are described elsewhere; for a quick reference to cvs commands, see node
Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual).

Structure
Overall structure of CVS commands
The overall format of all cvs commands is:

cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

cvs

The name of the cvs program.

cvs_options

Some options that affect all sub-commands of cvs.  These are described below.

cvs_command

One of several different sub-commands.  Some of the commands have aliases  that  can  be
used  instead;  those aliases are noted in the reference manual for that command.  There
are only two situations where you may omit cvs_command: cvs -H elicits a list of  avail-
able commands, and cvs -v displays version information on cvs itself.

command_options

Options that are specific for the command.

command_args

Arguments to the commands.

There	is  unfortunately  some  confusion between cvs_options and command_options.  When
given as a cvs_option, some options only affect some of the commands.	When given  as	a
command_option  it  may  have a different meaning, and be accepted by more commands.  In
other words, do not take the above categorization too seriously.  Look at the documenta-

Exit status
CVS's exit status
cvs  can indicate to the calling environment whether it succeeded or failed by setting its
exit status.  The exact way of testing the exit status will vary from one operating system
to another.  For example in a unix shell script the $? variable will be 0 if the last com- mand returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status indicated failure. If cvs is successful, it returns a successful status; if there is an error, it prints an error message and returns a failure status. The one exception to this is the cvs diff command. It will return a successful status if it found no differences, or a failure sta- tus if there were differences or if there was an error. Because this behavior provides no good way to detect errors, in the future it is possible that cvs diff will be changed to behave like the other cvs commands. ~/.cvsrc Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file There are some command_options that are used so often that you might have set up an alias or some other means to make sure you always specify that option. One example (the one that drove the implementation of the .cvsrc support, actually) is that many people find the default output of the diff command to be very hard to read, and that either context diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand. The ~/.cvsrc file is a way that you can add default options to cvs_commands within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts. The format of the ~/.cvsrc file is simple. The file is searched for a line that begins with the same name as the cvs_command being executed. If a match is found, then the remainder of the line is split up (at whitespace characters) into separate options and added to the command arguments before any options from the command line. If a command has two names (e.g., checkout and co), the official name, not necessarily the one used on the command line, will be used to match against the file. So if this is the contents of the user's ~/.cvsrc file: log -N diff -uN rdiff -u update -Pd checkout -P release -d the command cvs checkout foo would have the -P option added to the arguments, as well as cvs co foo. With the example file above, the output from cvs diff foobar will be in unidiff format. cvs diff -c foobar will provide context diffs, as usual. Getting "old" format diffs would be slightly more complicated, because diff doesn't have an option to specify use of the "old" format, so you would need cvs -f diff foobar. In place of the command name you can use cvs to specify global options (see node Global options' in the CVS manual). For example the following line in .cvsrc cvs -z6 causes cvs to use compression level 6. Global options The available cvs_options (that are given to the left of cvs_command) are: --allow-root=rootdir May be invoked multiple times to specify one legal cvsroot directory with each invoca- tion. Also causes CVS to preparse the configuration file for each specified root, which can be useful when configuring write proxies, See see node Password authentication server' in the CVS manual & see node Write proxies' in the CVS manual. -a Authenticate all communication between the client and the server. Only has an effect on the cvs client. As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI con- nection (see node GSSAPI authenticated' in the CVS manual). Authentication prevents certain sorts of attacks involving hijacking the active tcp connection. Enabling authentication does not enable encryption. -b bindir In cvs 1.9.18 and older, this specified that rcs programs are in the bindir directory. Current versions of cvs do not run rcs programs; for compatibility this option is accepted, but it does nothing. -T tempdir Use tempdir as the directory where temporary files are located. The cvs client and server store temporary files in a temporary directory. The path to this temporary directory is set via, in order of precedence: o The argument to the global -T option. o The value set for TmpDir in the config file (server only - see node config' in the CVS manual). o The contents of the$TMPDIR environment variable  (%TMPDIR%	on  Windows  -	see  node
Environment variables' in the CVS manual).

o   /tmp

Temporary  directories  should always be specified as an absolute pathname.	When run-
ning a CVS client, -T affects only the local process; specifying -T for the client has
no effect on the server and vice versa.

-d cvs_root_directory

Use  cvs_root_directory as the root directory pathname of the repository.  Overrides the
setting of the $CVSROOT environment variable. see node Repository' in the CVS manual. -e editor Use editor to enter revision log information. Overrides the setting of the$CVSEDITOR
and  $EDITOR environment variables. For more information, see see node Committing your changes' in the CVS manual. -f Do not read the ~/.cvsrc file. This option is most often used because of the non- orthogonality of the cvs option set. For example, the cvs log option -N (turn off dis- play of tag names) does not have a corresponding option to turn the display on. So if you have -N in the ~/.cvsrc entry for log, you may need to use -f to show the tag names. -H --help Display usage information about the specified cvs_command (but do not actually execute the command). If you don't specify a command name, cvs -H displays overall help for cvs, including a list of other help options. -R Turns on read-only repository mode. This allows one to check out from a read-only repository, such as within an anoncvs server, or from a cd-rom repository. Same effect as if the CVSREADONLYFS environment variable is set. Using -R can also con- siderably speed up checkouts over NFS. -n Do not change any files. Attempt to execute the cvs_command, but only to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any existing files, or create any new files. Note that cvs will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as without -n. In some cases the output will be the same, but in other cases cvs will skip some of the processing that would have been required to produce the exact same output. -Q Cause the command to be really quiet; the command will only generate output for serious problems. -q Cause the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages, such as reports of recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed. -r Make new working files read-only. Same effect as if the$CVSREAD  environment  variable
is  set  (see	node  Environment variables' in the CVS manual).  The default is to make
working files writable, unless watches are on (see node Watches' in the CVS manual).

-s variable=value

Set a user variable (see node Variables' in the CVS manual).

-t

Trace program execution; display messages showing the steps of cvs  activity.	 Particu-
larly useful with -n to explore the potential impact of an unfamiliar command.

-v

--version

Display version and copyright information for cvs.

-w

Make  new  working  files read-write.	Overrides the setting of the $CVSREAD environment variable. Files are created read-write by default, unless$CVSREAD  is  set  or  -r  is
given.

-x

Encrypt  all communication between the client and the server.	Only has an effect on the
cvs client.  As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI connection
(see  node  GSSAPI authenticated' in the CVS manual) or a Kerberos connection (see node
Kerberos authenticated' in the CVS manual).  Enabling encryption implies  that  message
traffic  is also authenticated.  Encryption support is not available by default; it must
be enabled using a special configure option, --enable-encryption, when you build cvs.

-z level

Request compression level for network traffic.  cvs interprets level identically to  the
gzip  program.   Valid  levels are 1 (high speed, low compression) to 9 (low speed, high
compression), or 0 to disable compression (the default).  Data sent to the  server  will
be compressed at the requested level and the client will request the server use the same
compression level for data returned.  The server will use the closest level  allowed  by
the server administrator to compress returned data.  This option only has an effect when
passed to the cvs client.

Common options
Common command options
This section describes the command_options that are available across several cvs commands.
These  options  are always given to the right of cvs_command. Not all commands support all
of these options; each option is only supported for commands where it makes  sense.   How-
ever,  when  a  command	has  one of these options you can almost always count on the same
behavior of the option as in other commands.  (Other command  options,  which  are  listed
with  the  individual  commands,  may  have different behavior from one cvs command to the
other).

Note: the history command is an exception; it supports many  options  that  conflict  even
with these standard options.

-D date_spec

Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec.	date_spec is a single argument, a
date description specifying a date in the past.

The specification is sticky when you use it to make a private copy  of  a  source  file;
that  is,  when  you get a working file using -D, cvs records the date you specified, so
that further updates in the same directory will use the same date (for more  information
on sticky tags/dates, see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual).

-D  is  available  with  the  annotate, checkout, diff, export, history, ls, rdiff, rls,
rtag, tag, and update commands.  (The history command uses this  option  in  a  slightly
different way; see node history options' in the CVS manual).

For  a  complete  description	of the date formats accepted by cvs, see node Date input
formats' in the CVS manual.

Remember to quote the argument to the -D flag so that your shell doesn't interpret  spa-
ces as argument separators.  A command using the -D flag can look like this:

$cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo -f When you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands, they normally ignore files that do not contain the tag (or did not exist prior to the date) that you specified. Use the -f option if you want files retrieved even when there is no match for the tag or date. (The most recent revision of the file will be used). Note that even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist (that is, in some file, not necessary in every file). This is so that cvs will continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name. -f is available with these commands: annotate, checkout, export, rdiff, rtag, and update. WARNING: The commit and remove commands also have a -f option, but it has a different behavior for those commands. See see node commit options' in the CVS manual, and see node Removing files' in the CVS manual. -k kflag Override the default processing of RCS keywords other than -kb. see node Keyword sub- stitution' in the CVS manual, for the meaning of kflag. Used with the checkout and update commands, your kflag specification is sticky; that is, when you use this option with a checkout or update command, cvs associates your selected kflag with any files it operates on, and continues to use that kflag with future commands on the same files until you specify otherwise. The -k option is available with the add, checkout, diff, export, import, rdiff, and update commands. WARNING: Prior to CVS version 1.12.2, the -k flag overrode the -kb indication for a binary file. This could sometimes corrupt binary files. see node Merging and key- words' in the CVS manual, for more. -l Local; run only in current working directory, rather than recursing through subdirecto- ries. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, log, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers. -m message Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor. Available with the following commands: add, commit and import. -n Do not run any tag program. (A program can be specified to run in the modules database (see node modules' in the CVS manual); this option bypasses it). Note: this is not the same as the cvs -n program option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! Available with the checkout, commit, export, and rtag commands. -P Prune empty directories. See see node Removing directories' in the CVS manual. -p Pipe the files retrieved from the repository to standard output, rather than writing them in the current directory. Available with the checkout and update commands. -R Process directories recursively. This is the default for all cvs commands, with the exception of ls & rls. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, ls, rdiff, remove, rls, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers. -r tag -r tag[:date] Use the revision specified by the tag argument (and the date argument for the commands which accept it) instead of the default head revision. As well as arbitrary tags defined with the tag or rtag command, two special tags are always available: HEAD refers to the most recent version available in the repository, and BASE refers to the revision you last checked out into the current working directory. The tag specification is sticky when you use this with checkout or update to make your own copy of a file: cvs remembers the tag and continues to use it on future update com- mands, until you specify otherwise (for more information on sticky tags/dates, see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual). The tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in see node Tags' in the CVS manual, or the name of a branch, as described in see node Branching and merging' in the CVS manual. When tag is the name of a branch, some commands accept the optional date argument to specify the revision as of the given date on the branch. When a com- mand expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is interpreted as the most recent revision on that branch. Specifying the -q global option along with the -r command option is often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the rcs file does not contain the specified tag. Note: this is not the same as the overall cvs -r option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! -r tag is available with the commit and history commands. -r tag[:date] is available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export, rdiff, rtag, and update commands. -W Specify file names that should be filtered. You can use this option repeatedly. The spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrap- pers file. Available with the following commands: import, and update. admin Administration o Requires: repository, working directory. o Changes: repository. o Synonym: rcs This is the cvs interface to assorted administrative facilities. Some of them have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for historical purposes. Some of the ques- tionable options are likely to disappear in the future. This command does work recur- sively, so extreme care should be used. On unix, if there is a group named cvsadmin, only members of that group can run cvs admin commands, except for those specified using the UserAdminOptions configuration option in the CVSROOT/config file. Options specified using UserAdminOptions can be run by any user. See see node config' in the CVS manual for more on UserAdminOptions. The cvsadmin group should exist on the server, or any system running the non- client/server cvs. To disallow cvs admin for all users, create a group with no users in it. On NT, the cvsadmin feature does not exist and all users can run cvs admin. admin options Some of these options have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for historical pur- poses. Some even make it impossible to use cvs until you undo the effect! -Aoldfile Might not work together with cvs. Append the access list of oldfile to the access list of the rcs file. -alogins Might not work together with cvs. Append the login names appearing in the comma-sepa- rated list logins to the access list of the rcs file. -b[rev] Set the default branch to rev. In cvs, you normally do not manipulate default branches; sticky tags (see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual) are a better way to decide which branch you want to work on. There is one reason to run cvs admin -b: to revert to the vendor's version when using vendor branches (see node Reverting local changes' in the CVS manual). There can be no space between -b and its argument. -cstring Sets the comment leader to string. The comment leader is not used by current versions of cvs or rcs 5.7. Therefore, you can almost surely not worry about it. see node Key- word substitution' in the CVS manual. -e[logins] Might not work together with cvs. Erase the login names appearing in the comma-sepa- rated list logins from the access list of the RCS file. If logins is omitted, erase the entire access list. There can be no space between -e and its argument. -I Run interactively, even if the standard input is not a terminal. This option does not work with the client/server cvs and is likely to disappear in a future release of cvs. -i Useless with cvs. This creates and initializes a new rcs file, without depositing a revision. With cvs, add files with the cvs add command (see node Adding files' in the CVS manual). -ksubst Set the default keyword substitution to subst. see node Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. Giving an explicit -k option to cvs update, cvs export, or cvs checkout overrides this default. -l[rev] Lock the revision with number rev. If a branch is given, lock the latest revision on that branch. If rev is omitted, lock the latest revision on the default branch. There can be no space between -l and its argument. This can be used in conjunction with the rcslock.pl script in the contrib directory of the cvs source distribution to provide reserved checkouts (where only one user can be editing a given file at a time). See the comments in that file for details (and see the README file in that directory for disclaimers about the unsupported nature of contrib). According to comments in that file, locking must set to strict (which is the default). -L Set locking to strict. Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS file is not exempt from locking for checkin. For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the discus- sion under the -l option above. -mrev:msg Replace the log message of revision rev with msg. -Nname[:[rev]] Act like -n, except override any previous assignment of name. For use with magic branches, see see node Magic branch numbers' in the CVS manual. -nname[:[rev]] Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev. It is normally better to use cvs tag or cvs rtag instead. Delete the symbolic name if both : and rev are omitted; otherwise, print an error message if name is already associated with another number. If rev is symbolic, it is expanded before association. A rev consisting of a branch number followed by a . stands for the current latest revision in the branch. A : with an empty rev stands for the current latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. For example, cvs admin -nname: associates name with the current latest revi- sion of all the RCS files; this contrasts with cvs admin -nname:$ which associates name
with the revision numbers extracted from keyword strings in  the  corresponding  working
files.

-orange

Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range.

Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you know exactly what you are doing
(for example see the warnings below about how the rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing).

If you are short on disc this option might help you.  But think twice before using  it--
there	is  no	way  short  of	restoring the latest backup to undo this command!  If you
delete different revisions than you planned, either due to carelessness or (heaven  for-
bid)  a  cvs  bug, there is no opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are
deleted.  It probably would be a good idea to experiment on a	copy  of  the  repository
first.

Specify range in one of the following ways:

rev1::rev2

Collapse  all revisions between rev1 and rev2, so that cvs only stores the differences
associated with going from rev1 to rev2, not intermediate steps.  For  example,  after
-o  1.3::1.5  one  can  retrieve revision 1.3, revision 1.5, or the differences to get
from 1.3 to 1.5, but not the revision 1.4, or the differences  between  1.3	and  1.4.
Other  examples:  -o  1.3::1.4  and	-o  1.3::1.3 have no effect, because there are no
intermediate revisions to remove.

::rev

Collapse revisions between the beginning of the branch containing rev and rev  itself.
The	branchpoint  and rev are left intact.  For example, -o ::1.3.2.6 deletes revision
1.3.2.1, revision 1.3.2.5, and everything in  between,  but	leaves	1.3  and  1.3.2.6
intact.

rev::

Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch containing rev.  Revision rev
is left intact but the head revision is deleted.

rev

Delete the revision rev.  For example, -o 1.3 is equivalent to -o 1.2::1.4.

rev1:rev2

Delete the revisions from rev1 to rev2, inclusive, on the same branch.  One	will  not
be able to retrieve rev1 or rev2 or any of the revisions in between.  For example, the
command cvs admin -oR_1_01:R_1_02 . is rarely useful.  It means to delete revisions up
to,	and  including,  the  tag  R_1_02.  But beware!  If there are files that have not
changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file will have the same numerical revision  num-
ber	assigned  to  the  tags  R_1_02 and R_1_03.  So not only will it be impossible to
retrieve R_1_02; R_1_03 will also have to be restored from the tapes!  In  most  cases
you want to specify rev1::rev2 instead.

:rev

Delete  revisions  from the beginning of the branch containing rev up to and including
rev.

rev:

Delete revisions from revision rev, including rev itself, to the  end  of  the  branch
containing rev.

None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or locks.

If  any  of	the revisions to be deleted have symbolic names, and one specifies one of
the :: syntaxes, then cvs will give an error and not delete	any  revisions.   If  you
really want to delete both the symbolic names and the revisions, first delete the sym-
bolic names with cvs tag -d, then run cvs admin -o.	If one specifies the non-::  syn-
taxes,  then  cvs  will  delete the revisions but leave the symbolic names pointing to
nonexistent revisions.  This behavior is preserved  for  compatibility  with  previous
versions  of  cvs, but because it isn't very useful, in the future it may change to be
like the :: case.

Due to the way cvs handles branches rev cannot be specified symbolically if	it  is	a
branch.  see node Magic branch numbers' in the CVS manual, for an explanation.

Make  sure  that  no-one  has checked out a copy of the revision you outdate.  Strange
things will happen if he starts to edit it and tries to check it back  in.	For  this
reason,  this option is not a good way to take back a bogus commit; commit a new revi-
sion undoing the bogus change instead (see node Merging two  revisions'  in  the  CVS
manual).

-q

Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.

-sstate[:rev]

Useful  with  cvs.   Set  the state attribute of the revision rev to state.  If rev is a
branch number, assume the latest revision on that branch.  If rev is omitted, assume the
latest  revision on the default branch.  Any identifier is acceptable for state.  A use-
ful set of states is Exp (for experimental), Stab (for stable), and Rel (for  released).
By  default, the state of a new revision is set to Exp when it is created.  The state is
visible in the output from cvs log (see node log' in the CVS manual), and in the  $Log$
and $State$ keywords (see node Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual).  Note that cvs
uses the dead state for its own purposes (see node Attic' in the CVS manual); to take a
file  to  or  from  the  dead	state  use commands like cvs remove and cvs add (see node

-t[file]

Useful with cvs.  Write descriptive text from the contents of the named  file	into  the
RCS  file,  deleting  the  existing  text.  The file pathname may not begin with -.  The
descriptive text can be seen in the output from cvs log (see node log' in the CVS  man-
ual).	There can be no space between -t and its argument.

If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by
a line containing . by itself.  Prompt for the text if interaction is possible; see -I.

-t-string

Similar to -tfile. Write descriptive text from the string into the  rcs  file,  deleting
the existing text.  There can be no space between -t and its argument.

-U

Set  locking  to non-strict.  Non-strict locking means that the owner of a file need not
lock a revision for checkin.  For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the dis-
cussion under the -l option above.

-u[rev]

See  the  option  -l  above, for a discussion of using this option with cvs.  Unlock the
revision with number rev.  If a branch is given, unlock  the  latest  revision  on  that
branch.   If  rev is omitted, remove the latest lock held by the caller.  Normally, only
the locker of a revision may unlock it; somebody else unlocking a  revision  breaks  the
lock.	 This causes the original locker to be sent a commit notification (see node Get-
ting Notified' in the CVS manual).  There can be no space between -u and its argument.

-Vn

In previous versions of cvs, this option meant to write  an  rcs  file  which	would  be
acceptable  to  rcs  version n, but it is now obsolete and specifying it will produce an
error.

-xsuffixes

In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a way of specifying the names of the
rcs  files.   However, cvs has always required that the rcs files used by cvs end in ,v,
so this option has never done anything useful.

annotate
What revision modified each line of a file?
o Synopsis: annotate [options] files...

o Requires: repository.

o Changes: nothing.

For each file in files, print the head revision of the trunk, together with  information
on the last modification for each line.

annotate options
These  standard	options  are  supported by annotate (see node Common options' in the CVS
manual, for a complete description of them):

-l

Local directory only, no recursion.

-R

Process directories recursively.

-f

-F

Annotate binary files.

-r tag[:date]

Annotate file as of specified revision/tag or, when date  is  specified  and  tag  is	a
branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date.  See see node Common
options' in the CVS manual.

-D date

Annotate file as of specified date.

annotate example
For example:

$cvs annotate ssfile Annotations for ssfile *************** 1.1 (mary 27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1 1.2 (joe 28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2 The file ssfile currently contains two lines. The ssfile line 1 line was checked in by mary on March 27. Then, on March 28, joe added a line ssfile line 2, without modifying the ssfile line 1 line. This report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or replaced; you need to use cvs diff for that (see node diff' in the CVS man- ual). The options to cvs annotate are listed in see node Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual, and can be used to select the files and revisions to annotate. The options are described in more detail there and in see node Common options' in the CVS manual. checkout Check out sources for editing o Synopsis: checkout [options] modules... o Requires: repository. o Changes: working directory. o Synonyms: co, get Create or update a working directory containing copies of the source files specified by modules. You must execute checkout before using most of the other cvs commands, since most of them operate on your working directory. The modules are either symbolic names for some collection of source directories and files, or paths to directories or files in the repository. The symbolic names are defined in the modules file. see node modules' in the CVS manual. Depending on the modules you specify, checkout may recursively create directories and populate them with the appropriate source files. You can then edit these source files at any time (regardless of whether other software developers are editing their own copies of the sources); update them to include new changes applied by others to the source repository; or commit your work as a permanent change to the source repository. Note that checkout is used to create directories. The top-level directory created is always added to the directory where checkout is invoked, and usually has the same name as the specified module. In the case of a module alias, the created sub-directory may have a different name, but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory, and that checkout will show the relative path leading to each file as it is extracted into your private work area (unless you specify the -Q global option). The files created by checkout are created read-write, unless the -r option to cvs (see node Global options' in the CVS manual) is specified, the CVSREAD environment variable is specified (see node Environment variables' in the CVS manual), or a watch is in effect for that file (see node Watches' in the CVS manual). Note that running checkout on a directory that was already built by a prior checkout is also permitted. This is similar to specifying the -d option to the update command in the sense that new directories that have been created in the repository will appear in your work area. However, checkout takes a module name whereas update takes a directory name. Also to use checkout this way it must be run from the top level directory (where you originally ran checkout from), so before you run checkout to update an existing directory, don't forget to change your directory to the top level directory. For the output produced by the checkout command see see node update output' in the CVS manual. checkout options These standard options are supported by checkout (see node Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them): -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. This option is sticky, and implies -P. See see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates. -f Only useful with the -D or -r flags. If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). -k kflag Process keywords according to kflag. See see node Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. This option is sticky; future updates of this file in this working directory will use the same kflag. The status command can be viewed to see the sticky options. See see node Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual, for more information on the status com- mand. -l Local; run only in current working directory. -n Do not run any checkout program (as specified with the -o option in the modules file; see node modules' in the CVS manual). -P Prune empty directories. See see node Moving directories' in the CVS manual. -p Pipe files to the standard output. -R Checkout directories recursively. This option is on by default. -r tag[:date] Checkout the revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. This option is sticky, and implies -P. See see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates. Also, see see node Common options' in the CVS manual. In addition to those, you can use these special command options with checkout: -A Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options. See see node Sticky tags' in the CVS man- ual, for more information on sticky tags/dates. -c Copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of creating or modifying any files or directories in your working directory. -d dir Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using the module name. In general, using this flag is equivalent to using mkdir dir; cd dir followed by the checkout command without the -d flag. There is an important exception, however. It is very convenient when checking out a single item to have the output appear in a directory that doesn't contain empty interme- diate directories. In this case only, cvs tries to shorten'' pathnames to avoid those empty directories. For example, given a module foo that contains the file bar.c, the command cvs co -d dir foo will create directory dir and place bar.c inside. Similarly, given a module bar which has subdirectory baz wherein there is a file quux.c, the command cvs co -d dir bar/baz will create directory dir and place quux.c inside. Using the -N flag will defeat this behavior. Given the same module definitions above, cvs co -N -d dir foo will create directories dir/foo and place bar.c inside, while cvs co -N -d dir bar/baz will create directories dir/bar/baz and place quux.c inside. -j tag With two -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with the first -j option to the revision specified with the second j option, into the working directory. With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the revision specified with the -j option, into the working directory. The ancestor revision is the common ancestor of the revision which the working directory is based on, and the revision spec- ified in the -j option. In addition, each -j option can contain an optional date specification which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to one within a specific date. An optional date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier. see node Branching and merging' in the CVS manual. -N Only useful together with -d dir. With this option, cvs will not shorten'' module paths in your working directory when you check out a single module. See the -d flag for examples and a discussion. -s Like -c, but include the status of all modules, and sort it by the status string. see node modules' in the CVS manual, for info about the -s option that is used inside the modules file to set the module status. checkout examples Get a copy of the module tc:$ cvs checkout tc

Get a copy of the module tc as it looked one day ago:

$cvs checkout -D yesterday tc commit Check files into the repository o Synopsis: commit [-lnRf] [-m 'log_message' | -F file] [-r revision] [files...] o Requires: working directory, repository. o Changes: repository. o Synonym: ci Use commit when you want to incorporate changes from your working source files into the source repository. If you don't specify particular files to commit, all of the files in your working cur- rent directory are examined. commit is careful to change in the repository only those files that you have really changed. By default (or if you explicitly specify the -R option), files in subdirectories are also examined and committed if they have changed; you can use the -l option to limit commit to the current directory only. commit verifies that the selected files are up to date with the current revisions in the source repository; it will notify you, and exit without committing, if any of the speci- fied files must be made current first with update (see node update' in the CVS manual). commit does not call the update command for you, but rather leaves that for you to do when the time is right. When all is well, an editor is invoked to allow you to enter a log message that will be written to one or more logging programs (see node modules' in the CVS manual, and see node loginfo' in the CVS manual) and placed in the rcs file inside the repository. This log message can be retrieved with the log command; see see node log' in the CVS manual. You can specify the log message on the command line with the -m message option, and thus avoid the editor invocation, or use the -F file option to specify that the argument file contains the log message. At commit, a unique commitid is placed in the rcs file inside the repository. All files committed at once get the same commitid. The commitid can be retrieved with the log and status command; see see node log' in the CVS manual, see node File status' in the CVS manual. commit options These standard options are supported by commit (see node Common options' in the CVS man- ual, for a complete description of them): -l Local; run only in current working directory. -R Commit directories recursively. This is on by default. -r revision Commit to revision. revision must be either a branch, or a revision on the main trunk that is higher than any existing revision number (see node Assigning revisions' in the CVS manual). You cannot commit to a specific revision on a branch. commit also supports these options: -c Refuse to commit files unless the user has registered a valid edit on the file via cvs edit. This is most useful when commit -c and edit -c have been placed in all .cvsrc files. A commit can be forced anyways by either regestering an edit retroactively via cvs edit (no changes to the file will be lost) or using the -f option to commit. Sup- port for commit -c requires both client and a server versions 1.12.10 or greater. -F file Read the log message from file, instead of invoking an editor. -f Note that this is not the standard behavior of the -f option as defined in see node Common options' in the CVS manual. Force cvs to commit a new revision even if you haven't made any changes to the file. As of cvs version 1.12.10, it also causes the -c option to be ignored. If the current revision of file is 1.7, then the following two commands are equivalent:$ cvs commit -f file
$cvs commit -r 1.8 file The -f option disables recursion (i.e., it implies -l). To force cvs to commit a new revision for all files in all subdirectories, you must use -f -R. -m message Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor. commit examples Committing to a branch You can commit to a branch revision (one that has an even number of dots) with the -r option. To create a branch revision, use the -b option of the rtag or tag commands (see node Branching and merging' in the CVS manual). Then, either checkout or update can be used to base your sources on the newly created branch. From that point on, all commit changes made within these working sources will be automatically added to a branch revi- sion, thereby not disturbing main-line development in any way. For example, if you had to create a patch to the 1.2 version of the product, even though the 2.0 version is already under development, you might do:$ cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
$cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module$ cd product_module
[[ hack away ]]
$cvs commit This works automatically since the -r option is sticky. Creating the branch after editing Say you have been working on some extremely experimental software, based on whatever revi- sion you happened to checkout last week. If others in your group would like to work on this software with you, but without disturbing main-line development, you could commit your change to a new branch. Others can then checkout your experimental stuff and utilize the full benefit of cvs conflict resolution. The scenario might look like: [[ hacked sources are present ]]$ cvs tag -b EXPR1
$cvs update -r EXPR1$ cvs commit

The update command will make the -r EXPR1 option sticky on  all	files.	 Note  that  your
changes	to  the files will never be removed by the update command.  The commit will auto-
matically commit to the correct branch, because the -r is sticky.  You could also do  like
this:

[[ hacked sources are present ]]
$cvs tag -b EXPR1$ cvs commit -r EXPR1

but  then,  only  those files that were changed by you will have the -r EXPR1 sticky flag.
If you hack away, and commit without specifying the -r EXPR1 flag, some files may acciden-
tally end up on the main trunk.

To work with you on the experimental change, others would simply do

cvs checkout -r EXPR1 whatever_module diff Show differences between revisions o Synopsis: diff [-lR] [-k kflag] [format_options] [(-r rev1[:date1] | -D date1) [-r rev2[:date2] | -D date2]] [files...] o Requires: working directory, repository. o Changes: nothing. The diff command is used to compare different revisions of files. The default action is to compare your working files with the revisions they were based on, and report any dif- ferences that are found. If any file names are given, only those files are compared. If any directories are given, all files under them will be compared. The exit status for diff is different than for other cvs commands; for details see node Exit status' in the CVS manual. diff options These standard options are supported by diff (see node Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them): -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. See -r for how this affects the com- parison. -k kflag Process keywords according to kflag. See see node Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. -l Local; run only in current working directory. -R Examine directories recursively. This option is on by default. -r tag[:date] Compare with revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. Zero, one or two -r options can be present. With no -r option, the working file will be compared with the revision it was based on. With one -r, that revision will be compared to your current working file. With two -r options those two revisions will be compared (and your working file will not affect the outcome in any way). One or both -r options can be replaced by a -D date option, described above. The following options specify the format of the output. They have the same meaning as in GNU diff. Most options have two equivalent names, one of which is a single letter preceded by -, and the other of which is a long name preceded by --. -lines Show lines (an integer) lines of context. This option does not specify an output format by itself; it has no effect unless it is combined with -c or -u. This option is obso- lete. For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of context. -a Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they do not seem to be text. -b Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one or more white space characters to be equivalent. -B Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines. --binary Read and write data in binary mode. --brief Report only whether the files differ, not the details of the differences. -c Use the context output format. -C lines --context[=lines] Use the context output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of context, or three if lines is not given. For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of context. --changed-group-format=format Use format to output a line group containing differing lines from both files in if-then- else format. see node Line group formats' in the CVS manual. -d Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes. This makes diff slower (sometimes much slower). -e --ed Make output that is a valid ed script. --expand-tabs Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the alignment of tabs in the input files. -f Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has changes in the order they appear in the file. -F regexp In context and unified format, for each hunk of differences, show some of the last pre- ceding line that matches regexp. --forward-ed Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has changes in the order they appear in the file. -H Use heuristics to speed handling of large files that have numerous scattered small changes. --horizon-lines=lines Do not discard the last lines lines of the common prefix and the first lines lines of the common suffix. -i Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters equivalent. -I regexp Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp. --ifdef=name Make merged if-then-else output using name. --ignore-all-space Ignore white space when comparing lines. --ignore-blank-lines Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines. --ignore-case Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case to be the same. --ignore-matching-lines=regexp Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp. --ignore-space-change Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one or more white space characters to be equivalent. --initial-tab Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context format. This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal. -L label Use label instead of the file name in the context format and unified format headers. --label=label Use label instead of the file name in the context format and unified format headers. --left-column Print only the left column of two common lines in side by side format. --line-format=format Use format to output all input lines in if-then-else format. see node Line formats' in the CVS manual. --minimal Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes. This makes diff slower (sometimes much slower). -n Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each command specifies the number of lines affected. -N --new-file In directory comparison, if a file is found in only one directory, treat it as present but empty in the other directory. --new-group-format=format Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the second file in if-then-else format. see node Line group formats' in the CVS manual. --new-line-format=format Use format to output a line taken from just the second file in if-then-else format. see node Line formats' in the CVS manual. --old-group-format=format Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the first file in if-then-else format. see node Line group formats' in the CVS manual. --old-line-format=format Use format to output a line taken from just the first file in if-then-else format. see node Line formats' in the CVS manual. -p Show which C function each change is in. --rcs Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each command specifies the number of lines affected. --report-identical-files -s Report when two files are the same. --show-c-function Show which C function each change is in. --show-function-line=regexp In context and unified format, for each hunk of differences, show some of the last pre- ceding line that matches regexp. --side-by-side Use the side by side output format. --speed-large-files Use heuristics to speed handling of large files that have numerous scattered small changes. --suppress-common-lines Do not print common lines in side by side format. -t Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the alignment of tabs in the input files. -T Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context format. This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal. --text Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they do not appear to be text. -u Use the unified output format. --unchanged-group-format=format Use format to output a group of common lines taken from both files in if-then-else for- mat. see node Line group formats' in the CVS manual. --unchanged-line-format=format Use format to output a line common to both files in if-then-else format. see node Line formats' in the CVS manual. -U lines --unified[=lines] Use the unified output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of context, or three if lines is not given. For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of context. -w Ignore white space when comparing lines. -W columns --width=columns Use an output width of columns in side by side format. -y Use the side by side output format. Line group formats Line group formats let you specify formats suitable for many applications that allow if- then-else input, including programming languages and text formatting languages. A line group format specifies the output format for a contiguous group of similar lines. For example, the following command compares the TeX file myfile with the original version from the repository, and outputs a merged file in which old regions are surrounded by \begin{em}-\end{em} lines, and new regions are surrounded by \begin{bf}-\end{bf} lines. cvs diff \ --old-group-format='\begin{em} %<\end{em} ' \ --new-group-format='\begin{bf} %>\end{bf} ' \ myfile The following command is equivalent to the above example, but it is a little more verbose, because it spells out the default line group formats. cvs diff \ --old-group-format='\begin{em} %<\end{em} ' \ --new-group-format='\begin{bf} %>\end{bf} ' \ --unchanged-group-format='%=' \ --changed-group-format='\begin{em} %<\end{em} \begin{bf} %>\end{bf} ' \ myfile Here is a more advanced example, which outputs a diff listing with headers containing line numbers in a plain English'' style. cvs diff \ --unchanged-group-format='' \ --old-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df: %<' \ --new-group-format='-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de: %>' \ --changed-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df: %<-------- to: %>' \ myfile To specify a line group format, use one of the options listed below. You can specify up to four line group formats, one for each kind of line group. You should quote format, because it typically contains shell metacharacters. --old-group-format=format These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the first file. The default old group format is the same as the changed group format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the line group as-is. --new-group-format=format These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the second file. The default new group format is same as the changed group format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the line group as-is. --changed-group-format=format These line groups are hunks containing lines from both files. The default changed group format is the concatenation of the old and new group formats. --unchanged-group-format=format These line groups contain lines common to both files. The default unchanged group for- mat is a format that outputs the line group as-is. In a line group format, ordinary characters represent themselves; conversion specifica- tions start with % and have one of the following forms. %< stands for the lines from the first file, including the trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the old line format (see node Line formats' in the CVS manual). %> stands for the lines from the second file, including the trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the new line format. %= stands for the lines common to both files, including the trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the unchanged line format. %% stands for %. %c'C' where C is a single character, stands for C. C may not be a backslash or an apostrophe. For example, %c':' stands for a colon, even inside the then-part of an if-then-else for- mat, which a colon would normally terminate. %c'\O' where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the character with octal code O. For example, %c'\0' stands for a null character. Fn where F is a printf conversion specification and n is one of the following letters, stands for n's value formatted with F. e The line number of the line just before the group in the old file. f The line number of the first line in the group in the old file; equals e + 1. l The line number of the last line in the group in the old file. m The line number of the line just after the group in the old file; equals l + 1. n The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals l - f + 1. E, F, L, M, N Likewise, for lines in the new file. The printf conversion specification can be %d, %o, %x, or %X, specifying decimal, octal, lower case hexadecimal, or upper case hexadecimal output respectively. After the % the following options can appear in sequence: a - specifying left-justification; an integer specifying the minimum field width; and a period followed by an optional integer specifying the minimum number of digits. For example, %5dN prints the number of new lines in the group in a field of width 5 characters, using the printf format "%5d". (A=B?T:E) If A equals B then T else E. A and B are each either a decimal constant or a single letter interpreted as above. This format spec is equivalent to T if A's value equals B's; otherwise it is equivalent to E. For example, %(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s) is equivalent to no lines if N (the number of lines in the group in the new file) is 0, to 1 line if N is 1, and to %dN lines other- wise. Line formats Line formats control how each line taken from an input file is output as part of a line group in if-then-else format. For example, the following command outputs text with a one-column change indicator to the left of the text. The first column of output is - for deleted lines, | for added lines, and a space for unchanged lines. The formats contain newline characters where newlines are desired on output. cvs diff \ --old-line-format='-%l ' \ --new-line-format='|%l ' \ --unchanged-line-format=' %l ' \ myfile To specify a line format, use one of the following options. You should quote format, since it often contains shell metacharacters. --old-line-format=format formats lines just from the first file. --new-line-format=format formats lines just from the second file. --unchanged-line-format=format formats lines common to both files. --line-format=format formats all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options simultaneously. In a line format, ordinary characters represent themselves; conversion specifications start with % and have one of the following forms. %l stands for the contents of the line, not counting its trailing newline (if any). This format ignores whether the line is incomplete. %L stands for the contents of the line, including its trailing newline (if any). If a line is incomplete, this format preserves its incompleteness. %% stands for %. %c'C' where C is a single character, stands for C. C may not be a backslash or an apostrophe. For example, %c':' stands for a colon. %c'\O' where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the character with octal code O. For example, %c'\0' stands for a null character. Fn where F is a printf conversion specification, stands for the line number formatted with F. For example, %.5dn prints the line number using the printf format "%.5d". see node Line group formats' in the CVS manual, for more about printf conversion specifications. The default line format is %l followed by a newline character. If the input contains tab characters and it is important that they line up on output, you should ensure that %l or %L in a line format is just after a tab stop (e.g. by pre- ceding %l or %L with a tab character), or you should use the -t or --expand-tabs option. Taken together, the line and line group formats let you specify many different formats. For example, the following command uses a format similar to diff's normal format. You can tailor this command to get fine control over diff's output. cvs diff \ --old-line-format='< %l ' \ --new-line-format='> %l ' \ --old-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE %<' \ --new-group-format='%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL) %>' \ --changed-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL) %<-- %>' \ --unchanged-group-format='' \ myfile diff examples The following line produces a Unidiff (-u flag) between revision 1.14 and 1.19 of back- end.c. Due to the -kk flag no keywords are substituted, so differences that only depend on keyword substitution are ignored. cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c

Suppose the experimental branch EXPR1 was based on a set of files tagged RELEASE_1_0.   To
see what has happened on that branch, the following can be used:

$cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1 A command like this can be used to produce a context diff between two releases:$ cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs

If  you	are  maintaining  ChangeLogs, a command like the following just before you commit
not yet been committed will be printed.

$cvs diff -u | less export Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout o Synopsis: export [-flNnR] (-r rev[:date] | -D date) [-k subst] [-d dir] module... o Requires: repository. o Changes: current directory. This command is a variant of checkout; use it when you want a copy of the source for module without the cvs administrative directories. For example, you might use export to prepare source for shipment off-site. This command requires that you specify a date or tag (with -D or -r), so that you can count on reproducing the source you ship to others (and thus it always prunes empty directories). One often would like to use -kv with cvs export. This causes any keywords to be expanded such that an import done at some other site will not lose the keyword revision information. But be aware that doesn't handle an export containing binary files cor- rectly. Also be aware that after having used -kv, one can no longer use the ident com- mand (which is part of the rcs suite--see ident(1)) which looks for keyword strings. If you want to be able to use ident you must not use -kv. export options These standard options are supported by export (see node Common options' in the CVS man- ual, for a complete description of them): -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. -f If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). -l Local; run only in current working directory. -n Do not run any checkout program. -R Export directories recursively. This is on by default. -r tag[:date] Export the revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. See see node Common options' in the CVS manual. In addition, these options (that are common to checkout and export) are also supported: -d dir Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using the module name. see node checkout options' in the CVS manual, for complete details on how cvs handles this flag. -k subst Set keyword expansion mode (see node Substitution modes' in the CVS manual). -N Only useful together with -d dir. see node checkout options' in the CVS manual, for complete details on how cvs handles this flag. history Show status of files and users o Synopsis: history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...] o Requires: the file$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history

o Changes: nothing.

cvs  can keep a history log that tracks each use of most cvs commands.  You can use his-
tory to display this information in various formats.

To enable logging, the LogHistory config option must be set to some value other than the
empty	string	and  the  history  file  specified  by	the HistoryLogPath option must be
writable by all users who may run the cvs executable (see node config' in the CVS  man-
ual).

To  enable  the history command, logging must be enabled as above and the HistorySearch-
Path config option (see node config' in the CVS manual) must be  set	to  specify  some
number of the history logs created thereby and these files must be readable by each user
who might run the history command.

Creating a repository via the cvs init command  will  enable  logging	of  all  possible
events  to a single history log file ($CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history) with read and write per- missions for all users (see node Creating a repository' in the CVS manual). Note: history uses -f, -l, -n, and -p in ways that conflict with the normal use inside cvs (see node Common options' in the CVS manual). history options Several options (shown above as -report) control what kind of report is generated: -c Report on each time commit was used (i.e., each time the repository was modified). -e Everything (all record types). Equivalent to specifying -x with all record types. Of course, -e will also include record types which are added in a future version of cvs; if you are writing a script which can only handle certain record types, you'll want to specify -x. -m module Report on a particular module. (You can meaningfully use -m more than once on the com- mand line.) -o Report on checked-out modules. This is the default report type. -T Report on all tags. -x type Extract a particular set of record types type from the cvs history. The types are indi- cated by single letters, which you may specify in combination. Certain commands have a single record type: F release O checkout E export T rtag One of five record types may result from an update: C A merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring manual merging). G A merge was necessary and it succeeded. U A working file was copied from the repository. P A working file was patched to match the repository. W The working copy of a file was deleted during update (because it was gone from the repository). One of three record types results from commit: A A file was added for the first time. M A file was modified. R A file was removed. The options shown as -flags constrain or expand the report without requiring option arguments: -a Show data for all users (the default is to show data only for the user executing his- tory). -l Show last modification only. -w Show only the records for modifications done from the same working directory where his- tory is executing. The options shown as -options args constrain the report based on an argument: -b str Show data back to a record containing the string str in either the module name, the file name, or the repository path. -D date Show data since date. This is slightly different from the normal use of -D date, which selects the newest revision older than date. -f file Show data for a particular file (you can specify several -f options on the same command line). This is equivalent to specifying the file on the command line. -n module Show data for a particular module (you can specify several -n options on the same com- mand line). -p repository Show data for a particular source repository (you can specify several -p options on the same command line). -r rev Show records referring to revisions since the revision or tag named rev appears in indi- vidual rcs files. Each rcs file is searched for the revision or tag. -t tag Show records since tag tag was last added to the history file. This differs from the -r flag above in that it reads only the history file, not the rcs files, and is much faster. -u name Show records for user name. -z timezone Show times in the selected records using the specified time zone instead of UTC. import Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches o Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag... o Requires: Repository, source distribution directory. o Changes: repository. Use import to incorporate an entire source distribution from an outside source (e.g., a source vendor) into your source repository directory. You can use this command both for initial creation of a repository, and for wholesale updates to the module from the out- side source. see node Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, for a discussion on this subject. The repository argument gives a directory name (or a path to a directory) under the cvs root directory for repositories; if the directory did not exist, import creates it. When you use import for updates to source that has been modified in your source reposi- tory (since a prior import), it will notify you of any files that conflict in the two branches of development; use checkout -j to reconcile the differences, as import instructs you to do. If cvs decides a file should be ignored (see node cvsignore' in the CVS manual), it does not import it and prints I followed by the filename (see node import output' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of the output). If the file$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvswrappers exists, any file whose names match the specifi-
cations  in  that file will be treated as packages and the appropriate filtering will be
performed on the file/directory before being imported.  see node Wrappers' in  the  CVS
manual.

The  outside  source  is  saved  in a first-level branch, by default 1.1.1.  Updates are
leaves of this branch; for example, files from the first imported collection  of  source
will  be  revision  1.1.1.1,  then files from the first imported update will be revision
1.1.1.2, and so on.

At least three arguments are required.  repository is needed to identify the  collection
of  source.   vendortag is a tag for the entire branch (e.g., for 1.1.1).  You must also
specify at least one releasetag to uniquely identify the files  at  the  leaves  created
each  time you execute import.  The releasetag should be new, not previously existing in
the repository file, and uniquely identify the imported release,

Note that import does not change the directory in which you invoke it.   In  particular,
it  does  not set up that directory as a cvs working directory; if you want to work with
the sources import them first and then check them out into a  different  directory  (see
node Getting the source' in the CVS manual).

import options
This  standard option is supported by import (see node Common options' in the CVS manual,
for a complete description):

-m message

There are the following additional special options.

-b branch

See see node Multiple vendor branches' in the CVS manual.

-k subst

Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired.  This setting will apply to all files  cre-
ated  during the import, but not to any files that previously existed in the repository.
See see node Substitution modes' in the CVS manual, for a list of valid -k settings.

-I name

Specify file names that should be ignored  during  import.   You  can	use  this  option
repeatedly.  To avoid ignoring any files at all (even those ignored by default), specify
-I !'.

name can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the  .cvsignore
file.	see node cvsignore' in the CVS manual.

-W spec

Specify  file	names  that  should  be  filtered during import.  You can use this option
repeatedly.

spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in  the	.cvswrap-
pers file. see node Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

-X

Modify the algorithm used by cvs when importing new files so that new files do not imme-
diately appear on the main trunk.

Specifically, this flag causes cvs to mark new files as if they were deleted on the main
trunk,  by  taking the following steps for each file in addition to those normally taken
on import: creating a new revision on the main trunk indicating that  the  new  file  is
dead,	resetting  the	new file's default branch, and placing the file in the Attic (see
node Attic' in the CVS manual) directory.

Use of this option can be forced on a repository-wide basis by  setting  the  ImportNew-
FilesToVendorBranchOnly option in CVSROOT/config (see node config' in the CVS manual).

import output
import  keeps  you  informed of its progress by printing a line for each file, preceded by
one character indicating the status of the file:

U file

The file already exists in the repository and has not been locally modified; a new revi-
sion has been created (if necessary).

N file

The file is a new file which has been added to the repository.

C file

The  file  already exists in the repository but has been locally modified; you will have
to merge the changes.

I file

The file is being ignored (see node cvsignore' in the CVS manual).

L file

The file is a symbolic link; cvs import ignores  symbolic  links.   People  periodically
suggest  that	this  behavior	should be changed, but if there is a consensus on what it
should be changed to, it is not apparent.  (Various options in the modules file  can  be
used to recreate symbolic links on checkout, update, etc.; see node modules' in the CVS
manual.)

import examples
See see node Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, and see node From files'  in  the  CVS
manual.

log
o Synopsis: log [options] [files...]

o Requires: repository, working directory.

o Changes: nothing.

Display  log  information  for  files.  log used to call the rcs utility rlog.  Although
this is no longer true in the current sources, this history determines the format of the
output and the options, which are not quite in the style of the other cvs commands.

The output includes the location of the rcs file, the head revision (the latest revision
on the trunk), all symbolic names (tags) and some other things.  For each revision,  the
revision  number,  the date, the author, the number of lines added/deleted, the commitid
and the log message are printed.  All dates are displayed in local time at  the  client.
This  is typically specified in the $TZ environment variable, which can be set to govern how log displays dates. Note: log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal use inside cvs (see node Com- mon options' in the CVS manual). log options By default, log prints all information that is available. All other options restrict the output. Note that the revision selection options (-d, -r, -s, and -w) have no effect, other than possibly causing a search for files in Attic directories, when used in conjunc- tion with the options that restrict the output to only log header fields (-b, -h, -R, and -t) unless the -S option is also specified. -b Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally the highest branch on the trunk. -d dates Print information about revisions with a checkin date/time in the range given by the semicolon-separated list of dates. The date formats accepted are those accepted by the -D option to many other cvs commands (see node Common options' in the CVS manual). Dates can be combined into ranges as follows: d1<d2 d2>d1 Select the revisions that were deposited between d1 and d2. <d d> Select all revisions dated d or earlier. d< >d Select all revisions dated d or later. d Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier. The > or < characters may be followed by = to indicate an inclusive range rather than an exclusive one. Note that the separator is a semicolon (;). -h Print only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in the working directory, head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic names, and suffix. -l Local; run only in current working directory. (Default is to run recursively). -N Do not print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your site uses a lot of tags, so rather than "more"'ing over 3 pages of tag information, the log information is presented without tags at all. -R Print only the name of the rcs file. -rrevisions Print information about revisions given in the comma-separated list revisions of revi- sions and ranges. The following table explains the available range formats: rev1:rev2 Revisions rev1 to rev2 (which must be on the same branch). rev1::rev2 The same, but excluding rev1. :rev ::rev Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including rev. rev: Revisions starting with rev to the end of the branch containing rev. rev:: Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the branch containing rev. branch An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch. branch1:branch2 branch1::branch2 A range of branches means all revisions on the branches in that range. branch. The latest revision in branch. A bare -r with no revisions means the latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. There can be no space between the -r option and its argument. -S Suppress the header if no revisions are selected. -s states Print information about revisions whose state attributes match one of the states given in the comma-separated list states. Individual states may be any text string, though cvs commonly only uses two states, Exp and dead. See see node admin options' in the CVS manual for more information. -t Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text. -wlogins Print information about revisions checked in by users with login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins. If logins is omitted, the user's login is assumed. There can be no space between the -w option and its argument. log prints the intersection of the revisions selected with the options -d, -s, and -w, intersected with the union of the revisions selected by -b and -r. log examples Since log shows dates in local time, you might want to see them in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or some other timezone. To do this you can set your$TZ  environment  variable
before invoking cvs:

$TZ=UTC cvs log foo.c$ TZ=EST cvs log bar.c

(If  you  are  using  a	csh-style shell, like tcsh, you would need to prefix the examples
above with env.)

ls &; rls
o ls [-e | -l] [-RP] [-r tag[:date]] [-D date] [path...]

o Requires: repository for rls, repository & working directory for ls.

o Changes: nothing.

o Synonym: dir & list are synonyms for ls and rdir & rlist are synonyms for rls.

The ls and rls commands are used to list files and directories in the repository.

By default ls lists the files and directories that belong  in	your  working  directory,
what would be there after an update.

By  default  rls  lists the files and directories on the tip of the trunk in the topmost
directory of the repository.

Both commands accept an optional list of file and directory names, relative to the work-
ing  directory  for  ls and the topmost directory of the repository for rls.  Neither is
recursive by default.

ls &; rls options
These standard options are supported by ls & rls:

-d

Show dead revisions (with tag when specified).

-e

Display in CVS/Entries format.  This format is meant to remain easily parsable by  auto-
mation.

-l

Display all details.

-P

Don't list contents of empty directories when recursing.

-R

List recursively.

-r tag[:date]

Show files specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the ver-
sion from the branch tag as it existed on date.  See see node Common	options'  in  the
CVS manual.

-D date

Show files from date.

rls examples
$cvs rls cvs rls: Listing module: .' CVSROOT first-dir$ cvs rls CVSROOT
cvs rls: Listing module: CVSROOT'
checkoutlist
commitinfo
config
cvswrappers
modules
notify
rcsinfo
taginfo
verifymsg

rdiff
'patch' format diffs between releases
o rdiff	[-flags]  [-V  vn] (-r tag1[:date1] | -D date1) [-r tag2[:date2] | -D date2] mod-
ules...

o Requires: repository.

o Changes: nothing.

o Synonym: patch

Builds a Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two releases, that can be fed  directly
into  the  patch program to bring an old release up-to-date with the new release.  (This
is one of the few cvs commands that operates directly from the repository,  and  doesn't
require a prior checkout.) The diff output is sent to the standard output device.

You  can  specify  (using  the standard -r and -D options) any combination of one or two
revisions or dates.  If only one revision or date is specified, the patch file  reflects
differences  between  that  revision  or  date and the current head revisions in the rcs
file.

Note that if the software release affected is contained in more than one directory, then
it  may be necessary to specify the -p option to the patch command when patching the old
sources, so that patch is able to find the files that are located in other directories.

rdiff options
These standard options are supported by rdiff (see node Common options' in the	CVS  man-
ual, for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.

-f

If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring
the file).

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See see node Keyword  substitution'  in  the  CVS
manual.

-l

Local; don't descend subdirectories.

-p

Show which C function each change is in.

-R

Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

-r tag

Use  the  revision  specified by tag, or when date is specified and tag is a branch tag,
the version from the branch tag as it existed on date.  See see node Common options' in
the CVS manual.

In addition to the above, these options are available:

-c

Use the context diff format.  This is the default format.

-s

Create  a  summary  change  report instead of a patch.  The summary includes information
about files that were changed or added between the releases.  It is sent to the standard
output  device.   This  is useful for finding out, for example, which files have changed
between two dates or revisions.

-t

A diff of the top two revisions is sent to the standard output  device.   This  is  most
useful for seeing what the last change to a file was.

-u

Use  the  unidiff format for the context diffs.  Remember that old versions of the patch
program can't handle the unidiff format, so if you plan to post this patch  to  the  net
you should probably not use -u.

-V vn

Expand  keywords  according to the rules current in rcs version vn (the expansion format
changed with rcs version 5).  Note that this option is no  longer  accepted.	cvs  will
always expand keywords the way that rcs version 5 does.

rdiff examples
Suppose you receive mail from foo@example.net asking for an update from release 1.2 to 1.4
of the tc compiler.  You have no such patches on hand, but with cvs  that  can  easily  be
fixed with a command such as this:

$cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \$$Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' foo@example.net Suppose you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch called R_1_3fix for bug fixes. R_1_3_1 corresponds to release 1.3.1, which was made some time ago. Now, you want to see how much development has been done on the branch. This command can be used:$ cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name
cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name
File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to 1.52.2.6
File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4
File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2

release
Indicate that a Module is no longer in use
o release [-d] directories...

o Requires: Working directory.

o Changes: Working directory, history log.

This  command	is  meant to safely cancel the effect of cvs checkout.	Since cvs doesn't
lock files, it isn't strictly necessary to use this  command.	 You  can  always  simply
delete  your  working	directory,  if you like; but you risk losing changes you may have
forgotten, and you leave no trace in the cvs history file (see node  history	file'  in
the CVS manual) that you've abandoned your checkout.

Use  cvs  release  to	avoid  these  problems.   This command checks that no uncommitted
changes are present; that you are executing it from  immediately  above  a  cvs  working
directory; and that the repository recorded for your files is the same as the repository
defined in the module database.

If all these conditions are true, cvs release leaves a record of its execution  (attest-
ing to your intentionally abandoning your checkout) in the cvs history log.

release options
The release command supports one command option:

-d

Delete your working copy of the file if the release succeeds.	If this flag is not given

WARNING:  The release command deletes all directories and files recursively.	This  has
the  very  serious  side-effect  that	any  directory	that you have created inside your
checked-out sources, and not added to the repository (using the add  command;	see  node
Adding files' in the CVS manual) will be silently deleted--even if it is non-empty!

release output
Before release releases your sources it will print a one-line message for any file that is
not up-to-date.

U file

P file

There exists a newer revision of this file in the repository, and you have not  modified
your local copy of the file (U and P mean the same thing).

A file

The  file  has been added to your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been com-
mitted to the repository.  If you delete your copy of the  sources  this  file  will  be
lost.

R file

The  file  has  been removed from your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been
removed from the repository, since you have not yet committed	the  removal.	see  node
commit' in the CVS manual.

M file

The  file  is	modified in your working directory.  There might also be a newer revision
inside the repository.

? file

file is in your working directory, but does not correspond to	anything  in  the  source
repository,  and  is  not in the list of files for cvs to ignore (see the description of
the -I option, and see node cvsignore' in the CVS manual).  If you remove your  working
sources, this file will be lost.

release examples
Release the tc directory, and delete your local working copy of the files.

$cd .. # You must stand immediately above the # sources when you issue cvs release.$ cvs release -d tc
You have [0] altered files in this repository.
Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory tc': y
$server &; pserver Act as a server for a client on stdin/stdout o pserver [-c path] server [-c path] o Requires: repository, client conversation on stdin/stdout o Changes: Repository or, indirectly, client working directory. The cvs server and pserver commands are used to provide repository access to remote clients and expect a client conversation on stdin & stdout. Typically these commands are launched from inetd or via ssh (see node Remote repositories' in the CVS manual). server expects that the client has already been authenticated somehow, typically via ssh, and pserver attempts to authenticate the client itself. Only one option is available with the server and pserver commands: -c path Load configuration from path rather than the default location$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/config
(see  node  config'  in  the	CVS  manual).	path must be /etc/cvs.conf or prefixed by
/etc/cvs/.  This option is supported beginning with cvs release 1.12.13.

update
Bring work tree in sync with repository
o update [-ACdflPpR] [-I name] [-j rev [-j rev]] [-k kflag] [-r tag[:date] | -D date]  [-W
spec] files...

o Requires: repository, working directory.

o Changes: working directory.

After	you've run checkout to create your private copy of source from the common reposi-
tory, other developers will continue changing the central source.  From  time	to  time,
when  it  is convenient in your development process, you can use the update command from
within your working directory to reconcile your work with any revisions applied  to  the
source  repository  since  your  last checkout or update.  Without the -C option, update
will also merge any differences between the local copy of files and their base revisions
into any destination revisions specified with -r, -D, or -A.

update options
These  standard	options  are  available with update (see node Common options' in the CVS
manual, for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.  This option is sticky, and implies -P.
See see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.

-f

Only  useful  with  the  -D or -r flags.  If no matching revision is found, retrieve the
most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file).

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See see node Keyword  substitution'  in  the  CVS
manual.   This  option  is sticky; future updates of this file in this working directory
will use the same kflag.  The status command can be viewed to see  the  sticky  options.
See  see  node Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual, for more information on the status com-
mand.

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.	see node Recursive behavior' in the  CVS
manual.

-P

Prune empty directories.  See see node Moving directories' in the CVS manual.

-p

Pipe files to the standard output.

-R

Update directories recursively (default).  see node Recursive behavior' in the CVS man-
ual.

-r tag[:date]

Retrieve the revisions specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is	a  branch
tag,  the version from the branch tag as it existed on date.  This option is sticky, and
implies -P.  See see node Sticky tags' in the  CVS  manual,  for  more  information  on
sticky tags/dates. Also see see node Common options' in the CVS manual.

These special options are also available with update.

-A

Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  See see node Sticky tags' in the CVS man-

-C

Overwrite locally modified files with clean copies from  the  repository  (the  modified
file is saved in .#file.revision, however).

-d

Create  any directories that exist in the repository if they're missing from the working
directory.  Normally, update acts only  on  directories  and  files  that  were  already

This  is  useful  for updating directories that were created in the repository since the
initial checkout; but it has an unfortunate side effect.  If  you  deliberately  avoided
certain  directories  in  the repository when you created your working directory (either
through use of a module name or by listing explicitly	the  files  and  directories  you
wanted  on the command line), then updating with -d will create those directories, which
may not be what you want.

-I name

Ignore files whose names match name (in your working directory) during the update.   You
can  specify  -I  more than once on the command line to specify several files to ignore.
Use -I ! to avoid ignoring any files at all.  see node cvsignore' in	the  CVS  manual,
for other ways to make cvs ignore some files.

-Wspec

Specify  file	names  that  should  be  filtered during update.  You can use this option
repeatedly.

spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in  the	.cvswrap-
pers file. see node Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

-jrevision

With  two -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with the first -j option
to the revision specified with the second j option, into the working directory.

With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the  revision	specified
with  the  -j	option,  into the working directory.  The ancestor revision is the common
ancestor of the revision which the working directory is based on, and the revision spec-
ified in the -j option.

Note  that  using  a single -j tagname option rather than -j branchname to merge changes
from a branch will often not remove files which were removed on the  branch.	see  node
Merging adds and removals' in the CVS manual, for more.

In  addition, each -j option can contain an optional date specification which, when used
with branches, can limit the chosen revision to one within a specific date.  An optional
date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

see node Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

update output
update  and checkout keep you informed of their progress by printing a line for each file,
preceded by one character indicating the status of the file:

U file

The file was brought up to date with respect to the repository.  This is  done  for  any
file that exists in the repository but not in your working directory, and for files that
you haven't changed but are not the most recent versions available in the repository.

P file

Like U, but the cvs server sends a patch instead of an entire file.   This  accomplishes
the same thing as U using less bandwidth.

A file

The  file  has  been added to your private copy of the sources, and will be added to the
source repository when you run commit on the file.  This is a reminder to you	that  the
file needs to be committed.

R file

The  file  has  been  removed from your private copy of the sources, and will be removed
from the source repository when you run commit on the file.  This is a reminder  to  you
that the file needs to be committed.

M file

The file is modified in  your	working  directory.

M can indicate one of two states for a file you're working on: either there were no mod-
ifications to the same file in the repository, so that your file remains as you last saw
it; or there were modifications in the repository as well as in your copy, but they were
merged successfully, without conflict, in your working directory.

cvs will print some messages if it merges your work, and a backup copy of  your  working
file  (as it looked before you ran update) will be made.  The exact name of that file is
printed while update runs.

C file

A conflict was detected while trying to merge your changes to file with changes from the
source  repository.   file  (the  copy  in  your working directory) is now the result of
attempting to merge the two revisions; an unmodified copy of your file is also  in  your
working  directory,  with  the  name .#file.revision where revision is the revision that
your modified file started from.  Resolve the conflict as described in  see  node  Con-
flicts  example'  in  the CVS manual.	(Note that some systems automatically purge files
that begin with .# if they have not been accessed for a few days.  If you intend to keep
a copy of your original file, it is a very good idea to rename it.)  Under vms, the file
name starts with __ rather than .#.

? file

file is in your working directory, but does not correspond to	anything  in  the  source
repository,  and  is  not in the list of files for cvs to ignore (see the description of
the -I option, and see node cvsignore' in the CVS manual).

AUTHORS
Dick Grune
Original author of the cvs shell script version posted to comp.sources.unix in  the
volume6  release of December, 1986.  Credited with much of the cvs conflict resolu-
tion algorithms.

Brian Berliner
Coder and designer of the cvs program itself in April, 1989, based on the  original
work done by Dick.

Jeff Polk
Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and vendor branch support and author
of the checkin(1) shell script (the ancestor of cvs import).

Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke
Have helped maintain cvs for many years.

And many others too numerous to mention here.

The most comprehensive manual for CVS is Version Management with CVS by Per Cederqvist  et
al.   Depending	on your system, you may be able to get it with the info CVS command or it
may be available as cvs.pdf (Portable Document Format), cvs.ps  (PostScript),  cvs.texinfo
(Texinfo source), or cvs.html.

of CVS, and more, see:

http://www.nongnu.org/cvs/

ci(1), co(1), cvs(5), cvsbug(8), diff(1), grep(1), patch(1),  rcs(1),	rcsdiff(1),  rcsmerge(1),
rlog(1).

CVS(1)`

All times are GMT -4. The time now is 12:24 PM.