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stdio(3) [mojave man page]

STDIO(3)						   BSD Library Functions Manual 						  STDIO(3)

NAME
stdio -- standard input/output library functions LIBRARY
Standard C Library (libc, -lc) SYNOPSIS
#include <stdio.h> FILE *stdin; FILE *stdout; FILE *stderr; Note: The current implementation does not allow these variables to be evaluated at C compile/link time. That is, a runtime calculation must be performed, such as: #include <stdio.h> static FILE *var; int main() { var = stdout; } DESCRIPTION
The standard I/O library provides a simple and efficient buffered stream I/O interface. Input and output is mapped into logical data streams and the physical I/O characteristics are concealed. The functions and macros are listed below; more information is available from the indi- vidual man pages. A stream is associated with an external file (which may be a physical device) by opening a file, which may involve creating a new file. Cre- ating an existing file causes its former contents to be discarded. If a file can support positioning requests (such as a disk file, as opposed to a terminal) then a file position indicator associated with the stream is positioned at the start of the file (byte zero), unless the file is opened with append mode. If append mode is used, the position indicator will be placed at the end-of-file. The position indica- tor is maintained by subsequent reads, writes and positioning requests. All input occurs as if the characters were read by successive calls to the fgetc(3) function; all output takes place as if all characters were written by successive calls to the fputc(3) function. A file is disassociated from a stream by closing the file. Output streams are flushed (any unwritten buffer contents are transferred to the host environment) before the stream is disassociated from the file. The value of a pointer to a FILE object is indeterminate (garbage) after a file is closed. A file may be subsequently reopened, by the same or another program execution, and its contents reclaimed or modified (if it can be reposi- tioned at the start). If the main function returns to its original caller, or the exit(3) function is called, all open files are closed (hence all output streams are flushed) before program termination. Other methods of program termination may not close files properly and hence buffered output may be lost. In particular, _exit(2) does not flush stdio files. Neither does an exit due to a signal. Buffers are flushed by abort(3) as required by POSIX, although previous implementations did not. This implementation makes no distinction between ``text'' and ``binary'' streams. In effect, all streams are binary. No translation is per- formed and no extra padding appears on any stream. At program startup, three streams are predefined and need not be opened explicitly: o standard input (for reading conventional input), o standard output (for writing conventional output), and o standard error (for writing diagnostic output). These streams are abbreviated stdin, stdout and stderr. Initially, the standard error stream is unbuffered; the standard input and output streams are fully buffered if and only if the streams do not refer to an interactive or ``terminal'' device, as determined by the isatty(3) function. In fact, all freshly-opened streams that refer to terminal devices default to line buffering, and pending output to such streams is written automatically whenever such an input stream is read. Note that this applies only to ``true reads''; if the read request can be satisfied by existing buffered data, no automatic flush will occur. In these cases, or when a large amount of computation is done after printing part of a line on an output terminal, it is necessary to fflush(3) the standard output before going off and computing so that the output will appear. Alternatively, these defaults may be modified via the setvbuf(3) function. The stdio library is a part of the library libc and routines are automatically loaded as needed by the C compiler. The SYNOPSIS sections of the following manual pages indicate which include files are to be used, what the compiler declaration for the function looks like and which external variables are of interest. The following are defined as macros; these names may not be re-used without first removing their current definitions with #undef: BUFSIZ, EOF, FILENAME_MAX, FOPEN_MAX, L_ctermid, L_cuserid, L_tmpnam, NULL, P_tmpdir, SEEK_CUR, SEEK_END, SEEK_SET, TMP_MAX, clearerr, clearerr_unlocked, feof, feof_unlocked, ferror, ferror_unlocked, fileno, fileno_unlocked, fropen, fwopen, getc, getc_unlocked, getchar, getchar_unlocked, putc, putc_unlocked, putchar, putchar_unlocked, stderr, stdin and stdout. Function versions of the macro functions clearerr, clearerr_unlocked, feof, feof_unlocked, ferror, ferror_unlocked, fileno, fileno_unlocked, getc, getc_unlocked, getchar, getchar_unlocked, putc, putc_unlocked, putchar, and putchar_unlocked exist and will be used if the macro definitions are explicitly removed. LEGACY SYNOPSIS
The -D_NONSTD_SOURCE flag can be used to allow stdin, stdout, and/or stderr to be evaluated at compile/link time, as: #include <stdio.h> static FILE *var = stdout; SEE ALSO
close(2), open(2), read(2), write(2), compat(5) STANDARDS
The stdio library conforms to ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (``ISO C99''). LIST OF FUNCTIONS
Function Description asprintf formatted output conversion clearerr check and reset stream status fclose close a stream fdopen stream open functions feof check and reset stream status ferror check and reset stream status fflush flush a stream fgetc get next character or word from input stream fgetln get a line from a stream fgetpos reposition a stream fgets get a line from a stream fgetwc get next wide character from input stream fgetws get a line of wide characters from a stream fileno check and reset stream status fopen stream open functions fprintf formatted output conversion fpurge flush a stream fputc output a character or word to a stream fputs output a line to a stream fputwc output a wide character to a stream fputws output a line of wide characters to a stream fread binary stream input/output freopen stream open functions fropen open a stream fscanf input format conversion fseek reposition a stream fsetpos reposition a stream ftell reposition a stream funopen open a stream fwide set/get orientation of stream fwopen open a stream fwprintf formatted wide character output conversion fwrite binary stream input/output getc get next character or word from input stream getchar get next character or word from input stream getdelim get a line from a stream getline get a line from a stream gets get a line from a stream getw get next character or word from input stream getwc get next wide character from input stream getwchar get next wide character from input stream mkdtemp create unique temporary directory mkstemp create unique temporary file mktemp create unique temporary file perror system error messages printf formatted output conversion putc output a character or word to a stream putchar output a character or word to a stream puts output a line to a stream putw output a character or word to a stream putwc output a wide character to a stream putwchar output a wide character to a stream remove remove directory entry rewind reposition a stream scanf input format conversion setbuf stream buffering operations setbuffer stream buffering operations setlinebuf stream buffering operations setvbuf stream buffering operations snprintf formatted output conversion sprintf formatted output conversion sscanf input format conversion strerror system error messages swprintf formatted wide character output conversion sys_errlist system error messages sys_nerr system error messages tempnam temporary file routines tmpfile temporary file routines tmpnam temporary file routines ungetc un-get character from input stream ungetwc un-get wide character from input stream vasprintf formatted output conversion vfprintf formatted output conversion vfscanf input format conversion vfwprintf formatted wide character output conversion vprintf formatted output conversion vscanf input format conversion vsnprintf formatted output conversion vsprintf formatted output conversion vsscanf input format conversion vswprintf formatted wide character output conversion vwprintf formatted wide character output conversion wprintf formatted wide character output conversion BUGS
The standard buffered functions do not interact well with certain other library and system functions, especially vfork(2). BSD
March 3, 2009 BSD

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