Visit Our UNIX and Linux User Community

Linux and UNIX Man Pages

Test Your Knowledge in Computers #673
Difficulty: Medium
Norman Abramson, a professor at the University of Hawaii, developed the first wireless computer communication network, ALOHAnet.
True or False?
Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages

sysexits(3) [mojave man page]

SYSEXITS(3)						   BSD Library Functions Manual 					       SYSEXITS(3)

NAME
sysexits -- preferable exit codes for programs SYNOPSIS
#include <sysexits.h> DESCRIPTION
According to style(9), it is not a good practice to call exit(3) with arbitrary values to indicate a failure condition when ending a program. Instead, the pre-defined exit codes from sysexits should be used, so the caller of the process can get a rough estimation about the failure class without looking up the source code. The successful exit is always indicated by a status of 0, or EX_OK. Error numbers begin at EX__BASE to reduce the possibility of clashing with other exit statuses that random programs may already return. The meaning of the codes is approximately as follows: EX_USAGE (64) The command was used incorrectly, e.g., with the wrong number of arguments, a bad flag, a bad syntax in a parameter, or whatever. EX_DATAERR (65) The input data was incorrect in some way. This should only be used for user's data and not system files. EX_NOINPUT (66) An input file (not a system file) did not exist or was not readable. This could also include errors like ``No message'' to a mailer (if it cared to catch it). EX_NOUSER (67) The user specified did not exist. This might be used for mail addresses or remote logins. EX_NOHOST (68) The host specified did not exist. This is used in mail addresses or network requests. EX_UNAVAILABLE (69) A service is unavailable. This can occur if a support program or file does not exist. This can also be used as a catchall message when something you wanted to do doesn't work, but you don't know why. EX_SOFTWARE (70) An internal software error has been detected. This should be limited to non-operating system related errors as possi- ble. EX_OSERR (71) An operating system error has been detected. This is intended to be used for such things as ``cannot fork'', ``cannot create pipe'', or the like. It includes things like getuid returning a user that does not exist in the passwd file. EX_OSFILE (72) Some system file (e.g., /etc/passwd, /var/run/utmp, etc.) does not exist, cannot be opened, or has some sort of error (e.g., syntax error). EX_CANTCREAT (73) A (user specified) output file cannot be created. EX_IOERR (74) An error occurred while doing I/O on some file. EX_TEMPFAIL (75) Temporary failure, indicating something that is not really an error. In sendmail, this means that a mailer (e.g.) could not create a connection, and the request should be reattempted later. EX_PROTOCOL (76) The remote system returned something that was ``not possible'' during a protocol exchange. EX_NOPERM (77) You did not have sufficient permission to perform the operation. This is not intended for file system problems, which should use EX_NOINPUT or EX_CANTCREAT, but rather for higher level permissions. EX_CONFIG (78) Something was found in an unconfigured or misconfigured state. The numerical values corresponding to the symbolical ones are given in parenthesis for easy reference. SEE ALSO
exit(3), style(9) HISTORY
The sysexits file appeared somewhere after 4.3BSD. AUTHORS
This man page has been written by Jorg Wunsch after the comments in <sysexits.h>. BUGS
The choice of an appropriate exit value is often ambiguous. BSD
March 31, 1996 BSD

Check Out this Related Man Page

sendmail(8)						      System Manager's Manual						       sendmail(8)

Name
       sendmail, newaliases, mailq - send mail over the internet

Syntax
       /usr/lib/sendmail [ flags ] [ address ...  ]

       newaliases

       mailq

Description
       The command sends a message to one or more people, routing the message over whatever networks are necessary.  The command does internetwork
       forwarding as necessary to deliver the message to the correct place.

       The command is not intended as a user interface routine.  Other programs provide user-friendly front ends, while is used  only  to  deliver
       pre-formatted messages.

       With no flags, reads its standard input up to a CTRL/D or a line with a single dot and sends a copy of the letter found there to all of the
       addresses listed.  It determines the network to use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses.

       Local addresses are looked up in a file and aliased appropriately.  Aliasing can be prevented by preceding the address  with  a	backslash.
       Normally  the  sender  is not included in any alias expansions, for example, if `john' sends to `group', and `group' includes `john' in the
       expansion, then the letter will not be delivered to `john'.

Flags
       -ba	      Go into ARPANET mode.  All input lines must end with a CR-LF, and all messages will be generated with a CR-LF  at  the  end.
		      Also, the `From:' and `Sender:' fields are examined for the name of the sender.

       -bd	      Run as a daemon.	This requires Berkeley IPC.

       -bi	      Initialize the alias database.

       -bm	      Deliver mail in the usual way (default).

       -bp	      Print a listing of the queue.

       -bs	      Use  the	SMTP  protocol	as described in RFC 821.  This flag implies all the operations of the -ba flag that are compatible
		      with SMTP.

       -bt	      Run in address test mode.  This mode reads addresses and shows the steps in parsing; it is used for debugging  configuration
		      tables.

       -bv	      Verify  names only.  Do not try to collect or deliver a message.	Verify mode is normally used for validating users or mail-
		      ing lists.

       -bz	      Create the configuration freeze file.

       -Cfile	      Use alternate configuration file.

       -Ffullname     Set the full name of the sender.

       -fname	      Sets the name of the from person, that is, the sender of the mail.  The flag can only be used by the special users and or if
		      the person you are trying to become is the same as the person you are.

       -hN	      Set  the	hop count to N.  The hop count is incremented every time the mail is processed.  When it reaches a limit, the mail
		      is returned with an error message, the victim of an aliasing loop.

       -n	      Do not do aliasing.

       -ox value      Set option x to the specified value.  Options are described below.

       -q[ time ]     Process saved messages in the queue at given intervals.  If time is omitted, process the queue once.  The time  argument	is
		      given  as  a tagged number, with `s' being seconds, `m' being minutes, `h' being hours, `d' being days, and `w' being weeks.
		      For example, `-q1h30m' or `-q90m' would both set the timeout to one hour thirty minutes.

       -rname	      An alternate and obsolete form of the flag.

       -t	      Read message for recipients.  To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines will be scanned for people to send to.  The Bcc: line will be deleted
		      before transmission.  Any addresses in the argument list will be suppressed.

       -v	      Go into verbose mode.  For example, alias expansions will be announced.

Options
       There are also a number of processing options that may be set.  Normally these will only be used by a system administrator.  Options may be
       set either on the command line using the flag or in the configuration file.

       Afile	      Use alternate alias file.

       c	      Do not initiate immediate connection to mailers that are considered expensive to connect to.  This requires queueing.

       dx	      Set the delivery mode to x.  Delivery modes are `i' for interactive (synchronous) delivery, `b'  for  background	(asynchro-
		      nous) delivery, and `q' for queue only - that is, actual delivery is done the next time the queue is run.

       D	      Try to automatically rebuild the alias database if necessary.

       ex	      Set error processing to mode x.  Valid modes are `m' to mail back the error message, `w' to write back the error message (or
		      mail it back if the sender is not logged in), `p' to print the errors on the terminal (default), `q'  to	throw  away  error
		      messages	(only  exit  status is returned), and `e' to do special processing for the BerkNet.  If the text of the message is
		      not mailed back by modes `m' or `w' and if the sender is local to this machine, a copy of the message  is  appended  to  the
		      file in the sender's home directory.

       Fmode	      The mode to use when creating temporary files.

       f	      Save UNIX From lines at the front of messages.

       gN	      The default group id to use when calling mailers.

       Hfile	      The SMTP help file.

       i	      Do not take dots on a line by themselves as a message terminator.

       Ln	      The log level.

       m	      Send to me (the sender) also if I am in an alias expansion.

       o	      If set, this message may have old style headers.	If not set, this message is guaranteed to have new style headers (that is,
		      commas instead of spaces between addresses).  If set, an adaptive algorithm is used that will correctly determine the header
		      format in most cases.

       Qqueuedir      Select the directory in which to queue messages.

       rtimeout       The timeout on reads; if none is set, will wait forever for a mailer.

       Sfile	      Save statistics in the named file.

       s	      Always instantiate the queue file, even under circumstances where it is not strictly necessary.

       Ttime	      Set  the	timeout  on messages in the queue to the specified time.  After sitting in the queue for this amount of time, they
		      will be returned to the sender.  The default is three days.

       tstz,dtz       Set the name of the time zone.

       uN	      Set the default user id for mailers.

       If the first character of the user name is a vertical bar, the rest of the user name is used as the name of a program to pipe the mail  to.
       It may be necessary to quote the name of the user to keep from suppressing the blanks from between arguments.

       returns an exit status describing what it did.  The codes are defined in <sysexits.h>

       EX_OK		   Successful completion on all addresses.

       EX_NOUSER	   Username not recognized.

       EX_UNAVAILABLE	   Catchall meaning necessary resources were not available.

       EX_SYNTAX	   Syntax error in address.

       EX_SOFTWARE	   Internal software error, including bad arguments.

       EX_OSERR 	   Temporary operating system error, such as

       EX_NOHOST	   Host name not recognized.

       EX_TEMPFAIL	   Message could not be sent immediately, but was queued.

       If invoked as will rebuild the alias database.  If invoked as will print the contents of the mail queue.

Restrictions
       converts  blanks in addresses to dots.  This is incorrect according to the old ARPANET mail protocol RFC 733 (NIC 41952), but is consistent
       with the new protocols (RFC 822).

Files
       Except for these pathnames are all specified in Thus, these values are only approximations.

       Raw data for alias names

       Database of alias names

       Raw data for alias names

       Yellow Pages alias database.  DOMAINNAME is the YP
			   domainname for the local area network.

       Yellow Pages alias database.  DOMAINNAME is the YP
			   domainname for the local area network.

       Raw data for alias names

       BIND/Hesiod alias database

       Configuration file

       Frozen configuration

       Help file

       Collected statistics

       To deliver	   mail

       To deliver ARPANET mail

       Temp files

See Also
       biff(1), binmail(1), mail(1), rmail(1), aliases(5), mailaddr(7)
       DARPA Internet Request For Comments: RFC 819, RFC 821, RFC 822
       Sendmail - An Internetwork Mail Router

																       sendmail(8)

Featured Tech Videos