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Test Your Knowledge in Computers #480
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Memory addresses are represented using hexadecimal, which is a base-8 counting system.
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sudo_root(8) [linux man page]

sudo_root(8)						      System Manager's Manual						      sudo_root(8)

NAME
sudo_root - How to run administrative commands SYNOPSIS
sudo command sudo -i INTRODUCTION
By default, the password for the user "root" (the system administrator) is locked. This means you cannot login as root or use su. Instead, the installer will set up sudo to allow the user that is created during install to run all administrative commands. This means that in the terminal you can use sudo for commands that require root privileges. All programs in the menu will use a graphical sudo to prompt for a password. When sudo asks for a password, it needs your password, this means that a root password is not needed. To run a command which requires root privileges in a terminal, simply prepend sudo in front of it. To get an interactive root shell, use sudo -i. ALLOWING OTHER USERS TO RUN SUDO
By default, only the user who installed the system is permitted to run sudo. To add more administrators, i. e. users who can run sudo, you have to add these users to the group 'admin' by doing one of the following steps: * In a shell, do sudo adduser username admin * Use the graphical "Users & Groups" program in the "System settings" menu to add the new user to the admin group. BENEFITS OF USING SUDO
The benefits of leaving root disabled by default include the following: * Users do not have to remember an extra password, which they are likely to forget. * The installer is able to ask fewer questions. * It avoids the "I can do anything" interactive login by default - you will be prompted for a password before major changes can happen, which should make you think about the consequences of what you are doing. * Sudo adds a log entry of the command(s) run (in /var/log/auth.log). * Every attacker trying to brute-force their way into your box will know it has an account named root and will try that first. What they do not know is what the usernames of your other users are. * Allows easy transfer for admin rights, in a short term or long term period, by adding and removing users from the admin group, while not compromising the root account. * sudo can be set up with a much more fine-grained security policy. * On systems with more than one administrator using sudo avoids sharing a password amongst them. DOWNSIDES OF USING SUDO
Although for desktops the benefits of using sudo are great, there are possible issues which need to be noted: * Redirecting the output of commands run with sudo can be confusing at first. For instance consider sudo ls > /root/somefile will not work since it is the shell that tries to write to that file. You can use ls | sudo tee /root/somefile to get the behaviour you want. * In a lot of office environments the ONLY local user on a system is root. All other users are imported using NSS techniques such as nss-ldap. To setup a workstation, or fix it, in the case of a network failure where nss-ldap is broken, root is required. This tends to leave the system unusable. An extra local user, or an enabled root password is needed here. GOING BACK TO A TRADITIONAL ROOT ACCOUNT
This is not recommended! To enable the root account (i.e. set a password) use: sudo passwd root Afterwards, edit the sudo configuration with sudo visudo and comment out the line %admin ALL=(ALL) ALL to disable sudo access to members of the admin group. SEE ALSO
sudo(8), https://wiki.ubuntu.com/RootSudo February 8, 2006 sudo_root(8)

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GKSU(1) 						      General Commands Manual							   GKSU(1)

NAME
gksu - a Gtk+ su frontend SYNOPSIS
gksu [ options ] <command> gksudo [ options ] <command> DESCRIPTION
This manual page documents briefly gksu and gksudo gksu is a frontend to su and gksudo is a frontend to sudo. Their primary purpose is to run graphical commands that need root without the need to run an X terminal emulator and using su directly. OPTIONS
These programs follow the usual GNU command line syntax, with long options starting with two dashes (`-'). A summary of options is included below. Common Options: --user <user>, -u <user> Calls <command> as the specified user --message <message>, -m <message> Replaces the standard message shown to ask for password for the argument passed to the option --sudo-mode, -S Use sudo instead of su as backend authentication system. Notice that the X authorization magic will not work when using sudo for target users other than root. --title <title>, -t <title> Replaces the default title with the argument --icon <icon>, -i <icon> Replaces the default window icon with the argument --print-pass, -p Asks gksu to print the password to stdout, just like ssh-askpass. Useful to use in scripts with programs that accept receiving the password on stdin. --disable-grab, -g Disables the "locking" of the keyboard, mouse, and focus done by the program when asking for password --ssh-fwd, -s Strip the host part of the $DISPLAY variable, so that GKSu will work on SSH X11 Forwarding. --login, -l Makes this a login shell. Beware this may cause problems with the Xauthority magic. Run xhost to allow the target user to open win- dows on your display! This is ignored if running with sudo as backend for authentication. --preserve-env, -k Preserve the current environments, does not set $HOME nor $PATH, for example. FILES
/etc/gksu.conf Configuration file to setup system-wide defaults for gksu/gksudo. It provides an option to force the display grabing, also. RETURN VALUE
On success, gksu will return 0. If an authentication error ocurred, it will exit with error code 3. If the user canceled the dialog or closed the window, it will return error code 2. On other error conditions, gksu will return 1. NOTE
Note that <command> and all its arguments should be passed as one single argument to gksu just like one would to when using su. SEE ALSO
su(1), gksuexec(1). AUTHOR
This manual page was written by Gustavo Noronha Silva <kov@debian.org> for the Debian GNU/Linux system (but may be used by others). 2003 GKSU(1)

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