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NTFS-3G(8)									       NTFS-3G(8)

NAME
       ntfs-3g - Third Generation Read/Write NTFS Driver

SYNOPSIS
       ntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t ntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point

DESCRIPTION
       ntfs-3g is an NTFS driver, which can create, remove, rename, move files, directories, hard
       links, and streams; it can read and write  files,  including  streams,  sparse  files  and
       transparently  compressed files; it can handle special files like symbolic links, devices,
       and FIFOs; moreover it provides standard management of  file  ownership	and  permissions,
       including POSIX ACLs.

       It  comes in two variants ntfs-3g and lowntfs-3g with a few differences mentioned below in
       relevant options descriptions.

       The volume to be mounted can be either a block device or an image file.

   Access Handling and Security
       By default, files and directories are owned by the effective user and group of the  mount-
       ing  process, and everybody has full read, write, execution and directory browsing permis-
       sions.  You can also assign permissions to a single user by using the uid and/or  the  gid
       options together with the umask, or fmask and dmask options.

       Doing so, Windows users have full access to the files created by ntfs-3g.

       But,  by  setting the permissions option, you can benefit from the full ownership and per-
       missions features as defined by POSIX. Moreover, by defining a Windows-to-Linux user  map-
       ping, the ownerships and permissions are even applied to Windows users and conversely.

       If ntfs-3g is set setuid-root then non-root users will be also able to mount volumes.

   Windows Filename Compatibility
       NTFS  supports several filename namespaces: DOS, Win32 and POSIX. While the ntfs-3g driver
       handles all of them, it always creates new files in the POSIX namespace for maximum porta-
       bility and interoperability reasons.  This means that filenames are case sensitive and all
       characters are allowed except '/' and '\0'. This is perfectly  legal  on  Windows,  though
       some  application  may get confused. The option windows_names may be used to apply Windows
       restrictions to new file names.

   Alternate Data Streams (ADS)
       NTFS stores all data in streams. Every file has exactly one unnamed data  stream  and  can
       have  many named data streams.  The size of a file is the size of its unnamed data stream.
       By default, ntfs-3g will only read the unnamed data stream.

       By using the options "streams_interface=windows", with the ntfs-3g  driver  (not  possible
       with  lowntfs-3g),  you	will be able to read any named data streams, simply by specifying
       the stream's name after a colon.  For example:

	      cat some.mp3:artist

       Named data streams act like normal files, so you can read from them,  write  to	them  and
       even  delete  them (using rm).  You can list all the named data streams a file has by get-
       ting the "ntfs.streams.list" extended attribute.

OPTIONS
       Below is a summary of the options that ntfs-3g accepts.

       uid=value and gid=value
	      Set the owner and the group of files and directories.  The  values  are  numerical.
	      The defaults are the uid and gid of the current process.

       umask=value
	      Set  the	 bitmask  of the file and directory permissions that are not present. The
	      value is given in octal. The default value is 0 which means full access  to  every-
	      body.

       fmask=value
	      Set  the	bitmask of the file permissions that are not present.  The value is given
	      in octal. The default value is 0 which means full access to everybody.

       dmask=value
	      Set the  bitmask of the directory permissions that are not present.  The	value  is
	      given in octal. The default value is 0 which means full access to everybody.

       usermapping=file-name
	      Use   file   file-name   as   the   user	 mapping  file	instead  of  the  default
	      .NTFS-3G/UserMapping. If file-name defines a full path, the file must be located on
	      a  partition  previously	mounted. If it defines a relative path, it is interpreted
	      relative to the root of NTFS partition being mounted.

	      When a user mapping file is defined, the options uid=, gid=, umask=, fmask=, dmask=
	      and silent are ignored.

       permissions
	      Set  standard  permissions  on created files and use standard access control.  This
	      option is set by default when a user mapping file is present.

       acl    Enable setting Posix ACLs on created files and use them for access  control.   This
	      option  is only available on specific builds. It is set by default when a user map-
	      ping file is present and the permissions mount option is not set.

       inherit
	      When creating a new file, set its  initial  protections  according  to  inheritance
	      rules  defined  in parent directory. These rules deviate from Posix specifications,
	      but yield a better Windows compatibility. The compression option or  a  valid  user
	      mapping file is required for this option to be effective.

       ro     Mount  filesystem  read-only.  Useful  if Windows is hibernated or the NTFS journal
	      file is unclean.

       locale=value
	      This option can be useful when wanting a language specific locale environment.   It
	      is  however  discouraged	as  it leads to files with untranslatable chars to not be
	      visible.

       force  This option is obsolete. It has  been  superseded  by  the  recover  and	norecover
	      options.

       recover
	      Recover  and  try to mount a partition which was not unmounted properly by Windows.
	      The Windows logfile is cleared, which may cause inconsistencies.	Currently this is
	      the default option.

       norecover
	      Do not try to mount a partition which was not unmounted properly by Windows.

       ignore_case (only with lowntfs-3g)
	      Ignore character case when accessing a file (FOO, Foo, foo, etc. designate the same
	      file). All files are displayed with lower case in directory listings.

       remove_hiberfile
	      Unlike in case of read-only mount, the read-write mount is denied if the NTFS  vol-
	      ume  is hibernated. One needs either to resume Windows and shutdown it properly, or
	      use this option which will remove the Windows hibernation file. Please  note,  this
	      means that the saved Windows session will be completely lost. Use this option under
	      your own responsibility.

       atime, noatime, relatime
	      The atime option updates inode access time for each access.

	      The noatime option disables inode access time updates which can speed up file oper-
	      ations  and  prevent  sleeping  (notebook)  disks spinning up too often thus saving
	      energy and disk lifetime.

	      The relatime option is very similar to noatime.  It updates inode access times rel-
	      ative  to  modify  or change time.  The access time is only updated if the previous
	      access time was earlier than the current modify or change time. Unlike noatime this
	      option  doesn't  break applications that need to know if a file has been read since
	      the last time it was modified.  This is the default behaviour.

       show_sys_files
	      Show the metafiles in directory listings. Otherwise the  default	behaviour  is  to
	      hide  the  metafiles,  which  are  special  files used to store the NTFS structure.
	      Please note that even when this option is specified, "$MFT" may not be visible  due
	      to a glibc bug. Furthermore, irrespectively of show_sys_files, all files are acces-
	      sible by name, for example you can always do "ls -l '$UpCase'".

       hide_hid_files
	      Hide the hidden files and directories in directory listings, the hidden  files  and
	      directories being the ones whose NTFS attribute have the hidden flag set.  The hid-
	      den files will not be selected when using wildcards in commands, but all files  and
	      directories  remain accessible by full name, for example you can always display the
	      Windows trash bin directory by : "ls -ld '$RECYCLE.BIN'".

       hide_dot_files
	      Set the hidden flag in the NTFS attribute for created files and  directories  whose
	      first  character	of  the name is a dot. Such files and directories normally do not
	      appear in directory listings, and when the flag is set they do not appear  in  Win-
	      dows directory displays either.

       windows_names
	      This  option prevents files, directories and extended attributes to be created with
	      a name not allowed by windows, either because it contains some not allowed  charac-
	      ter  (which  are the nine characters " * / : < > ? \ | and those whose code is less
	      than 0x20) or because the last character is a space or a dot. Existing  such  files
	      can still be read (and renamed).

       allow_other
	      This  option  overrides  the  security  measure restricting file access to the user
	      mounting the filesystem. This option is only allowed to root, but this  restriction
	      can be overridden by the 'user_allow_other' option in the /etc/fuse.conf file.

       max_read=value
	      With  this  option  the maximum size of read operations can be set.  The default is
	      infinite.  Note that the size of read requests is limited anyway to 32 pages (which
	      is 128kbyte on i386).

       silent Do  nothing,  without  returning any error, on chmod and chown operations, when the
	      permissions option is not set and no user mapping file is defined. This  option  is
	      on by default.

       no_def_opts
	      By  default  ntfs-3g  acts  as  if  "silent"  (ignore  errors  on chmod and chown),
	      "allow_other" (allow any user to access files) and "nonempty"  (allow  mounting  on
	      non-empty directories) were set, and "no_def_opts" cancels these default options.

       streams_interface=value
	      This  option  controls  how  the user can access Alternate Data Streams (ADS) or in
	      other words, named data streams. It can be set to, one of none, windows  or  xattr.
	      If  the  option  is  set	to  none,  the user will have no access to the named data
	      streams. If it is set to windows (not possible with lowntfs-3g), then the user  can
	      access  them just like in Windows (eg. cat file:stream). If it's set to xattr, then
	      the named data streams are mapped to xattrs and  user  can  manipulate  them  using
	      {get,set}fattr utilities. The default is xattr.

       user_xattr
	      Same as streams_interface=xattr.

       efs_raw
	      This  option  should  only  be used in backup or restore situation.  It changes the
	      apparent size of files and the  behavior	of  read  and  write  operation  so  that
	      encrypted   files   can	be  saved  and	restored  without  being  decrypted.  The
	      user.ntfs.efsinfo extended attribute has also to be saved and restored for the file
	      to be decrypted.

       compression
	      This  option  enables  creating  new  transparently compressed files in directories
	      marked for compression. A directory is marked for compression by setting the bit 11
	      (value  0x00000800)  in  its  Windows attribute. In such a directory, new files are
	      created compressed and new subdirectories are themselves	marked	for  compression.
	      The option and the flag have no effect on existing files.

       nocompression
	      This  option  disables  creating	new transparently compressed files in directories
	      marked for compression. Existing compressed files can still be  read  and  updated.
	      Currently this is the default option.

       big_writes
	      This option prevents fuse from splitting write buffers into 4K chunks, enabling big
	      write buffers to be transferred from the application in a single step (up  to  some
	      system limit, generally 128K bytes).

       debug  Makes ntfs-3g to print a lot of debug output from libntfs-3g and FUSE.

       no_detach
	      Makes ntfs-3g to not detach from terminal and print some debug output.

USER MAPPING
       NTFS uses specific ids to record the ownership of files instead of the uid and gid used by
       Linux. As a consequence a mapping between the ids has to be defined for ownerships  to  be
       recorded into NTFS and recognized.

       By default, this mapping is fetched from the file .NTFS-3G/UserMapping located in the NTFS
       partition. The option usermapping= may be used to define another location. When the option
       permissions is set and no mapping file is found, a default mapping is used.

       Each line in the user mapping file defines a mapping. It is organized in three fields sep-
       arated by colons. The first field identifies a uid, the second field identifies a gid  and
       the  third  one	identifies the corresponding NTFS id, known as a SID. The uid and the gid
       are optional and defining both of them for the same SID is not recommended.

       If no interoperation with Windows is needed, you can use the option permissions to  define
       a  standard  mapping.  Alternately,  you  may  define your own mapping by setting a single
       default mapping with no uid and gid. In both cases, files created on Linux will appear  to
       Windows	as  owned by a foreign user, and files created on Windows will appear to Linux as
       owned by root. Just copy the example below and replace the 9 and 10-digit numbers  by  any
       number not greater than 4294967295. The resulting behavior is the same as the one with the
       option permission set with no ownership option and no user mapping file available.

	      ::S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-10000

       If a strong interoperation with Windows is needed, the mapping has to be defined for  each
       user  and  group  known	in both system, and the SIDs used by Windows has to be collected.
       This will lead to a user mapping file like :

	      john::S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-1008
	      mary::S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-1009
	      :smith:S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-513
	      ::S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-10000

       The utility ntfs-3g.usermap may be used to create such a user mapping file.

EXAMPLES
       Mount /dev/sda1 to /mnt/windows:

	      ntfs-3g /dev/sda1 /mnt/windows
       or
	      mount -t ntfs-3g /dev/sda1 /mnt/windows

       Mount  the  ntfs  data  partition  /dev/sda3  to /mnt/data with standard Linux permissions
       applied :

	      ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3 /mnt/data
       or
	      mount -t ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3 /mnt/data

       Read-only mount /dev/sda5 to /home/user/mnt and make user with uid 1000 to be the owner of
       all files:

	      ntfs-3g /dev/sda5 /home/user/mnt -o ro,uid=1000

       /etc/fstab entry for the above:
	      /dev/sda5 /home/user/mnt ntfs-3g ro,uid=1000 0 0

       Unmount /mnt/windows:

	      umount /mnt/windows

EXIT CODES
       To  facilitate  the use of the ntfs-3g driver in scripts, an exit code is returned to give
       an indication of the mountability status of a volume. Value 0 means success, and all other
       ones  mean  an error. The unique error codes are documented in the ntfs-3g.probe(8) manual
       page.

KNOWN ISSUES
       Please see

	      http://www.tuxera.com/support/

       for common questions and known issues.  If you would find a new one in the latest  release
       of  the	software  then	please send an email describing it in detail. You can contact the
       development team on the ntfs-3g-devel@lists.sf.net address.

AUTHORS
       ntfs-3g was based on and a major improvement to ntfsmount and libntfs which  were  written
       by Yura Pakhuchiy and the Linux-NTFS team. The improvements were made, the ntfs-3g project
       was initiated and currently led by long time Linux-NTFS team developer Szabolcs Szakacsits
       (szaka@tuxera.com).

THANKS
       Several	people	made  heroic  efforts,	often  over five or more years which resulted the
       ntfs-3g driver. Most importantly they are Anton Altaparmakov, Jean-Pierre  Andre,  Richard
       Russon,	Szabolcs  Szakacsits, Yura Pakhuchiy, Yuval Fledel, and the author of the ground-
       breaking FUSE filesystem development framework, Miklos Szeredi.

SEE ALSO
       ntfs-3g.probe(8), ntfsprogs(8), attr(5), getfattr(1)

ntfs-3g 2011.4.12AR.4			  February 2010 			       NTFS-3G(8)
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