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STANDARDS(7)			    Linux Programmer's Manual			     STANDARDS(7)

NAME
       standards - C and UNIX Standards

DESCRIPTION
       The  CONFORMING	TO section that appears in many manual pages identifies various standards
       to which the documented interface conforms.  The following list	briefly  describes  these
       standards.

       V7     Version 7, the ancestral UNIX from Bell Labs.

       4.2BSD This is an implementation standard defined by the 4.2 release of the Berkeley Soft-
	      ware Distribution, released by the University of California at Berkeley.	This  was
	      the  first  Berkeley  release  that  contained  a TCP/IP stack and the sockets API.
	      4.2BSD was released in 1983.

	      Earlier major BSD releases included 3BSD (1980), 4BSD (1980), and 4.1BSD (1981).

       4.3BSD The successor to 4.2BSD, released in 1986.

       4.4BSD The successor to 4.3BSD, released in  1993.   This  was  the  last  major  Berkeley
	      release.

       System V
	      This  is an implementation standard defined by AT&T's milestone 1983 release of its
	      commercial System V (five) release.  The previous major  AT&T  release  was  System
	      III, released in 1981.

       System V release 2 (SVr2)
	      This  was the next System V release, made in 1985.  The SVr2 was formally described
	      in the System V Interface Definition version 1 (SVID 1) published in 1985.

       System V release 3 (SVr3)
	      This was the successor to SVr2,  released  in  1986.   This  release  was  formally
	      described in the System V Interface Definition version 2 (SVID 2).

       System V release 4 (SVr4)
	      This  was  the  successor  to  SVr3, released in 1989.  This version of System V is
	      described in the "Programmer's Reference Manual: Operating System API  (Intel  pro-
	      cessors)"  (Prentice-Hall  1992,	ISBN  0-13-951294-2)  This  release  was formally
	      described in the System V Interface Definition version 3 (SVID 3), and  is  consid-
	      ered the definitive System V release.

       SVID 4 System  V  Interface  Definition	version  4,  issued in 1995.  Available online at
	      <http://www.sco.com/developers/devspecs/>.

       C89    This was the first C language standard, ratified by ANSI (American  National  Stan-
	      dards  Institute)  in  1989  (X3.159-1989).  Sometimes this is known as ANSI C, but
	      since C99 is also an ANSI standard, this term is ambiguous.  This standard was also
	      ratified by ISO (International Standards Organization) in 1990 (ISO/IEC 9899:1990),
	      and is thus occasionally referred to as ISO C90.

       C99    This revision of the C language standard was  ratified  by  ISO  in  1999  (ISO/IEC
	      9899:1999).    Available	 online   at  <http://www.open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/wg14/www
	      /standards>.

       POSIX.1-1990
	      "Portable Operating System Interface for Computing Environments".  IEEE 1003.1-1990
	      part 1, ratified by ISO in 1990 (ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990).  The term "POSIX" was coined
	      by Richard Stallman.

       POSIX.2
	      IEEE Std 1003.2-1992, describing commands and utilities, ratified by  ISO  in  1993
	      (ISO/IEC 9945-2:1993).

       POSIX.1b (formerly known as POSIX.4)
	      IEEE  Std  1003.1b-1993 describing real-time facilities for portable operating sys-
	      tems, ratified by ISO in 1996 (ISO/IEC 9945-1:1996).

       POSIX.1c
	      IEEE Std 1003.1c-1995 describing the POSIX threads interfaces.

       POSIX.1d
	      IEEE Std 1003.1c-1999 describing additional real-time extensions.

       POSIX.1g
	      IEEE Std 1003.1g-2000 describing networking APIs (including sockets).

       POSIX.1j
	      IEEE Std 1003.1j-2000 describing advanced real-time extensions.

       POSIX.1-1996
	      A 1996 revision of POSIX.1 which incorporated POSIX.1b and POSIX.1c.

       XPG3   Released in 1989, this was the first significant release of the X/Open  Portability
	      Guide,  produced by the X/Open Company, a multivendor consortium.  This multivolume
	      guide was based on the POSIX standards.

       XPG4   A revision of the X/Open Portability Guide, released in 1992.

       XPG4v2 A 1994 revision of XPG4.	This is  also  referred  to  as  Spec  1170,  where  1170
	      referred to the number of interfaces defined by this standard.

       SUS (SUSv1)
	      Single UNIX Specification.  This was a repackaging of XPG4v2 and other X/Open stan-
	      dards (X/Open Curses Issue 4 version 2, X/Open Networking Service (XNS)  Issue  4).
	      Systems conforming to this standard can be branded UNIX 95.

       SUSv2  Single  UNIX  Specification  version  2.	Sometimes also referred to as XPG5.  This
	      standard appeared in 1997.  Systems conforming to this standard can be branded UNIX
	      98.  See also <http://www.UNIX-systems.org/version2/>.)

       POSIX.1-2001, SUSv3
	      This  was  a 2001 revision and consolidation of the POSIX.1, POSIX.2, and SUS stan-
	      dards into a single document, conducted under the  auspices  of  the  Austin  group
	      <http://www.opengroup.org/austin/>.    The   standard   is   available   online  at
	      <http://www.unix-systems.org/version3/>, and the interfaces that it  describes  are
	      also  available  in  the Linux manual pages package under sections 1p and 3p (e.g.,
	      "man 3p open").

	      The standard defines two levels of conformance: POSIX conformance, which is a base-
	      line  set of interfaces required of a conforming system; and XSI Conformance, which
	      additionally mandates a set of interfaces (the  "XSI  extension")  which	are  only
	      optional	for  POSIX  conformance.   XSI-conformant systems can be branded UNIX 03.
	      (XSI conformance constitutes the Single UNIX Specification version 3 (SUSv3).)

	      The POSIX.1-2001 document is broken into four parts:

	      XBD: Definitions, terms and concepts, header file specifications.

	      XSH: Specifications of functions (i.e.,  system  calls  and  library  functions  in
	      actual implementations).

	      XCU: Specifications of commands and utilities (i.e., the area formerly described by
	      POSIX.2).

	      XRAT: Informative text on the other parts of the standard.

	      POSIX.1-2001 is aligned with C99, so that all of the library functions standardized
	      in C99 are also standardized in POSIX.1-2001.

	      Two  Technical Corrigenda (minor fixes and improvements) of the original 2001 stan-
	      dard have occurred: TC1 in 2003 (referred to as  POSIX.1-2003),  and  TC2  in  2004
	      (referred to as POSIX.1-2004).

       POSIX.1-2008, SUSv4
	      Work on the next revision of POSIX.1/SUS was completed and ratified in 2008.

	      The  changes  in	this  revision	are  not  as  large  as  those	that occurred for
	      POSIX.1-2001/SUSv3, but a number of new interfaces are added and various details of
	      existing specifications are modified.  Many of the interfaces that were optional in
	      POSIX.1-2001 become mandatory in the 2008 revision of the standard.  A  few  inter-
	      faces  that  are present in POSIX.1-2001 are marked as obsolete in POSIX.1-2008, or
	      removed from the standard altogether.

	      The revised standard is broken into the same four parts as POSIX.1-2001, and  again
	      there  are  two levels of conformance: the baseline POSIX Conformance, and XSI Con-
	      formance, which mandates an additional set of interfaces beyond those in	the  base
	      specification.

	      In general, where the CONFORMING TO section of a manual page lists POSIX.1-2001, it
	      can be assumed that the interface also conforms to POSIX.1-2008,	unless	otherwise
	      noted.

	      Technical Corrigenda 1 (minor fixes and improvements) of this standard was released
	      in 2013 (referred to as POSIX.1-2013).

	      Further	information   can   be	 found	 on   the   Austin   group   web    site,
	      <http://www.opengroup.org/austin/>.

SEE ALSO
       feature_test_macros(7), libc(7), posixoptions(7)

COLOPHON
       This  page  is  part of release 3.55 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of the
       project,    and	  information	 about	  reporting    bugs,	can    be    found     at
       http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux					    2013-09-06				     STANDARDS(7)
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