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Linux 2.6 - man page for sem_overview (linux section 7)

SEM_OVERVIEW(7) 		    Linux Programmer's Manual			  SEM_OVERVIEW(7)

NAME
       sem_overview - overview of POSIX semaphores

DESCRIPTION
       POSIX semaphores allow processes and threads to synchronize their actions.

       A semaphore is an integer whose value is never allowed to fall below zero.  Two operations
       can be performed on semaphores: increment the semaphore value by  one  (sem_post(3));  and
       decrement  the  semaphore value by one (sem_wait(3)).  If the value of a semaphore is cur-
       rently zero, then a sem_wait(3) operation will block until the value becomes greater  than
       zero.

       POSIX semaphores come in two forms: named semaphores and unnamed semaphores.

       Named semaphores
	      A  named	semaphore is identified by a name of the form /somename; that is, a null-
	      terminated string of up to NAME_MAX-4 (i.e., 251) characters consisting of an  ini-
	      tial  slash,  followed  by  one or more characters, none of which are slashes.  Two
	      processes can operate on the same named semaphore  by  passing  the  same  name  to
	      sem_open(3).

	      The  sem_open(3)	function creates a new named semaphore or opens an existing named
	      semaphore.  After the semaphore has been	opened,  it  can  be  operated	on  using
	      sem_post(3)  and	sem_wait(3).  When a process has finished using the semaphore, it
	      can use sem_close(3) to close the semaphore.   When  all	processes  have  finished
	      using the semaphore, it can be removed from the system using sem_unlink(3).

       Unnamed semaphores (memory-based semaphores)
	      An  unnamed  semaphore  does not have a name.  Instead the semaphore is placed in a
	      region of memory that is shared between multiple	threads  (a  thread-shared  sema-
	      phore)  or  processes  (a  process-shared semaphore).  A thread-shared semaphore is
	      placed in an area of memory shared between the threads of a process, for example, a
	      global  variable.   A  process-shared  semaphore	must be placed in a shared memory
	      region (e.g., a System V shared memory segment created using shmget(2), or a  POSIX
	      shared memory object built created using shm_open(3)).

	      Before  being used, an unnamed semaphore must be initialized using sem_init(3).  It
	      can then be operated on using sem_post(3) and sem_wait(3).  When the  semaphore  is
	      no  longer  required,  and before the memory in which it is located is deallocated,
	      the semaphore should be destroyed using sem_destroy(3).

       The remainder of this section describes some specific details of the Linux  implementation
       of POSIX semaphores.

   Versions
       Prior  to kernel 2.6, Linux supported only unnamed, thread-shared semaphores.  On a system
       with Linux 2.6 and a glibc that provides the NPTL  threading  implementation,  a  complete
       implementation of POSIX semaphores is provided.

   Persistence
       POSIX  named  semaphores have kernel persistence: if not removed by sem_unlink(3), a sema-
       phore will exist until the system is shut down.

   Linking
       Programs using the POSIX semaphores API must be compiled with cc -pthread to link  against
       the real-time library, librt.

   Accessing named semaphores via the filesystem
       On  Linux,  named  semaphores  are created in a virtual filesystem, normally mounted under
       /dev/shm, with names of the form sem.somename.  (This is the reason that  semaphore  names
       are limited to NAME_MAX-4 rather than NAME_MAX characters.)

       Since  Linux  2.6.19,  ACLs can be placed on files under this directory, to control object
       permissions on a per-user and per-group basis.

CONFORMING TO
       POSIX.1-2001.

NOTES
       System V semaphores (semget(2), semop(2), etc.) are an older semaphore API.   POSIX  sema-
       phores  provide	a simpler, and better designed interface than System V semaphores; on the
       other hand POSIX semaphores are less widely available (especially on older  systems)  than
       System V semaphores.

EXAMPLE
       An example of the use of various POSIX semaphore functions is shown in sem_wait(3).

SEE ALSO
       sem_close(3),  sem_destroy(3),  sem_getvalue(3),  sem_init(3),  sem_open(3),  sem_post(3),
       sem_unlink(3), sem_wait(3), pthreads(7)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.55 of the Linux man-pages project.  A  description  of  the
       project,     and    information	  about    reporting	bugs,	 can	be    found    at
       http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux					    2012-05-13				  SEM_OVERVIEW(7)


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