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Linux 2.6 - man page for terminfo (linux section 5)

terminfo(5)				   File Formats 			      terminfo(5)

       terminfo - terminal capability data base


       Terminfo  is  a	data  base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented programs such as
       nvi(1), rogue(1) and libraries such as ncurses(3NCURSES).  Terminfo describes terminals by
       giving  a  set of capabilities which they have, by specifying how to perform screen opera-
       tions,  and  by	specifying  padding  requirements  and	initialization	sequences.   This
       describes ncurses version 5.9 (patch 20110404).

       Entries	in terminfo consist of a sequence of `,' separated fields (embedded commas may be
       escaped with a backslash or notated as \054).  White space  after  the  `,'  separator  is
       ignored.  The first entry for each terminal gives the names which are known for the termi-
       nal, separated by `|' characters.  The first name given is the  most  common  abbreviation
       for  the  terminal, the last name given should be a long name fully identifying the termi-
       nal, and all others are understood as synonyms for the terminal name.  All names  but  the
       last  should  be in lower case and contain no blanks; the last name may well contain upper
       case and blanks for readability.

       Lines beginning with a `#' in the first column are treated  as  comments.   While  comment
       lines are legal at any point, the output of captoinfo and infotocap (aliases for tic) will
       move comments so they occur only between entries.

       Newlines and leading tabs may be used for formatting entries for readability.   These  are
       removed	from parsed entries.  The infocmp -f option relies on this to format if-then-else
       expressions: the result can be read by tic.

       Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry) should be chosen using  the	following
       conventions.   The  particular piece of hardware making up the terminal should have a root
       name, thus ``hp2621''.  This name should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can
       be  in,	or user preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a mode suffix.
       Thus, a vt100 in 132 column mode would be vt100-w.  The following suffixes should be  used
       where possible:

		      Suffix		      Meaning			Example
		      -nn      Number of lines on the screen		aaa-60
		      -np      Number of pages of memory		c100-4p
		      -am      With automargins (usually the default)	vt100-am
		      -m       Mono mode; suppress color		ansi-m
		      -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting	wy30-mc
		      -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)	c100-na
		      -nam     Without automatic margins		vt100-nam
		      -nl      No status line				att4415-nl
		      -ns      No status line				hp2626-ns
		      -rv      Reverse video				c100-rv
		      -s       Enable status line			vt100-s
		      -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep 	wy370-vb
		      -w       Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)	vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual page.

       The  following  is a complete table of the capabilities included in a terminfo description
       block and available to terminfo-using code.  In each line of the table,

       The variable is the name by which the programmer (at  the  terminfo  level)  accesses  the

       The  capname  is  the short name used in the text of the database, and is used by a person
       updating the database.  Whenever possible, capnames are chosen to be the same as or  simi-
       lar  to	the  ANSI X3.64-1979 standard (now superseded by ECMA-48, which uses identical or
       very similar names).  Semantics are also intended to match those of the specification.

       The termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some capabilities are new,	and  have
       names which termcap did not originate).

       Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of 5 characters has been
       adopted to keep them short and to allow the tabs in  the  source  file  Caps  to  line  up

       Finally,  the  description  field attempts to convey the semantics of the capability.  You
       may find some codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in the description field indicates that the string is  passed  through  tparm  with
	      parms as given (#i).

       (P*)   indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the number of lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.

       These are the boolean capabilities:

	       Variable 		    Cap-	     TCap		 Description
	       Booleans 		    name	     Code
       auto_left_margin 		    bw		     bw 	     cub1 wraps from col-
									     umn 0 to last column
       auto_right_margin		    am		     am 	     terminal has auto-
									     matic margins
       back_color_erase 		    bce 	     ut 	     screen erased with
									     background color
       can_change			    ccc 	     cc 	     terminal can re-
									     define existing col-
       ceol_standout_glitch		    xhp 	     xs 	     standout not erased
									     by overwriting (hp)
       col_addr_glitch			    xhpa	     YA 	     only positive motion
									     for hpa/mhpa caps
       cpi_changes_res			    cpix	     YF 	     changing character
									     pitch changes reso-
       cr_cancels_micro_mode		    crxm	     YB 	     using cr turns off
									     micro mode
       dest_tabs_magic_smso		    xt		     xt 	     tabs destructive,
									     magic so char
       eat_newline_glitch		    xenl	     xn 	     newline ignored
									     after 80 cols (con-
       erase_overstrike 		    eo		     eo 	     can erase over-
									     strikes with a blank
       generic_type			    gn		     gn 	     generic line type
       hard_copy			    hc		     hc 	     hardcopy terminal
       hard_cursor			    chts	     HC 	     cursor is hard to
       has_meta_key			    km		     km 	     Has a meta key
									     (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
       has_print_wheel			    daisy	     YC 	     printer needs opera-
									     tor to change char-
									     acter set

       has_status_line			    hs		     hs 	     has extra status
       hue_lightness_saturation 	    hls 	     hl 	     terminal uses only
									     HLS color notation
       insert_null_glitch		    in		     in 	     insert mode distin-
									     guishes nulls
       lpi_changes_res			    lpix	     YG 	     changing line pitch
									     changes resolution
       memory_above			    da		     da 	     display may be
									     retained above the
       memory_below			    db		     db 	     display may be
									     retained below the
       move_insert_mode 		    mir 	     mi 	     safe to move while
									     in insert mode
       move_standout_mode		    msgr	     ms 	     safe to move while
									     in standout mode
       needs_xon_xoff			    nxon	     nx 	     padding will not
									     work, xon/xoff
       no_esc_ctlc			    xsb 	     xb 	     beehive (f1=escape,
									     f2=ctrl C)
       no_pad_char			    npc 	     NP 	     pad character does
									     not exist
       non_dest_scroll_region		    ndscr	     ND 	     scrolling region is
       non_rev_rmcup			    nrrmc	     NR 	     smcup does not
									     reverse rmcup
       over_strike			    os		     os 	     terminal can over-
       prtr_silent			    mc5i	     5i 	     printer will not
									     echo on screen
       row_addr_glitch			    xvpa	     YD 	     only positive motion
									     for vpa/mvpa caps
       semi_auto_right_margin		    sam 	     YE 	     printing in last
									     column causes cr
       status_line_esc_ok		    eslok	     es 	     escape can be used
									     on the status line
       tilde_glitch			    hz		     hz 	     cannot print ~'s
       transparent_underline		    ul		     ul 	     underline character
       xon_xoff 			    xon 	     xo 	     terminal uses
									     xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:

	       Variable 		    Cap-	     TCap		 Description
		Numeric 		    name	     Code
       columns				    cols	     co 	     number of columns in
									     a line
       init_tabs			    it		     it 	     tabs initially every
									     # spaces
       label_height			    lh		     lh 	     rows in each label
       label_width			    lw		     lw 	     columns in each
       lines				    lines	     li 	     number of lines on
									     screen or page
       lines_of_memory			    lm		     lm 	     lines of memory if >
									     line. 0 means varies

       magic_cookie_glitch		    xmc 	     sg 	     number of blank
									     characters left by
									     smso or rmso
       max_attributes			    ma		     ma 	     maximum combined
									     attributes terminal
									     can handle
       max_colors			    colors	     Co 	     maximum number of
									     colors on screen
       max_pairs			    pairs	     pa 	     maximum number of
									     color-pairs on the
       maximum_windows			    wnum	     MW 	     maximum number of
									     defineable windows
       no_color_video			    ncv 	     NC 	     video attributes
									     that cannot be used
									     with colors
       num_labels			    nlab	     Nl 	     number of labels on
       padding_baud_rate		    pb		     pb 	     lowest baud rate
									     where padding needed
       virtual_terminal 		    vt		     vt 	     virtual terminal
									     number (CB/unix)
       width_status_line		    wsl 	     ws 	     number of columns in
									     status line

       The following numeric capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term structure, but  are  not
       yet documented in the man page.	They came in with SVr4's printer support.

	       Variable 		    Cap-	     TCap		 Description
		Numeric 		    name	     Code
       bit_image_entwining		    bitwin	     Yo 	     number of passes for
									     each bit-image row
       bit_image_type			    bitype	     Yp 	     type of bit-image
       buffer_capacity			    bufsz	     Ya 	     numbers of bytes
									     buffered before
       buttons				    btns	     BT 	     number of buttons on
       dot_horz_spacing 		    spinh	     Yc 	     spacing of dots hor-
									     izontally in dots
									     per inch
       dot_vert_spacing 		    spinv	     Yb 	     spacing of pins ver-
									     tically in pins per
       max_micro_address		    maddr	     Yd 	     maximum value in
       max_micro_jump			    mjump	     Ye 	     maximum value in
       micro_col_size			    mcs 	     Yf 	     character step size
									     when in micro mode
       micro_line_size			    mls 	     Yg 	     line step size when
									     in micro mode
       number_of_pins			    npins	     Yh 	     numbers of pins in
       output_res_char			    orc 	     Yi 	     horizontal resolu-
									     tion in units per
       output_res_horz_inch		    orhi	     Yk 	     horizontal resolu-
									     tion in units per
       output_res_line			    orl 	     Yj 	     vertical resolution
									     in units per line

       output_res_vert_inch		    orvi	     Yl 	     vertical resolution
									     in units per inch
       print_rate			    cps 	     Ym 	     print rate in char-
									     acters per second
       wide_char_size			    widcs	     Yn 	     character step size
									     when in double wide

       These are the string capabilities:

	       Variable 		    Cap-	     TCap		 Description
		String			    name	     Code
       acs_chars			    acsc	     ac 	     graphics charset
									     pairs, based on
       back_tab 			    cbt 	     bt 	     back tab (P)
       bell				    bel 	     bl 	     audible signal
									     (bell) (P)
       carriage_return			    cr		     cr 	     carriage return (P*)
       change_char_pitch		    cpi 	     ZA 	     Change number of
									     characters per inch
									     to #1
       change_line_pitch		    lpi 	     ZB 	     Change number of
									     lines per inch to #1
       change_res_horz			    chr 	     ZC 	     Change horizontal
									     resolution to #1
       change_res_vert			    cvr 	     ZD 	     Change vertical res-
									     olution to #1
       change_scroll_region		    csr 	     cs 	     change region to
									     line #1 to line #2
       char_padding			    rmp 	     rP 	     like ip but when in
									     insert mode
       clear_all_tabs			    tbc 	     ct 	     clear all tab stops
       clear_margins			    mgc 	     MC 	     clear right and left
									     soft margins
       clear_screen			    clear	     cl 	     clear screen and
									     home cursor (P*)
       clr_bol				    el1 	     cb 	     Clear to beginning
									     of line
       clr_eol				    el		     ce 	     clear to end of line
       clr_eos				    ed		     cd 	     clear to end of
									     screen (P*)
       column_address			    hpa 	     ch 	     horizontal position
									     #1, absolute (P)
       command_character		    cmdch	     CC 	     terminal settable
									     cmd character in
									     prototype !?
       create_window			    cwin	     CW 	     define a window #1
									     from #2,#3 to #4,#5
       cursor_address			    cup 	     cm 	     move to row #1 col-
									     umns #2
       cursor_down			    cud1	     do 	     down one line
       cursor_home			    home	     ho 	     home cursor (if no
       cursor_invisible 		    civis	     vi 	     make cursor invisi-
       cursor_left			    cub1	     le 	     move left one space
       cursor_mem_address		    mrcup	     CM 	     memory relative cur-
									     sor addressing, move
									     to row #1 columns #2

       cursor_normal			    cnorm	     ve 	     make cursor appear
									     normal (undo
       cursor_right			    cuf1	     nd 	     non-destructive
									     space (move right
									     one space)
       cursor_to_ll			    ll		     ll 	     last line, first
									     column (if no cup)
       cursor_up			    cuu1	     up 	     up one line
       cursor_visible			    cvvis	     vs 	     make cursor very
       define_char			    defc	     ZE 	     Define a character
									     #1, #2 dots wide,
									     descender #3
       delete_character 		    dch1	     dc 	     delete character
       delete_line			    dl1 	     dl 	     delete line (P*)
       dial_phone			    dial	     DI 	     dial number #1
       dis_status_line			    dsl 	     ds 	     disable status line
       display_clock			    dclk	     DK 	     display clock
       down_half_line			    hd		     hd 	     half a line down
       ena_acs				    enacs	     eA 	     enable alternate
									     char set
       enter_alt_charset_mode		    smacs	     as 	     start alternate
									     character set (P)
       enter_am_mode			    smam	     SA 	     turn on automatic
       enter_blink_mode 		    blink	     mb 	     turn on blinking
       enter_bold_mode			    bold	     md 	     turn on bold (extra
									     bright) mode
       enter_ca_mode			    smcup	     ti 	     string to start pro-
									     grams using cup
       enter_delete_mode		    smdc	     dm 	     enter delete mode
       enter_dim_mode			    dim 	     mh 	     turn on half-bright
       enter_doublewide_mode		    swidm	     ZF 	     Enter double-wide
       enter_draft_quality		    sdrfq	     ZG 	     Enter draft-quality
       enter_insert_mode		    smir	     im 	     enter insert mode
       enter_italics_mode		    sitm	     ZH 	     Enter italic mode
       enter_leftward_mode		    slm 	     ZI 	     Start leftward car-
									     riage motion
       enter_micro_mode 		    smicm	     ZJ 	     Start micro-motion
       enter_near_letter_quality	    snlq	     ZK 	     Enter NLQ mode
       enter_normal_quality		    snrmq	     ZL 	     Enter normal-quality
       enter_protected_mode		    prot	     mp 	     turn on protected
       enter_reverse_mode		    rev 	     mr 	     turn on reverse
									     video mode
       enter_secure_mode		    invis	     mk 	     turn on blank mode
									     (characters invisi-
       enter_shadow_mode		    sshm	     ZM 	     Enter shadow-print
       enter_standout_mode		    smso	     so 	     begin standout mode
       enter_subscript_mode		    ssubm	     ZN 	     Enter subscript mode
       enter_superscript_mode		    ssupm	     ZO 	     Enter superscript
       enter_underline_mode		    smul	     us 	     begin underline mode
       enter_upward_mode		    sum 	     ZP 	     Start upward car-
									     riage motion

       enter_xon_mode			    smxon	     SX 	     turn on xon/xoff
       erase_chars			    ech 	     ec 	     erase #1 characters
       exit_alt_charset_mode		    rmacs	     ae 	     end alternate char-
									     acter set (P)
       exit_am_mode			    rmam	     RA 	     turn off automatic
       exit_attribute_mode		    sgr0	     me 	     turn off all
       exit_ca_mode			    rmcup	     te 	     strings to end pro-
									     grams using cup
       exit_delete_mode 		    rmdc	     ed 	     end delete mode
       exit_doublewide_mode		    rwidm	     ZQ 	     End double-wide mode
       exit_insert_mode 		    rmir	     ei 	     exit insert mode
       exit_italics_mode		    ritm	     ZR 	     End italic mode
       exit_leftward_mode		    rlm 	     ZS 	     End left-motion mode
       exit_micro_mode			    rmicm	     ZT 	     End micro-motion
       exit_shadow_mode 		    rshm	     ZU 	     End shadow-print
       exit_standout_mode		    rmso	     se 	     exit standout mode
       exit_subscript_mode		    rsubm	     ZV 	     End subscript mode
       exit_superscript_mode		    rsupm	     ZW 	     End superscript mode
       exit_underline_mode		    rmul	     ue 	     exit underline mode
       exit_upward_mode 		    rum 	     ZX 	     End reverse charac-
									     ter motion
       exit_xon_mode			    rmxon	     RX 	     turn off xon/xoff
       fixed_pause			    pause	     PA 	     pause for 2-3 sec-
       flash_hook			    hook	     fh 	     flash switch hook
       flash_screen			    flash	     vb 	     visible bell (may
									     not move cursor)
       form_feed			    ff		     ff 	     hardcopy terminal
									     page eject (P*)
       from_status_line 		    fsl 	     fs 	     return from status
       goto_window			    wingo	     WG 	     go to window #1
       hangup				    hup 	     HU 	     hang-up phone
       init_1string			    is1 	     i1 	     initialization
       init_2string			    is2 	     is 	     initialization
       init_3string			    is3 	     i3 	     initialization
       init_file			    if		     if 	     name of initializa-
									     tion file
       init_prog			    iprog	     iP 	     path name of program
									     for initialization
       initialize_color 		    initc	     Ic 	     initialize color #1
									     to (#2,#3,#4)
       initialize_pair			    initp	     Ip 	     Initialize color
									     pair #1 to
       insert_character 		    ich1	     ic 	     insert character (P)
       insert_line			    il1 	     al 	     insert line (P*)
       insert_padding			    ip		     ip 	     insert padding after
									     inserted character
       key_a1				    ka1 	     K1 	     upper left of keypad
       key_a3				    ka3 	     K3 	     upper right of key-
       key_b2				    kb2 	     K2 	     center of keypad
       key_backspace			    kbs 	     kb 	     backspace key

       key_beg				    kbeg	     @1 	     begin key
       key_btab 			    kcbt	     kB 	     back-tab key
       key_c1				    kc1 	     K4 	     lower left of keypad
       key_c3				    kc3 	     K5 	     lower right of key-
       key_cancel			    kcan	     @2 	     cancel key
       key_catab			    ktbc	     ka 	     clear-all-tabs key
       key_clear			    kclr	     kC 	     clear-screen or
									     erase key
       key_close			    kclo	     @3 	     close key
       key_command			    kcmd	     @4 	     command key
       key_copy 			    kcpy	     @5 	     copy key
       key_create			    kcrt	     @6 	     create key
       key_ctab 			    kctab	     kt 	     clear-tab key
       key_dc				    kdch1	     kD 	     delete-character key
       key_dl				    kdl1	     kL 	     delete-line key
       key_down 			    kcud1	     kd 	     down-arrow key
       key_eic				    krmir	     kM 	     sent by rmir or smir
									     in insert mode
       key_end				    kend	     @7 	     end key
       key_enter			    kent	     @8 	     enter/send key
       key_eol				    kel 	     kE 	     clear-to-end-of-line
       key_eos				    ked 	     kS 	     clear-to-end-of-
									     screen key
       key_exit 			    kext	     @9 	     exit key
       key_f0				    kf0 	     k0 	     F0 function key
       key_f1				    kf1 	     k1 	     F1 function key
       key_f10				    kf10	     k; 	     F10 function key
       key_f11				    kf11	     F1 	     F11 function key
       key_f12				    kf12	     F2 	     F12 function key
       key_f13				    kf13	     F3 	     F13 function key
       key_f14				    kf14	     F4 	     F14 function key
       key_f15				    kf15	     F5 	     F15 function key
       key_f16				    kf16	     F6 	     F16 function key
       key_f17				    kf17	     F7 	     F17 function key
       key_f18				    kf18	     F8 	     F18 function key
       key_f19				    kf19	     F9 	     F19 function key
       key_f2				    kf2 	     k2 	     F2 function key
       key_f20				    kf20	     FA 	     F20 function key
       key_f21				    kf21	     FB 	     F21 function key
       key_f22				    kf22	     FC 	     F22 function key
       key_f23				    kf23	     FD 	     F23 function key
       key_f24				    kf24	     FE 	     F24 function key
       key_f25				    kf25	     FF 	     F25 function key
       key_f26				    kf26	     FG 	     F26 function key
       key_f27				    kf27	     FH 	     F27 function key
       key_f28				    kf28	     FI 	     F28 function key
       key_f29				    kf29	     FJ 	     F29 function key
       key_f3				    kf3 	     k3 	     F3 function key
       key_f30				    kf30	     FK 	     F30 function key
       key_f31				    kf31	     FL 	     F31 function key
       key_f32				    kf32	     FM 	     F32 function key
       key_f33				    kf33	     FN 	     F33 function key
       key_f34				    kf34	     FO 	     F34 function key
       key_f35				    kf35	     FP 	     F35 function key
       key_f36				    kf36	     FQ 	     F36 function key
       key_f37				    kf37	     FR 	     F37 function key
       key_f38				    kf38	     FS 	     F38 function key
       key_f39				    kf39	     FT 	     F39 function key
       key_f4				    kf4 	     k4 	     F4 function key
       key_f40				    kf40	     FU 	     F40 function key
       key_f41				    kf41	     FV 	     F41 function key
       key_f42				    kf42	     FW 	     F42 function key
       key_f43				    kf43	     FX 	     F43 function key

       key_f44				    kf44	     FY 	     F44 function key
       key_f45				    kf45	     FZ 	     F45 function key
       key_f46				    kf46	     Fa 	     F46 function key
       key_f47				    kf47	     Fb 	     F47 function key
       key_f48				    kf48	     Fc 	     F48 function key
       key_f49				    kf49	     Fd 	     F49 function key
       key_f5				    kf5 	     k5 	     F5 function key
       key_f50				    kf50	     Fe 	     F50 function key
       key_f51				    kf51	     Ff 	     F51 function key
       key_f52				    kf52	     Fg 	     F52 function key
       key_f53				    kf53	     Fh 	     F53 function key
       key_f54				    kf54	     Fi 	     F54 function key
       key_f55				    kf55	     Fj 	     F55 function key
       key_f56				    kf56	     Fk 	     F56 function key
       key_f57				    kf57	     Fl 	     F57 function key
       key_f58				    kf58	     Fm 	     F58 function key
       key_f59				    kf59	     Fn 	     F59 function key
       key_f6				    kf6 	     k6 	     F6 function key
       key_f60				    kf60	     Fo 	     F60 function key
       key_f61				    kf61	     Fp 	     F61 function key
       key_f62				    kf62	     Fq 	     F62 function key
       key_f63				    kf63	     Fr 	     F63 function key
       key_f7				    kf7 	     k7 	     F7 function key
       key_f8				    kf8 	     k8 	     F8 function key
       key_f9				    kf9 	     k9 	     F9 function key
       key_find 			    kfnd	     @0 	     find key
       key_help 			    khlp	     %1 	     help key
       key_home 			    khome	     kh 	     home key
       key_ic				    kich1	     kI 	     insert-character key
       key_il				    kil1	     kA 	     insert-line key
       key_left 			    kcub1	     kl 	     left-arrow key
       key_ll				    kll 	     kH 	     lower-left key (home
       key_mark 			    kmrk	     %2 	     mark key
       key_message			    kmsg	     %3 	     message key
       key_move 			    kmov	     %4 	     move key
       key_next 			    knxt	     %5 	     next key
       key_npage			    knp 	     kN 	     next-page key
       key_open 			    kopn	     %6 	     open key
       key_options			    kopt	     %7 	     options key
       key_ppage			    kpp 	     kP 	     previous-page key
       key_previous			    kprv	     %8 	     previous key
       key_print			    kprt	     %9 	     print key
       key_redo 			    krdo	     %0 	     redo key
       key_reference			    kref	     &1 	     reference key
       key_refresh			    krfr	     &2 	     refresh key
       key_replace			    krpl	     &3 	     replace key
       key_restart			    krst	     &4 	     restart key
       key_resume			    kres	     &5 	     resume key
       key_right			    kcuf1	     kr 	     right-arrow key
       key_save 			    ksav	     &6 	     save key
       key_sbeg 			    kBEG	     &9 	     shifted begin key
       key_scancel			    kCAN	     &0 	     shifted cancel key
       key_scommand			    kCMD	     *1 	     shifted command key
       key_scopy			    kCPY	     *2 	     shifted copy key
       key_screate			    kCRT	     *3 	     shifted create key
       key_sdc				    kDC 	     *4 	     shifted delete-char-
									     acter key
       key_sdl				    kDL 	     *5 	     shifted delete-line
       key_select			    kslt	     *6 	     select key
       key_send 			    kEND	     *7 	     shifted end key
       key_seol 			    kEOL	     *8 	     shifted clear-to-
									     end-of-line key
       key_sexit			    kEXT	     *9 	     shifted exit key

       key_sf				    kind	     kF 	     scroll-forward key
       key_sfind			    kFND	     *0 	     shifted find key
       key_shelp			    kHLP	     #1 	     shifted help key
       key_shome			    kHOM	     #2 	     shifted home key
       key_sic				    kIC 	     #3 	     shifted insert-char-
									     acter key
       key_sleft			    kLFT	     #4 	     shifted left-arrow
       key_smessage			    kMSG	     %a 	     shifted message key
       key_smove			    kMOV	     %b 	     shifted move key
       key_snext			    kNXT	     %c 	     shifted next key
       key_soptions			    kOPT	     %d 	     shifted options key
       key_sprevious			    kPRV	     %e 	     shifted previous key
       key_sprint			    kPRT	     %f 	     shifted print key
       key_sr				    kri 	     kR 	     scroll-backward key
       key_sredo			    kRDO	     %g 	     shifted redo key
       key_sreplace			    kRPL	     %h 	     shifted replace key
       key_sright			    kRIT	     %i 	     shifted right-arrow
       key_srsume			    kRES	     %j 	     shifted resume key
       key_ssave			    kSAV	     !1 	     shifted save key
       key_ssuspend			    kSPD	     !2 	     shifted suspend key
       key_stab 			    khts	     kT 	     set-tab key
       key_sundo			    kUND	     !3 	     shifted undo key
       key_suspend			    kspd	     &7 	     suspend key
       key_undo 			    kund	     &8 	     undo key
       key_up				    kcuu1	     ku 	     up-arrow key
       keypad_local			    rmkx	     ke 	     leave 'key-
									     board_transmit' mode
       keypad_xmit			    smkx	     ks 	     enter 'key-
									     board_transmit' mode
       lab_f0				    lf0 	     l0 	     label on function
									     key f0 if not f0
       lab_f1				    lf1 	     l1 	     label on function
									     key f1 if not f1
       lab_f10				    lf10	     la 	     label on function
									     key f10 if not f10
       lab_f2				    lf2 	     l2 	     label on function
									     key f2 if not f2
       lab_f3				    lf3 	     l3 	     label on function
									     key f3 if not f3
       lab_f4				    lf4 	     l4 	     label on function
									     key f4 if not f4
       lab_f5				    lf5 	     l5 	     label on function
									     key f5 if not f5
       lab_f6				    lf6 	     l6 	     label on function
									     key f6 if not f6
       lab_f7				    lf7 	     l7 	     label on function
									     key f7 if not f7
       lab_f8				    lf8 	     l8 	     label on function
									     key f8 if not f8
       lab_f9				    lf9 	     l9 	     label on function
									     key f9 if not f9
       label_format			    fln 	     Lf 	     label format
       label_off			    rmln	     LF 	     turn off soft labels
       label_on 			    smln	     LO 	     turn on soft labels
       meta_off 			    rmm 	     mo 	     turn off meta mode
       meta_on				    smm 	     mm 	     turn on meta mode
									     (8th-bit on)
       micro_column_address		    mhpa	     ZY 	     Like column_address
									     in micro mode
       micro_down			    mcud1	     ZZ 	     Like cursor_down in
									     micro mode
       micro_left			    mcub1	     Za 	     Like cursor_left in
									     micro mode

       micro_right			    mcuf1	     Zb 	     Like cursor_right in
									     micro mode
       micro_row_address		    mvpa	     Zc 	     Like row_address #1
									     in micro mode
       micro_up 			    mcuu1	     Zd 	     Like cursor_up in
									     micro mode
       newline				    nel 	     nw 	     newline (behave like
									     cr followed by lf)
       order_of_pins			    porder	     Ze 	     Match software bits
									     to print-head pins
       orig_colors			    oc		     oc 	     Set all color pairs
									     to the original ones
       orig_pair			    op		     op 	     Set default pair to
									     its original value
       pad_char 			    pad 	     pc 	     padding char
									     (instead of null)
       parm_dch 			    dch 	     DC 	     delete #1 characters
       parm_delete_line 		    dl		     DL 	     delete #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_cursor 		    cud 	     DO 	     down #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_micro			    mcud	     Zf 	     Like parm_down_cur-
									     sor in micro mode
       parm_ich 			    ich 	     IC 	     insert #1 characters
       parm_index			    indn	     SF 	     scroll forward #1
									     lines (P)
       parm_insert_line 		    il		     AL 	     insert #1 lines (P*)
       parm_left_cursor 		    cub 	     LE 	     move #1 characters
									     to the left (P)
       parm_left_micro			    mcub	     Zg 	     Like parm_left_cur-
									     sor in micro mode
       parm_right_cursor		    cuf 	     RI 	     move #1 characters
									     to the right (P*)
       parm_right_micro 		    mcuf	     Zh 	     Like parm_right_cur-
									     sor in micro mode
       parm_rindex			    rin 	     SR 	     scroll back #1 lines
       parm_up_cursor			    cuu 	     UP 	     up #1 lines (P*)
       parm_up_micro			    mcuu	     Zi 	     Like parm_up_cursor
									     in micro mode
       pkey_key 			    pfkey	     pk 	     program function key
									     #1 to type string #2
       pkey_local			    pfloc	     pl 	     program function key
									     #1 to execute string
       pkey_xmit			    pfx 	     px 	     program function key
									     #1 to transmit
									     string #2
       plab_norm			    pln 	     pn 	     program label #1 to
									     show string #2
       print_screen			    mc0 	     ps 	     print contents of
       prtr_non 			    mc5p	     pO 	     turn on printer for
									     #1 bytes
       prtr_off 			    mc4 	     pf 	     turn off printer
       prtr_on				    mc5 	     po 	     turn on printer
       pulse				    pulse	     PU 	     select pulse dialing
       quick_dial			    qdial	     QD 	     dial number #1 with-
									     out checking
       remove_clock			    rmclk	     RC 	     remove clock
       repeat_char			    rep 	     rp 	     repeat char #1 #2
									     times (P*)
       req_for_input			    rfi 	     RF 	     send next input char
									     (for ptys)
       reset_1string			    rs1 	     r1 	     reset string

       reset_2string			    rs2 	     r2 	     reset string
       reset_3string			    rs3 	     r3 	     reset string
       reset_file			    rf		     rf 	     name of reset file
       restore_cursor			    rc		     rc 	     restore cursor to
									     position of last
       row_address			    vpa 	     cv 	     vertical position #1
									     absolute (P)
       save_cursor			    sc		     sc 	     save current cursor
									     position (P)
       scroll_forward			    ind 	     sf 	     scroll text up (P)
       scroll_reverse			    ri		     sr 	     scroll text down (P)
       select_char_set			    scs 	     Zj 	     Select character
									     set, #1
       set_attributes			    sgr 	     sa 	     define video
									     attributes #1-#9
       set_background			    setb	     Sb 	     Set background color
       set_bottom_margin		    smgb	     Zk 	     Set bottom margin at
									     current line
       set_bottom_margin_parm		    smgbp	     Zl 	     Set bottom margin at
									     line #1 or (if smgtp
									     is not given) #2
									     lines from bottom
       set_clock			    sclk	     SC 	     set clock, #1 hrs #2
									     mins #3 secs
       set_color_pair			    scp 	     sp 	     Set current color
									     pair to #1
       set_foreground			    setf	     Sf 	     Set foreground color
       set_left_margin			    smgl	     ML 	     set left soft margin
									     at current col-
									     umn.      See smgl.
									     (ML is not in BSD
       set_left_margin_parm		    smglp	     Zm 	     Set left (right)
									     margin at column #1
       set_right_margin 		    smgr	     MR 	     set right soft mar-
									     gin at current col-
       set_right_margin_parm		    smgrp	     Zn 	     Set right margin at
									     column #1
       set_tab				    hts 	     st 	     set a tab in every
									     row, current columns
       set_top_margin			    smgt	     Zo 	     Set top margin at
									     current line
       set_top_margin_parm		    smgtp	     Zp 	     Set top (bottom)
									     margin at row #1
       set_window			    wind	     wi 	     current window is
									     lines #1-#2 cols
       start_bit_image			    sbim	     Zq 	     Start printing bit
									     image graphics
       start_char_set_def		    scsd	     Zr 	     Start character set
									     definition #1, with
									     #2 characters in the
       stop_bit_image			    rbim	     Zs 	     Stop printing bit
									     image graphics
       stop_char_set_def		    rcsd	     Zt 	     End definition of
									     character set #1
       subscript_characters		    subcs	     Zu 	     List of subscript-
									     able characters

       superscript_characters		    supcs	     Zv 	     List of superscript-
									     able characters
       tab				    ht		     ta 	     tab to next 8-space
									     hardware tab stop
       these_cause_cr			    docr	     Zw 	     Printing any of
									     these characters
									     causes CR
       to_status_line			    tsl 	     ts 	     move to status line,
									     column #1
       tone				    tone	     TO 	     select touch tone
       underline_char			    uc		     uc 	     underline char and
									     move past it
       up_half_line			    hu		     hu 	     half a line up
       user0				    u0		     u0 	     User string #0
       user1				    u1		     u1 	     User string #1
       user2				    u2		     u2 	     User string #2
       user3				    u3		     u3 	     User string #3
       user4				    u4		     u4 	     User string #4
       user5				    u5		     u5 	     User string #5
       user6				    u6		     u6 	     User string #6
       user7				    u7		     u7 	     User string #7
       user8				    u8		     u8 	     User string #8
       user9				    u9		     u9 	     User string #9
       wait_tone			    wait	     WA 	     wait for dial-tone
       xoff_character			    xoffc	     XF 	     XOFF character
       xon_character			    xonc	     XN 	     XON character
       zero_motion			    zerom	     Zx 	     No motion for subse-
									     quent character

       The following string capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term structure, but were orig-
       inally not documented in the man page.

	       Variable 		    Cap-	       TCap		  Description
		String			    name	       Code
       alt_scancode_esc 		    scesa	       S8	       Alternate escape
									       for scancode emu-
       bit_image_carriage_return	    bicr	       Yv	       Move to beginning
									       of same row
       bit_image_newline		    binel	       Zz	       Move to next row
									       of the bit image
       bit_image_repeat 		    birep	       Xy	       Repeat bit image
									       cell #1 #2 times
       char_set_names			    csnm	       Zy	       Produce #1'th item
									       from list of char-
									       acter set names
       code_set_init			    csin	       ci	       Init sequence for
									       multiple codesets
       color_names			    colornm	       Yw	       Give name for
									       color #1
       define_bit_image_region		    defbi	       Yx	       Define rectan-
									       gualar bit image
       device_type			    devt	       dv	       Indicate lan-
									       guage/codeset sup-
       display_pc_char			    dispc	       S1	       Display PC charac-
									       ter #1
       end_bit_image_region		    endbi	       Yy	       End a bit-image
       enter_pc_charset_mode		    smpch	       S2	       Enter PC character
									       display mode

       enter_scancode_mode		    smsc	       S4	       Enter PC scancode
       exit_pc_charset_mode		    rmpch	       S3	       Exit PC character
									       display mode
       exit_scancode_mode		    rmsc	       S5	       Exit PC scancode
       get_mouse			    getm	       Gm	       Curses should get
									       button events,
									       parameter #1 not
       key_mouse			    kmous	       Km	       Mouse event has
       mouse_info			    minfo	       Mi	       Mouse status
       pc_term_options			    pctrm	       S6	       PC terminal
       pkey_plab			    pfxl	       xl	       Program function
									       key #1 to type
									       string #2 and show
									       string #3
       req_mouse_pos			    reqmp	       RQ	       Request mouse
       scancode_escape			    scesc	       S7	       Escape for scan-
									       code emulation
       set0_des_seq			    s0ds	       s0	       Shift to codeset 0
									       (EUC set 0, ASCII)
       set1_des_seq			    s1ds	       s1	       Shift to codeset 1
       set2_des_seq			    s2ds	       s2	       Shift to codeset 2
       set3_des_seq			    s3ds	       s3	       Shift to codeset 3
       set_a_background 		    setab	       AB	       Set background
									       color to #1, using
									       ANSI escape
       set_a_foreground 		    setaf	       AF	       Set foreground
									       color to #1, using
									       ANSI escape
       set_color_band			    setcolor	       Yz	       Change to ribbon
									       color #1
       set_lr_margin			    smglr	       ML	       Set both left and
									       right margins to
									       #1, #2.	(ML is
									       not in BSD term-
       set_page_length			    slines	       YZ	       Set page length to
									       #1 lines
       set_tb_margin			    smgtb	       MT	       Sets both top and
									       bottom margins to
									       #1, #2

	The XSI Curses standard added these.  They are some post-4.1 versions of System V curses,
	e.g., Solaris 2.5 and IRIX 6.x.  The ncurses termcap names for them are invented; accord-
	ing to the XSI Curses standard, they have no termcap names.  If  your  compiled  terminfo
	entries use these, they may not be binary-compatible with System V terminfo entries after
	SVr4.1; beware!

		Variable		    Cap-	      TCap		 Description
		 String 		    name	      Code
	enter_horizontal_hl_mode	    ehhlm	      Xh	     Enter horizontal
									     highlight mode
	enter_left_hl_mode		    elhlm	      Xl	     Enter left highlight
	enter_low_hl_mode		    elohlm	      Xo	     Enter low highlight
	enter_right_hl_mode		    erhlm	      Xr	     Enter right high-
									     light mode

	enter_top_hl_mode		    ethlm	      Xt	     Enter top highlight
	enter_vertical_hl_mode		    evhlm	      Xv	     Enter vertical high-
									     light mode
	set_a_attributes		    sgr1	      sA	     Define second set of
									     video attributes
	set_pglen_inch			    slength	      sL	     YI Set page length
									     to #1 hundredth of
									     an inch

   A Sample Entry
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is  representative  of  what	a
       terminfo entry for a modern terminal typically looks like.

     ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
	     colors#8, ncv#3, pairs#64,
	     cub=\E[%p1%dD, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cuf=\E[%p1%dC,
	     cuu=\E[%p1%dA, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dl=\E[%p1%dM,
	     ech=\E[%p1%dX, el1=\E[1K, hpa=\E[%p1%dG, ht=\E[I,
	     ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, indn=\E[%p1%dS, .indn=\E[%p1%dT,
	     kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D, kcud1=\E[B,
	     kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, kf1=\E[M, kf10=\E[V,
	     kf11=\E[W, kf12=\E[X, kf2=\E[N, kf3=\E[O, kf4=\E[P,
	     kf5=\E[Q, kf6=\E[R, kf7=\E[S, kf8=\E[T, kf9=\E[U,
	     kich1=\E[L, mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S,
	     op=\E[37;40m, rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db,
	     rin=\E[%p1%dT, s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B,
	     s3ds=\E+B, setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
	     sgr0=\E[0;10m, tbc=\E[2g, u6=\E[%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
	     u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%p1%dd,

       Entries	may  continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at the beginning of each
       line except the first.  Comments may be included on lines beginning with ``#''.	Capabili-
       ties in terminfo are of three types: Boolean capabilities which indicate that the terminal
       has some particular feature, numeric capabilities giving the size of the terminal  or  the
       size  of  particular  delays,  and string capabilities, which give a sequence which can be
       used to perform particular terminal operations.

   Types of Capabilities
       All capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact  that  ANSI-standard  terminals  have
       automatic  margins  (i.e.,  an  automatic  return  and line-feed when the end of a line is
       reached) is indicated by the capability am.  Hence the description of  ansi  includes  am.
       Numeric	capabilities  are  followed by the character `#' and then a positive value.  Thus
       cols, which indicates the number of columns the terminal has, gives  the  value	`80'  for
       ansi.   Values for numeric capabilities may be specified in decimal, octal or hexadecimal,
       using the C programming language conventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally, string valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end of line sequence) are  given
       by the two-character code, an `=', and then a string ending at the next following `,'.

       A  number  of  escape  sequences  are  provided in the string valued capabilities for easy
       encoding of characters there.  Both \E and \e map to an ESCAPE character,  ^x  maps  to	a
       control-x  for  any  appropriate x, and the sequences \n \l \r \t \b \f \s give a newline,
       line-feed, return, tab, backspace, form-feed, and space.  Other escapes include \^ for  ^,
       \\  for \, \, for comma, \: for :, and \0 for null.  (\0 will produce \200, which does not
       terminate a string but behaves as a null character on most  terminals,  providing  CS7  is
       specified.   See stty(1).)  Finally, characters may be given as three octal digits after a

       A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere in a  string  capability,  enclosed	in  $<..>
       brackets,  as  in el=\EK$<5>, and padding characters are supplied by tputs to provide this
       delay.  The delay must be a number with at most one decimal place of precision; it may  be
       followed  by  suffixes  `*'  or '/' or both.  A `*' indicates that the padding required is
       proportional to the number of lines affected by the operation, and the amount given is the
       per-affected-unit padding required.  (In the case of insert character, the factor is still
       the number of lines affected.)  Normally, padding is advisory if the device  has  the  xon
       capability;  it	is  used  for cost computation but does not trigger delays.  A `/' suffix
       indicates that the padding is mandatory and forces a delay of the  given  number  of  mil-
       liseconds even on devices for which xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes  individual capabilities must be commented out.  To do this, put a period before
       the capability name.  For example, see the second ind in the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       If the environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is interpreted as the pathname of a direc-
       tory  containing  the  compiled	description  you  are working on.  Only that directory is

       If TERMINFO is not set, the ncurses version of the terminfo reader code will instead  look
       in  the	directory  $HOME/.terminfo  for  a compiled description.  If it fails to find one
       there, and the environment variable TERMINFO_DIRS is set, it will interpret  the  contents
       of  that variable as a list of colon- separated directories to be searched (an empty entry
       is interpreted as a command to search /usr/share/terminfo).  If no description is found in
       any of the TERMINFO_DIRS directories, the fetch fails.

       If neither TERMINFO nor TERMINFO_DIRS is set, the last place tried will be the system ter-
       minfo directory, /usr/share/terminfo.

       (Neither the $HOME/.terminfo lookups nor  TERMINFO_DIRS	extensions  are  supported  under
       stock System V terminfo/curses.)

   Preparing Descriptions
       We  now	outline how to prepare descriptions of terminals.  The most effective way to pre-
       pare a terminal description is by imitating the description of a similar terminal in  ter-
       minfo  and to build up a description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or some
       other screen-oriented program to check that they  are  correct.	 Be  aware  that  a  very
       unusual	terminal  may expose deficiencies in the ability of the terminfo file to describe
       it or bugs in the screen-handling code of the test program.

       To get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal manufacturer  did  not  document
       it)  a  severe  test  is to edit a large file at 9600 baud, delete 16 or so lines from the
       middle of the screen, then hit the `u' key several times quickly.  If the terminal  messes
       up, more padding is usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
       The  number of columns on each line for the terminal is given by the cols numeric capabil-
       ity.  If the terminal is a CRT, then the number of lines on the screen  is  given  by  the
       lines  capability.  If the terminal wraps around to the beginning of the next line when it
       reaches the right margin, then it should have the am  capability.   If  the  terminal  can
       clear its screen, leaving the cursor in the home position, then this is given by the clear
       string capability.  If the terminal overstrikes (rather than clearing a	position  when	a
       character  is  struck  over)  then it should have the os capability.  If the terminal is a
       printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os applies to storage
       scope  terminals,  such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as well as hard copy and APL terminals.)
       If there is a code to move the cursor to the left edge of the current row,  give  this  as
       cr.  (Normally this will be carriage return, control M.)  If there is a code to produce an
       audible signal (bell, beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such  as  backspace)  that
       capability  should  be given as cub1.  Similarly, codes to move to the right, up, and down
       should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and cud1.  These local cursor motions should not alter  the
       text  they  pass  over, for example, you would not normally use `cuf1= ' because the space
       would erase the character moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in terminfo are unde-
       fined  at  the  left  and  top  edges of a CRT terminal.  Programs should never attempt to
       backspace around the left edge, unless bw is given, and never attempt to go up locally off
       the  top.   In order to scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner of the
       screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To scroll text down, a program goes to the top left corner of the screen and sends the  ri
       (reverse index) string.	The strings ind and ri are undefined when not on their respective
       corners of the screen.

       Parameterized versions of the scrolling sequences are indn and rin  which  have	the  same
       semantics  as  ind and ri except that they take one parameter, and scroll that many lines.
       They are also undefined except at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge  of	the  screen  when
       text  is  output, but this does not necessarily apply to a cuf1 from the last column.  The
       only local motion which is defined from the left edge is if bw is given, then a cub1  from
       the  left  edge	will move to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is not given, the
       effect is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box around the edge of the screen,  for
       example.   If the terminal has switch selectable automatic margins, the terminfo file usu-
       ally assumes that this is on; i.e., am.	If the terminal has a command which moves to  the
       first  column  of  the next line, that command can be given as nel (newline).  It does not
       matter if the command clears the remainder of the current line, so if the terminal has  no
       cr and lf it may still be possible to craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

       These  capabilities  suffice  to  describe  hard-copy and "glass-tty" terminals.  Thus the
       model 33 teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
	    bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
	    am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
	    ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the terminal are described  by
       a  parameterized string capability, with printf(3) like escapes %x in it.  For example, to
       address the cursor, the cup capability is given, using two parameters: the row and  column
       to  address to.	(Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to the physical screen
       visible to the user, not to any unseen memory.)	If the terminal has memory relative  cur-
       sor addressing, that can be indicated by mrcup.

       The  parameter  mechanism  uses a stack and special % codes to manipulate it.  Typically a
       sequence will push one of the parameters onto the stack and then print it in some  format.
       Print  (e.g., "%d") is a special case.  Other operations, including "%t" pop their operand
       from the stack.	It is noted that more complex operations are often  necessary,	e.g.,  in
       the sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

       %%   outputs `%'

	    as in printf, flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a `:' to allow the next character to be
	    a `-' flag, avoiding interpreting "%-" as an operator.

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

	    push i'th parameter

	    set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

	    get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

	    set static variable [a-z] to pop()

	    get static variable [a-z] and push it

	    The terms "static" and "dynamic" are misleading.  Historically, these are simply  two
	    different sets of variables, whose values are not reset between calls to tparm.  How-
	    ever, that fact is not documented in  other  implementations.   Relying  on  it  will
	    adversely impact portability to other implementations.

       %'c' char constant c

	    integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+ %- %* %/ %m
	    arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %& %| %^
	    bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

       %= %> %<
	    logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
	    logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %! %~
	    unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
	    This  forms  an if-then-else.  The %e elsepart is optional.  Usually the %? expr part
	    pushes a value onto the stack, and %t pops it  from  the  stack,  testing  if  it  is
	    nonzero (true).  If it is zero (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

	    It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
	    %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

	    where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

	    Use  the  -f  option  of tic or infocmp to see the structure of if-then-else's.  Some
	    strings, e.g., sgr can be very complicated when written on one line.  The  -f  option
	    splits the string into lines with the parts indented.

       Binary  operations  are in postfix form with the operands in the usual order.  That is, to
       get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g  variables  are  persistent  across  escape-
       string evaluations.

       Consider  the  HP2645,  which,  to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to be sent \E&a12c03Y
       padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order of the rows and columns is inverted  here,
       and  that  the  row  and  column  are  printed  as two digits.  Thus its cup capability is

       The Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded by a ^T, with the  row
       and column simply encoded in binary, "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c".  Terminals which use "%c" need to
       be able to backspace the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up one line on  the  screen
       (cuu1).	 This is necessary because it is not always safe to transmit \n ^D and \r, as the
       system may change or discard them.  (The library routines dealing with  terminfo  set  tty
       modes so that tabs are never expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This turns out to be essen-
       tial for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset by a blank  character,
       thus  "cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c".  After sending `\E=', this pushes the first parame-
       ter, pushes the ASCII value for a space(32), adds them (pushing the sum on the	stack  in
       place of the two previous values) and outputs that value as a character.  Then the same is
       done for the second parameter.  More complex arithmetic is possible using the stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left  corner  of  screen)
       then  this  can	be  given as home; similarly a fast way of getting to the lower left-hand
       corner can be given as ll; this may involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but
       a  program  should never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no assumption
       about the effect of moving up from the home position.  Note that the home position is  the
       same  as addressing to (0,0): to the top left corner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus,
       the \EH sequence on HP terminals cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can be given as single
       parameter capabilities hpa (horizontal position absolute) and vpa (vertical position abso-
       lute).  Sometimes these are shorter than the more general two parameter sequence (as  with
       the  hp2645)  and  can  be  used  in  preference to cup.  If there are parameterized local
       motions (e.g., move n spaces to the right) these can be given as cud, cub,  cuf,  and  cuu
       with a single parameter indicating how many spaces to move.  These are primarily useful if
       the terminal does not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If the terminal needs to be in a special mode when running a program that uses these capa-
       bilities,  the  codes  to  enter and exit this mode can be given as smcup and rmcup.  This
       arises, for example, from terminals like the Concept with more than one	page  of  memory.
       If  the terminal has only memory relative cursor addressing and not screen relative cursor
       addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the terminal for cursor  address-
       ing to work properly.  This is also used for the TEKTRONIX 4025, where smcup sets the com-
       mand character to be the one used by terminfo.  If the smcup sequence will not restore the
       screen after an rmcup sequence is output (to the state prior to outputting rmcup), specify

   Area Clears
       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the  line,  leaving  the
       cursor where it is, this should be given as el.	If the terminal can clear from the begin-
       ning of the line to the current position inclusive, leaving the cursor where it	is,  this
       should be given as el1.	If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of
       the display, then this should be given as ed.  Ed is only defined from the first column of
       a  line.   (Thus, it can be simulated by a request to delete a large number of lines, if a
       true ed is not available.)

   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If the terminal can open a new blank line before the line where the cursor is, this should
       be  given  as  il1;  this is done only from the first position of a line.  The cursor must
       then appear on the newly blank line.  If the terminal can delete the line which the cursor
       is  on, then this should be given as dl1; this is done only from the first position on the
       line to be deleted.  Versions of il1 and dl1 which take a single parameter and  insert  or
       delete that many lines can be given as il and dl.

       If  the	terminal has a settable scrolling region (like the vt100) the command to set this
       can be described with the csr capability, which takes two parameters: the top  and  bottom
       lines  of  the scrolling region.  The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this

       It is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using csr on a  properly  chosen
       region;	the  sc and rc (save and restore cursor) commands may be useful for ensuring that
       your  synthesized  insert/delete  string  does  not  move  the  cursor.	 (Note	that  the
       ncurses(3NCURSES)  library  does  this  synthesis  automatically,  so you need not compose
       insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a combination of index with
       the  memory-lock feature found on some terminals (like the HP-700/90 series, which however
       also has insert/delete).

       Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen can also be done using  ri  or  ind  on
       many  terminals	without  a true insert/delete line, and is often faster even on terminals
       with those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set if each scrolling window is effectively a
       view  port  on  a  screen-sized	canvas.   To test for this capability, create a scrolling
       region in the middle of the screen, write something to the bottom line, move the cursor to
       the  top  of  the  region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled off the
       bottom of the region by the ri re-appears, then scrolling is  non-destructive.	System	V
       and  XSI  Curses  expect  that ind, ri, indn, and rin will simulate destructive scrolling;
       their documentation cautions you not to define csr  unless  this  is  true.   This  curses
       implementation  is  more  liberal  and will do explicit erases after scrolling if ndstr is

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part of memory, which  all  commands
       affect,	it should be given as the parameterized string wind.  The four parameters are the
       starting and ending lines in memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that

       If  the	terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability should be given;
       if display memory can be retained below, then db should be  given.   These  indicate  that
       deleting  a  line  or  scrolling may bring non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling
       back with ri may bring down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals with respect to insert/delete character
       which can be described using terminfo.  The most common insert/delete character operations
       affect only the characters on the current line and shift characters off	the  end  of  the
       line  rigidly.	Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer Owl, make a
       distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the screen, shifting  upon  an  insert  or
       delete  only  to an untyped blank on the screen which is either eliminated, or expanded to
       two untyped blanks.  You can determine the kind of  terminal  you  have	by  clearing  the
       screen  and  then  typing text separated by cursor motions.  Type "abc	 def" using local
       cursor motions (not spaces) between the "abc" and the "def".   Then  position  the  cursor
       before  the  "abc"  and	put the terminal in insert mode.  If typing characters causes the
       rest of the line to shift rigidly and characters to fall off the end, then  your  terminal
       does  not  distinguish  between blanks and untyped positions.  If the "abc" shifts over to
       the "def" which then move together around the end of the current line and onto the next as
       you insert, you have the second type of terminal, and should give the capability in, which
       stands for "insert null".  While these are two logically  separate  attributes  (one  line
       versus  multi-line  insert  mode, and special treatment of untyped spaces) we have seen no
       terminals whose insert mode cannot be described with the single attribute.

       Terminfo can describe both terminals which have an insert mode, and terminals which send a
       simple  sequence  to open a blank position on the current line.	Give as smir the sequence
       to get into insert mode.  Give as rmir the sequence to leave insert  mode.   Now  give  as
       ich1  any  sequence  needed  to	be sent just before sending the character to be inserted.
       Most terminals with a true insert mode will not give ich1; terminals which send a sequence
       to open a screen position should give it here.

       If  your  terminal  has both, insert mode is usually preferable to ich1.  Technically, you
       should not give both unless the terminal actually requires both to be used in combination.
       Accordingly, some non-curses applications get confused if both are present; the symptom is
       doubled characters in an update using insert.  This requirement	is  now  rare;	most  ich
       sequences  do  not  require  previous smir, and most smir insert modes do not require ich1
       before each character.  Therefore, the new curses actually assumes this is  the	case  and
       uses  either rmir/smir or ich/ich1 as appropriate (but not both).  If you have to write an
       entry to be used under new curses for a terminal old enough  to	need  both,  include  the
       rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If  post  insert  padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds in ip (a string
       option).  Any other sequence which may need to be sent after an insert of a single charac-
       ter  may  also  be  given in ip.  If your terminal needs both to be placed into an `insert
       mode' and a special code to precede each inserted character, then both smir/rmir and  ich1
       can  be	given,	and  both  will be used.  The ich capability, with one parameter, n, will
       repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

       If padding is necessary between characters typed while not in insert mode, give this as	a
       number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It  is  occasionally necessary to move around while in insert mode to delete characters on
       the same line (e.g., if there is a tab after the insertion position).   If  your  terminal
       allows  motion  while in insert mode you can give the capability mir to speed up inserting
       in this case.  Omitting mir will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably  Datamedia's)
       must not have mir because of the way their insert mode works.

       Finally,  you can specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch with one parameter, n, to
       delete n characters, and delete mode by giving smdc and rmdc to enter and exit delete mode
       (any mode the terminal needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A command to erase n characters (equivalent to outputting n blanks without moving the cur-
       sor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can be represented  in
       a  number  of different ways.  You should choose one display form as standout mode, repre-
       senting a good, high contrast, easy-on-the-eyes, format for  highlighting  error  messages
       and  other  attention  getters.	 (If you have a choice, reverse video plus half-bright is
       good, or reverse video alone.)  The sequences to enter and exit standout mode are given as
       smso  and  rmso,  respectively.	If the code to change into or out of standout mode leaves
       one or even two blank spaces on the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do,	then  xmc
       should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and rmul respectively.
       If the terminal has a code to underline the current character  and  move  the  cursor  one
       space to the right, such as the Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other capabilities to enter various highlighting modes include blink (blinking) bold (bold
       or extra bright) dim (dim or half-bright) invis (blanking or invisible  text)  prot  (pro-
       tected)	rev  (reverse  video)  sgr0 (turn off all attribute modes) smacs (enter alternate
       character set mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character set  mode).   Turning  on  any  of
       these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If there is a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of modes, this should be given as sgr
       (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each parameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the cor-
       responding  attribute  is on or off.  The 9 parameters are, in order: standout, underline,
       reverse, blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate character set.  Not all modes need be
       supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding separate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

			tparm parameter      attribute	      escape sequence

			none		     none	      \E[0m
			p1		     standout	      \E[0;1;7m
			p2		     underline	      \E[0;4m
			p3		     reverse	      \E[0;7m
			p4		     blink	      \E[0;5m
			p5		     dim	      not available
			p6		     bold	      \E[0;1m
			p7		     invis	      \E[0;8m
			p8		     protect	      not used
			p9		     altcharset       ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We  begin  each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes, since there is no quick
       way to determine whether they are active.  Standout is set up to  be  the  combination  of
       reverse	and  bold.  The vt220 terminal has a protect mode, though it is not commonly used
       in sgr because it protects characters  on  the  screen  from  the  host's  erasures.   The
       altcharset  mode  also is different in that it is either ^O or ^N, depending on whether it
       is off or on.  If all modes are turned on, the resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is output when either p1 or
       p3 is true, that is, if either standout or reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields

		     sequence		  when to output      terminfo translation

		     \E[0		  always	      \E[0
		     ;1 		  if p1 or p6	      %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
		     ;4 		  if p2 	      %?%p2%|%t;4%;
		     ;5 		  if p4 	      %?%p4%|%t;5%;
		     ;7 		  if p1 or p3	      %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
		     ;8 		  if p7 	      %?%p7%|%t;8%;
		     m			  always	      m
		     ^N or ^O		  if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember  that if you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.  Also, some implementations
       rely on sgr being given if sgr0 is, Not all  terminfo  entries  necessarily  have  an  sgr
       string, however.  Many terminfo entries are derived from termcap entries which have no sgr
       string.	The only drawback to adding an sgr string is that termcap also assumes that  sgr0
       does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals  with	the  ``magic  cookie'' glitch (xmc) deposit special ``cookies'' when they
       receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the  display  algorithm  rather  than  having
       extra  bits  for each character.  Some terminals, such as the HP 2621, automatically leave
       standout mode when they move to a new line or the cursor  is  addressed.   Programs  using
       standout  mode  should  exit  standout mode before moving the cursor or sending a newline,
       unless the msgr capability, asserting that it  is  safe	to  move  in  standout	mode,  is

       If  the	terminal  has  a  way of flashing the screen to indicate an error quietly (a bell
       replacement) then this can be given as flash; it must not move the cursor.

       If the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is not on the bottom  line
       (to  make,  for example, a non-blinking underline into an easier to find block or blinking
       underline) give this sequence as cvvis.	If there is a way to make the  cursor  completely
       invisible,  give  that  as  civis.   The capability cnorm should be given which undoes the
       effects of both of these modes.

       If your terminal correctly generates underlined characters (with no special codes  needed)
       even  though it does not overstrike, then you should give the capability ul.  If a charac-
       ter overstriking another leaves both characters on the screen, specify the capability  os.
       If overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
       If the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are pressed, this informa-
       tion can be given.  Note that it is not possible to handle terminals where the keypad only
       works  in local (this applies, for example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad
       can be set to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as smkx and rmkx.  Otherwise  the
       keypad  is  assumed to always transmit.	The codes sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up
       arrow, down arrow, and home keys can be given as kcub1, kcuf1,  kcuu1,  kcud1,  and  khome
       respectively.   If  there  are function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the codes they send
       can be given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these keys have labels other than the default  f0
       through	f10,  the  labels  can be given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.  The codes transmitted by
       certain other special keys can be given: kll (home down), kbs (backspace), ktbc (clear all
       tabs),  kctab (clear the tab stop in this column), kclr (clear screen or erase key), kdch1
       (delete character), kdl1 (delete line), krmir (exit insert mode), kel  (clear  to  end  of
       line),  ked  (clear to end of screen), kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode), kil1
       (insert line), knp (next page), kpp  (previous  page),  kind  (scroll  forward/down),  kri
       (scroll	backward/up),  khts  (set a tab stop in this column).  In addition, if the keypad
       has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the four arrow keys, the other five keys can be given
       as ka1, ka3, kb2, kc1, and kc3.	These keys are useful when the effects of a 3 by 3 direc-
       tional pad are needed.

       Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.	A string to  pro-
       gram  screen  labels  should be specified as pln.  Each of these strings takes two parame-
       ters: the function key number to program (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.
       Function  key numbers out of this range may program undefined keys in a terminal dependent
       manner.	The difference between the capabilities is that pfkey causes pressing  the  given
       key to be the same as the user typing the given string; pfloc causes the string to be exe-
       cuted by the terminal in local; and pfx causes the string to be transmitted  to	the  com-

       The capabilities nlab, lw and lh define the number of programmable screen labels and their
       width and height.  If there are commands to turn the labels on and off, give them in  smln
       and  rmln.   smln is normally output after one or more pln sequences to make sure that the
       change becomes visible.

   Tabs and Initialization
       If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to the  next  tab  stop  can  be
       given  as ht (usually control I).  A ``back-tab'' command which moves leftward to the pre-
       ceding tab stop can be given as cbt.  By convention, if the teletype modes  indicate  that
       tabs  are  being expanded by the computer rather than being sent to the terminal, programs
       should not use ht or cbt even if they are present, since the user may  not  have  the  tab
       stops  properly	set.   If  the terminal has hardware tabs which are initially set every n
       spaces when the terminal is powered up, the numeric parameter it  is  given,  showing  the
       number of spaces the tabs are set to.  This is normally used by the tset command to deter-
       mine whether to set the mode for hardware tab expansion, and whether to set the tab stops.
       If  the	terminal  has  tab  stops  that can be saved in non-volatile memory, the terminfo
       description can assume that they are properly set.

       Other capabilities include is1, is2, and is3, initialization  strings  for  the	terminal,
       iprog,  the  path name of a program to be run to initialize the terminal, and if, the name
       of a file containing long initialization strings.  These strings are expected to  set  the
       terminal  into  modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.  They are nor-
       mally sent to the terminal, by the init option of the tput program,  each  time	the  user
       logs in.  They will be printed in the following order:

	      run the program

	      output is1 is2

	      set the margins using
		     mgc, smgl and smgr

	      set tabs using
		     tbc and hts

	      print the file

	      and finally
		     output is3.

       Most initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal modes can be set up without dupli-
       cating strings by putting the common sequences in is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.

       A set of sequences that does a harder reset from a totally unknown state can be	given  as
       rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to is1 , is2 , if and is3 respectively.	These strings are
       output by the reset program, which is used when the terminal gets  into	a  wedged  state.
       Commands  are normally placed in rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if they produce annoying effects
       on the screen and are not necessary when logging in.  For example, the command to set  the
       vt100  into 80-column mode would normally be part of is2, but it causes an annoying glitch
       of the screen and is not normally needed since the terminal is usually already in 80  col-
       umn mode.

       The reset program writes strings including iprog, etc., in the same order as the init pro-
       gram, using rs1, etc., instead of is1, etc.  If any of rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capabil-
       ity  strings  are missing, the reset program falls back upon the corresponding initializa-
       tion capability string.

       If there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given as tbc (clear all  tab
       stops)  and  hts  (set  a tab stop in the current column of every row).	If a more complex
       sequence is needed to set the tabs than can be described by  this,  the	sequence  can  be
       placed in is2 or if.

   Delays and Padding
       Many older and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF or DTR handshaking, includ-
       ing hard copy terminals and some very archaic CRTs (including, for example,  DEC  VT100s).
       These may require padding characters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If  the	terminal  uses	xon/xoff  handshaking for flow control (that is, it automatically
       emits ^S back to the host when its input buffers are close to full), set xon.  This  capa-
       bility  suppresses the emission of padding.  You can also set it for memory-mapped console
       devices effectively that do not have a speed limit.  Padding information should	still  be
       included  so  that routines can make better decisions about relative costs, but actual pad
       characters will not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates below the value of
       pb.  If the entry has no padding baud rate, then whether padding is emitted or not is com-
       pletely controlled by xon.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,  then  this  can  be
       given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad string is used.

   Status Lines
       Some  terminals	have  an  extra `status line' which is not normally used by software (and
       thus not counted in the terminal's lines capability).

       The simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but not part  of	the  main
       scrolling  region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a status line of this kind, as would
       a 24-line VT100 with a 23-line scrolling region set up on initialization.  This	situation
       is indicated by the hs capability.

       Some  terminals with status lines need special sequences to access the status line.  These
       may be expressed as a string with single parameter tsl which takes the cursor to  a  given
       zero-origin  column on the status line.	The capability fsl must return to the main-screen
       cursor positions before the last tsl.  You may need to embed the string values of sc (save
       cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl and fsl to accomplish this.

       The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as the width of the terminal.  If
       this is untrue, you can specify it with the numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The boolean capability eslok specifies that escape sequences, tabs, etc., work  ordinarily
       in the status line.

       The  ncurses  implementation  does  not yet use any of these capabilities.  They are docu-
       mented here in case they ever become important.

   Line Graphics
       Many terminals have alternate character	sets  useful  for  forms-drawing.   Terminfo  and
       curses build in support for the drawing characters supported by the VT100, with some char-
       acters from the AT&T 4410v1 added.  This alternate character set may be specified  by  the
       acsc capability.

       Glyph				     ACS		      Ascii		   VT100
       Name				     Name		      Default		   Name
       UK pound sign			     ACS_STERLING	      f 		   }

       arrow pointing down		     ACS_DARROW 	      v 		   .
       arrow pointing left		     ACS_LARROW 	      < 		   ,
       arrow pointing right		     ACS_RARROW 	      > 		   +
       arrow pointing up		     ACS_UARROW 	      ^ 		   -
       board of squares 		     ACS_BOARD		      # 		   h
       bullet				     ACS_BULLET 	      o 		   ~
       checker board (stipple)		     ACS_CKBOARD	      : 		   a
       degree symbol			     ACS_DEGREE 	      \ 		   f
       diamond				     ACS_DIAMOND	      + 		   `
       greater-than-or-equal-to 	     ACS_GEQUAL 	      > 		   z
       greek pi 			     ACS_PI		      * 		   {
       horizontal line			     ACS_HLINE		      - 		   q
       lantern symbol			     ACS_LANTERN	      # 		   i
       large plus or crossover		     ACS_PLUS		      + 		   n
       less-than-or-equal-to		     ACS_LEQUAL 	      < 		   y
       lower left corner		     ACS_LLCORNER	      + 		   m
       lower right corner		     ACS_LRCORNER	      + 		   j
       not-equal			     ACS_NEQUAL 	      ! 		   |
       plus/minus			     ACS_PLMINUS	      # 		   g
       scan line 1			     ACS_S1		      ~ 		   o
       scan line 3			     ACS_S3		      - 		   p
       scan line 7			     ACS_S7		      - 		   r
       scan line 9			     ACS_S9		      _ 		   s
       solid square block		     ACS_BLOCK		      # 		   0
       tee pointing down		     ACS_TTEE		      + 		   w
       tee pointing left		     ACS_RTEE		      + 		   u
       tee pointing right		     ACS_LTEE		      + 		   t
       tee pointing up			     ACS_BTEE		      + 		   v
       upper left corner		     ACS_ULCORNER	      + 		   l
       upper right corner		     ACS_URCORNER	      + 		   k
       vertical line			     ACS_VLINE		      | 		   x

       The  best  way  to define a new device's graphics set is to add a column to a copy of this
       table for your terminal, giving the character  which  (when  emitted  between  smacs/rmacs
       switches)  will	be  rendered  as the corresponding graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your
       terminal character pairs right to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.

   Color Handling
       Most color terminals are either `Tektronix-like' or `HP-like'.	Tektronix-like	terminals
       have  a	predefined  set of N colors (where N usually 8), and can set character-cell fore-
       ground and background characters independently, mixing them into  N * N	color-pairs.   On
       HP-like	terminals,  the  use must set each color pair up separately (foreground and back-
       ground are not independently settable).	Up to M color-pairs may be set up from	2*M  dif-
       ferent colors.  ANSI-compatible terminals are Tektronix-like.

       Some  basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.  The numeric capabili-
       ties colors and pairs specify the maximum numbers of colors and color-pairs  that  can  be
       displayed  simultaneously.  The op (original pair) string resets foreground and background
       colors to their default values for the terminal.  The  oc  string  resets  all  colors  or
       color-pairs  to	their default values for the terminal.	Some terminals (including many PC
       terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the current background color rather	than  the
       power-up default background; these should have the boolean capability bce.

       To  change  the	current  foreground or background color on a Tektronix-type terminal, use
       setaf (set ANSI foreground) and setab (set ANSI background) or setf (set  foreground)  and
       setb  (set  background).  These take one parameter, the color number.  The SVr4 documenta-
       tion describes only setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft says that "If the terminal  supports  ANSI
       escape  sequences  to  set  background  and  foreground, they should be coded as setaf and
       setab, respectively.  If the terminal supports other escape sequences  to  set  background
       and  foreground, they should be coded as setf and setb, respectively.  The vidputs() func-
       tion and the refresh functions use setaf and setab if they are defined."

       The setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single numeric argument each.	 Argument
       values  0-7  of setaf/setab are portably defined as follows (the middle column is the sym-
       bolic #define available in the header for the curses or ncurses libraries).  The  terminal
       hardware is free to map these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal locations in
       color space.

			     Color	 #define       Value	   RGB
			     black     COLOR_BLACK	 0     0, 0, 0
			     red       COLOR_RED	 1     max,0,0
			     green     COLOR_GREEN	 2     0,max,0
			     yellow    COLOR_YELLOW	 3     max,max,0
			     blue      COLOR_BLUE	 4     0,0,max
			     magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA	 5     max,0,max
			     cyan      COLOR_CYAN	 6     0,max,max
			     white     COLOR_WHITE	 7     max,max,max

       The argument values of setf/setb historically correspond to a different mapping, i.e.,

			     Color	 #define       Value	   RGB
			     black     COLOR_BLACK	 0     0, 0, 0
			     blue      COLOR_BLUE	 1     0,0,max
			     green     COLOR_GREEN	 2     0,max,0
			     cyan      COLOR_CYAN	 3     0,max,max
			     red       COLOR_RED	 4     max,0,0
			     magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA	 5     max,0,max
			     yellow    COLOR_YELLOW	 6     max,max,0
			     white     COLOR_WHITE	 7     max,max,max
       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities; otherwise red/blue will
       be interchanged on the display.

       On an HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number parameter to set which color pair
       is current.

       On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability ccc may be present to  indicate  that  colors
       can  be	modified.   If	so,  the initc capability will take a color number (0 to colors -
       1)and three more parameters which describe the color.  These three parameters  default  to
       being  interpreted  as  RGB  (Red,  Green, Blue) values.  If the boolean capability hls is
       present, they are instead as HLS (Hue, Lightness, Saturation)  indices.	 The  ranges  are

       On  an  HP-like terminal, initp may give a capability for changing a color-pair value.  It
       will take seven parameters; a color-pair number (0 to max_pairs	-  1),	and  two  triples
       describing  first  background  and then foreground colors.  These parameters must be (Red,
       Green, Blue) or (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on hls.

       On some color terminals, colors collide with highlights.  You can  register  these  colli-
       sions  with the ncv capability.	This is a bit-mask of attributes not to be used when col-
       ors are enabled.  The correspondence with the attributes understood by curses is  as  fol-

			      Attribute 		  Bit	 Decimal
			      A_STANDOUT		  0	1
			      A_UNDERLINE		  1	2
			      A_REVERSE 		  2	4
			      A_BLINK			  3	8
			      A_DIM			  4	16
			      A_BOLD			  5	32
			      A_INVIS			  6	64
			      A_PROTECT 		  7	128
			      A_ALTCHARSET		  8	256

       For example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute collides with the foreground
       color blue and is not available in color mode.  These should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4 curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and optimizes the output in favor
       of colors.

       If  the	terminal  requires  other than a null (zero) character as a pad, then this can be
       given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad string is used.  If the  terminal  does
       not  have a pad character, specify npc.	Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compati-
       ble PC variable; though the application may set this value to something other than a null,
       ncurses will test npc first and use napms if the terminal has no pad character.

       If  the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be indicated with hu (half-line
       up) and hd (half-line down).  This is primarily useful for superscripts and subscripts  on
       hard-copy terminals.  If a hard-copy terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give
       this as ff (usually control L).

       If there is a command to repeat a given character a given number of times  (to  save  time
       transmitting a large number of identical characters) this can be indicated with the param-
       eterized string rep.  The first parameter is the character to be repeated and  the  second
       is  the	number	of  times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is the same as

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025, this can  be
       indicated  with cmdch.  A prototype command character is chosen which is used in all capa-
       bilities.  This character is given in the cmdch capability to identify it.  The	following
       convention  is  supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for a CC
       variable, and if found, all occurrences of the prototype character are replaced	with  the
       character in the environment variable.

       Terminal  descriptions  that  do  not represent a specific kind of known terminal, such as
       switch, dialup, patch, and network, should include the gn  (generic)  capability  so  that
       programs can complain that they do not know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability
       does not apply to virtual terminal descriptions for which the escape sequences are known.)

       If the terminal has a ``meta key'' which acts as a shift key, setting the 8th bit  of  any
       character  transmitted,	this  fact  can  be  indicated with km.  Otherwise, software will
       assume that the 8th bit is parity and it will usually be cleared.   If  strings	exist  to
       turn this ``meta mode'' on and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If  the	terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at once, the number
       of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A value of lm#0 indicates that the number of
       lines is not fixed, but that there is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If  the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual terminal protocol, the ter-
       minal number can be given as vt.

       Media copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to  the	terminal  can  be
       given  as  mc0: print the contents of the screen, mc4: turn off the printer, and mc5: turn
       on the printer.	When the printer is on, all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the
       printer.   It  is undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal screen when
       the printer is on.  A variation mc5p takes one parameter, and leaves the printer on for as
       many  characters as the value of the parameter, then turns the printer off.  The parameter
       should not exceed 255.  All text, including mc4, is transparently passed  to  the  printer
       while an mc5p is in effect.

   Glitches and Braindamage
       Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow `~' characters to be displayed should indicate hz.

       Terminals  which  ignore a line-feed immediately after an am wrap, such as the Concept and
       vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If el is required to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing normal text on top  of
       it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks, should indicate xt
       (destructive tabs).  Note: the variable indicating this is now `dest_tabs_magic_smso';  in
       older  versions,  it was teleray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not
       possible to position the cursor on top of a ``magic cookie'', that to erase standout  mode
       it is instead necessary to use delete and insert line.  The ncurses implementation ignores
       this glitch.

       The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the escape or control C  char-
       acters,	has  xsb,  indicating  that  the  f1 key is used for escape and f2 for control C.
       (Only certain Superbees have this problem, depending on the ROM.)  Note that in older ter-
       minfo versions, this capability was called `beehive_glitch'; it is now `no_esc_ctl_c'.

       Other  specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more capabilities of the form

   Similar Terminals
       If there are two very similar terminals, one (the variant) can be defined  as  being  just
       like  the other (the base) with certain exceptions.  In the definition of the variant, the
       string capability use can be given with the name of the base terminal.	The  capabilities
       given  before use override those in the base type named by use.	If there are multiple use
       capabilities, they are merged in reverse order.	That is, the rightmost use  reference  is
       processed first, then the one to its left, and so forth.  Capabilities given explicitly in
       the entry override those brought in by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use reference that  imports
       it, where xx is the capability.	For example, the entry

				2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines	a  2621-nl  that  does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities, and hence does not
       turn on the function key labels when in visual mode.  This is useful for  different  modes
       for a terminal, or for different user preferences.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long  terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date, no entry has even approached
       terminfo's 4096-byte string-table maximum.  Unfortunately, the  termcap	translations  are
       much  more  strictly  limited  (to 1023 bytes), thus termcap translations of long terminfo
       entries can cause problems.

       The man pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent() instruct the user to  allocate	a
       1024-byte  buffer  for  the  termcap entry.  The entry gets null-terminated by the termcap
       library, so that makes the maximum safe length for a  termcap  entry  1k-1(1023)  bytes.
       Depending  on  what  the application and the termcap library being used does, and where in
       the termcap file the terminal type that tgetent() is searching for is, several bad  things
       can happen.

       Some termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find an entry that's longer
       than 1023 bytes; others do not; others truncate the entries to 1023 bytes.  Some  applica-
       tion programs allocate more than the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others do not.

       Each  termcap entry has two important sizes associated with it: before "tc" expansion, and
       after "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability that tacks on another termcap entry  to  the
       end  of	the current one, to add on its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the
       "tc" capability, then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The "before tc expansion" length is the most important one, because it affects  more  than
       just  users  of that particular terminal.  This is the length of the entry as it exists in
       /etc/termcap, minus the backslash-newline pairs, which tgetent() strips out while  reading
       it.   Some termcap libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does not).  Now

       *    a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       *    and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       *    and the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU) reads	the  whole  entry
	    into the buffer, no matter what its length, to see if it is the entry it wants,

       *    and tgetent() is searching for a terminal type that either is the long entry, appears
	    in the termcap file after the long entry, or does not appear in the file at  all  (so
	    that tgetent() has to search the whole termcap file).

       Then  tgetent()	will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack, and probably core dump the pro-
       gram.  Programs like telnet are particularly vulnerable; modern telnets pass along  values
       like  the terminal type automatically.  The results are almost as undesirable with a term-
       cap library, like SunOS 4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages when	it  reads
       an  overly  long  termcap  entry.  If a termcap library truncates long entries, like OSF/1
       3.0, it is immune to dying here but will return incorrect data for the terminal.

       The "after tc expansion" length will have a similar effect to the above, but only for peo-
       ple  who actually set TERM to that terminal type, since tgetent() only does "tc" expansion
       once it is found the terminal type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes can cause, on various  combina-
       tions  of  termcap  libraries and applications, a core dump, warnings, or incorrect opera-
       tion.  If it is too long even before "tc" expansion, it will have  this	effect	even  for
       users  of  some other terminal types and users whose TERM variable does not have a termcap

       When in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses implementation of tic(1) issues  warn-
       ing  messages when the pre-tc length of a termcap translation is too long.  The -c (check)
       option also checks resolved (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It is not wise to count on portability of binary terminfo entries between commercial  UNIX
       versions.   The	problem  is that there are at least two versions of terminfo (under HP-UX
       and AIX) which diverged from System V terminfo after SVr1, and have added extension  capa-
       bilities  to  the  string  table that (in the binary format) collide with System V and XSI
       Curses extensions.

       Some SVr4 curses implementations, and all previous to SVr4, do not interpret the %A and %O
       operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4  do  not specify whether msgr licenses movement while in an alternate-character-
       set mode (such modes may, among other things, map CR and NL  to	characters  that  do  not
       trigger local motions).	The ncurses implementation ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This
       raises the possibility that an XPG4 implementation making the opposite interpretation  may
       need terminfo entries made for ncurses to have msgr turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character modes in a slightly non-
       standard way to get better update efficiency.  See the Insert/Delete Character  subsection

       The  parameter substitutions for set_clock and display_clock are not documented in SVr4 or
       the XSI Curses standard.  They are deduced from the documentation for the AT&T 505  termi-

       Be  careful  assigning  the  kmous  capability.	 The  ncurses  wants  to  interpret it as
       KEY_MOUSE, for use by terminals and emulators like xterm that  can  return  mouse-tracking
       information in the keyboard-input stream.

       Different  commercial  ports  of  terminfo and curses support different subsets of the XSI
       Curses standard and (in some cases) different extension sets.  Here is a summary, accurate
       as of October 1995:

       SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

       SGI   --  Supports  the	SVr4  set,  adds  one  undocumented  extended  string  capability

       SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo capabilities.  The  booleans
       end with xon_xoff; the numerics with width_status_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       HP/UX  --  Supports  the SVr1 subset, plus the SVr[234] numerics num_labels, label_height,
       label_width, plus function keys 11 through 63, plus plab_norm,  label_on,  and  label_off,
       plus some incompatible extensions in the string table.

       AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through 63, plus a number of incom-
       patible string table extensions.

       OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.

       /usr/share/terminfo/?/*	files containing terminal descriptions

       tic(1), infocmp(1), ncurses(3NCURSES), printf(3), term(5).  terminfo_variables(3NCURSES).

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses by Pavel Curtis.


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