
calendar(3erl) Erlang Module Definition calendar(3erl)
NAME
calendar  Local and universal time, dayoftheweek, date and time conversions
DESCRIPTION
This module provides computation of local and universal time, dayoftheweek, and several
time conversion functions.
Time is local when it is adjusted in accordance with the current time zone and daylight
saving. Time is universal when it reflects the time at longitude zero, without any adjust
ment for daylight saving. Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) time is also called Greenwich
Mean Time (GMT).
The time functions local_time/0 and universal_time/0 provided in this module both return
date and time. The reason for this is that separate functions for date and time may result
in a date/time combination which is displaced by 24 hours. This happens if one of the
functions is called before midnight, and the other after midnight. This problem also
applies to the Erlang BIFs date/0 and time/0 , and their use is strongly discouraged if a
reliable date/time stamp is required.
All dates conform to the Gregorian calendar. This calendar was introduced by Pope Gregory
XIII in 1582 and was used in all Catholic countries from this year. Protestant parts of
Germany and the Netherlands adopted it in 1698, England followed in 1752, and Russia in
1918 (the October revolution of 1917 took place in November according to the Gregorian
calendar).
The Gregorian calendar in this module is extended back to year 0. For a given date, the
gregorian days is the number of days up to and including the date specified. Similarly,
the gregorian seconds for a given date and time, is the the number of seconds up to and
including the specified date and time.
For computing differences between epochs in time, use the functions counting gregorian
days or seconds. If epochs are given as local time, they must be converted to universal
time, in order to get the correct value of the elapsed time between epochs. Use of the
function time_difference/2 is discouraged.
There exists different definitions for the week of the year. The calendar module contains
a week of the year implementation which conforms to the ISO 8601 standard. Since the week
number for a given date can fall on the previous, the current or on the next year it is
important to provide the information which year is it together with the week number. The
function iso_week_number/0 and iso_week_number/1 returns a tuple of the year and the week
number.
DATA TYPES
date() = {Year, Month, Day}
Year = int()
Month = 1..12
Day = 1..31
Year cannot be abbreviated. Example: 93 denotes year 93, not 1993.
Valid range depends on the underlying OS.
The date tuple must denote a valid date.
time() = {Hour, Minute, Second}
Hour = 0..23
Minute = Second = 0..59
EXPORTS
date_to_gregorian_days(Date) > Days
date_to_gregorian_days(Year, Month, Day) > Days
Types Date = date()
Days = int()
This function computes the number of gregorian days starting with year 0 and ending
at the given date.
datetime_to_gregorian_seconds({Date, Time}) > Seconds
Types Date = date()
Time = time()
Seconds = int()
This function computes the number of gregorian seconds starting with year 0 and
ending at the given date and time.
day_of_the_week(Date) > DayNumber
day_of_the_week(Year, Month, Day) > DayNumber
Types Date = date()
DayNumber = 1..7
This function computes the day of the week given Year , Month and Day . The return
value denotes the day of the week as 1 : Monday, 2 : Tuesday, and so on.
gregorian_days_to_date(Days) > Date
Types Days = int()
Date = date()
This function computes the date given the number of gregorian days.
gregorian_seconds_to_datetime(Seconds) > {Date, Time}
Types Seconds = int()
Date = date()
Time = time()
This function computes the date and time from the given number of gregorian sec
onds.
is_leap_year(Year) > bool()
This function checks if a year is a leap year.
iso_week_number() > IsoWeekNumber
Types IsoWeekNumber = {int(), int()}
This function returns the tuple {Year, WeekNum} representing the iso week number
for the actual date. For determining the actual date, the function local_time/0 is
used.
iso_week_number(Date) > IsoWeekNumber
Types Date = date()
IsoWeekNumber = {int(), int()}
This function returns the tuple {Year, WeekNum} representing the iso week number
for the given date.
last_day_of_the_month(Year, Month) > int()
This function computes the number of days in a month.
local_time() > {Date, Time}
Types Date = date()
Time = time()
This function returns the local time reported by the underlying operating system.
local_time_to_universal_time({Date1, Time1}) > {Date2, Time2}
This function converts from local time to Universal Coordinated Time (UTC). Date1
must refer to a local date after Jan 1, 1970.
Warning:
This function is deprecated. Use local_time_to_universal_time_dst/1 instead, as it gives a
more correct and complete result. Especially for the period that does not exist since it
gets skipped during the switch to daylight saving time, this function still returns a
result.
local_time_to_universal_time_dst({Date1, Time1}) > [{Date, Time}]
Types Date1 = Date = date()
Time1 = Time = time()
This function converts from local time to Universal Coordinated Time (UTC). Date1
must refer to a local date after Jan 1, 1970.
The return value is a list of 0, 1 or 2 possible UTC times:
[] :
For a local {Date1, Time1} during the period that is skipped when switching to
daylight saving time, there is no corresponding UTC since the local time is
illegal  it has never happened.
[DstDateTimeUTC, DateTimeUTC] :
For a local {Date1, Time1} during the period that is repeated when switching
from daylight saving time, there are two corresponding UTCs. One for the first
instance of the period when daylight saving time is still active, and one for
the second instance.
[DateTimeUTC] :
For all other local times there is only one corresponding UTC.
now_to_local_time(Now) > {Date, Time}
Types Now  see erlang:now/0
Date = date()
Time = time()
This function returns local date and time converted from the return value from
erlang:now() .
now_to_universal_time(Now) > {Date, Time}
now_to_datetime(Now) > {Date, Time}
Types Now  see erlang:now/0
Date = date()
Time = time()
This function returns Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) converted from the return
value from erlang:now() .
seconds_to_daystime(Seconds) > {Days, Time}
Types Seconds = Days = int()
Time = time()
This function transforms a given number of seconds into days, hours, minutes, and
seconds. The Time part is always nonnegative, but Days is negative if the argument
Seconds is.
seconds_to_time(Seconds) > Time
Types Seconds = int() < 86400
Time = time()
This function computes the time from the given number of seconds. Seconds must be
less than the number of seconds per day(86400).
time_difference(T1, T2) > {Days, Time}
This function returns the difference between two {Date, Time} tuples. T2 should
refer to an epoch later than T1 .
Warning:
This function is obsolete. Use the conversion functions for gregorian days and seconds
instead.
time_to_seconds(Time) > Seconds
Types Time = time()
Seconds = int()
This function computes the number of seconds since midnight up to the specified
time.
universal_time() > {Date, Time}
Types Date = date()
Time = time()
This function returns the Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) reported by the underly
ing operating system. Local time is returned if universal time is not available.
universal_time_to_local_time({Date1, Time1}) > {Date2, Time2}
Types Date1 = Date2 = date()
Time1 = Time2 = time()
This function converts from Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) to local time. Date1
must refer to a date after Jan 1, 1970.
valid_date(Date) > bool()
valid_date(Year, Month, Day) > bool()
Types Date = date()
This function checks if a date is a valid.
LEAP YEARS
The notion that every fourth year is a leap year is not completely true. By the Gregorian
rule, a year Y is a leap year if either of the following rules is valid:
* Y is divisible by 4, but not by 100; or
* Y is divisible by 400.
Accordingly, 1996 is a leap year, 1900 is not, but 2000 is.
DATE AND TIME SOURCE
Local time is obtained from the Erlang BIF localtime/0 . Universal time is computed from
the BIF universaltime/0 .
The following facts apply:
* there are 86400 seconds in a day
* there are 365 days in an ordinary year
* there are 366 days in a leap year
* there are 1461 days in a 4 year period
* there are 36524 days in a 100 year period
* there are 146097 days in a 400 year period
* there are 719528 days between Jan 1, 0 and Jan 1, 1970.
Ericsson AB stdlib 1.17.3 calendar(3erl) 
