Home Man
Today's Posts

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages
Man Page or Keyword Search:
Select Section of Man Page:
Select Man Page Repository:

Linux 2.6 - man page for screen (linux section 1)

SCREEN(1)										SCREEN(1)

       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation

       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

       Screen  is  a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical terminal between sev-
       eral processes (typically interactive shells).  Each virtual terminal provides  the  func-
       tions  of  a  DEC  VT100 terminal and, in addition, several control functions from the ISO
       6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI X3.64) and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple  character sets).  There is a scrollback history buffer for each virtual terminal
       and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a shell in  it  (or  the	specified
       command)  and  then  gets  out of your way so that you can use the program as you normally
       would.  Then, at any time, you can create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in
       them  (including  more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn output
       logging on and off, copy-and-paste text between	windows,  view	the  scrollback  history,
       switch  between	windows  in whatever manner you wish, etc. All windows run their programs
       completely independent of each other. Programs continue to run when their window  is  cur-
       rently not visible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's ter-
       minal.  When a program terminates, screen (per default) kills the  window  that	contained
       it.  If this window was in the foreground, the display switches to the previous window; if
       none are left, screen exits.

       Everything you type is sent to the program running in the current window.  The only excep-
       tion  to  this  is the one keystroke that is used to initiate a command to the window man-
       ager.  By default, each command begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and
       is followed by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings can be
       fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always two characters in length.

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-" to mean control.  Please use the caret notation
       ("^A"  instead of "C-a") as arguments to e.g. the escape command or the -e option.  Screen
       will also print out control characters in caret notation.

       The standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This  creates  a  new  window
       running	a  shell  and switches to that window immediately, regardless of the state of the
       process running in the current window.  Similarly, you can create a new window with a cus-
       tom  command  in it by first binding the command to a keystroke (in your .screenrc file or
       at the "C-a :" command line) and then using it just like the "C-a c"  command.	In  addi-
       tion, new windows can be created by running a command like:

	      screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a previously created window.	This will not run another copy of
       screen, but will instead supply the command name and its arguments to the  window  manager
       (specified  in  the  $STY  environment variable) who will use it to create the new window.
       The above example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch to its  window.
       -  Note	that  you  cannot  transport environment variables from the invoking shell to the
       application (emacs in this case), because it is forked from the parent screen process, not
       from the invoking shell.

       If  "/var/run/utmp"  is	writable by screen, an appropriate record will be written to this
       file for each window, and removed when the window is terminated.  This is useful for work-
       ing with "talk", "script", "shutdown", "rsend", "sccs" and other similar programs that use
       the utmp file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your terminal,  the
       terminal's own record is removed from the utmp file. See also "C-a L".

       Before  you  begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you have correctly selected your
       terminal type, just as you would for any other termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this
       by using tset for example.)

       If  you're  impatient and want to get started without doing a lot more reading, you should
       remember this one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing these two characters will display a  list  of
       the  available screen commands and their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the sec-
       tion "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS". The manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the contents of
       your .screenrc.

       If  your  terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the last position on
       the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen) consider using a	version  of  your
       terminal's termcap that has automatic margins turned off. This will ensure an accurate and
       optimal update of the screen in all circumstances. Most terminals  nowadays  have  "magic"
       margins (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the VT100 style type and per-
       fectly suited for screen.  If all you've got is a "true" auto-margin terminal screen  will
       be  content  to	use it, but updating a character put into the last position on the screen
       may not be possible until the screen scrolls or the character is moved into a  safe  posi-
       tion  in some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a terminal with insert-char-
       acter capability.

       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each window's termcap,  even
	    if screen must redraw parts of the display in order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt  the	sizes  of  all	windows to the size of the current terminal.  By default,
	    screen tries to restore its old window sizes when attaching  to  resizable	terminals
	    (those with "WS" in its description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
	    override the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc" to file.

       -d|-D [pid.tty.host]
	    does  not start screen, but detaches the elsewhere running screen session. It has the
	    same effect as typing "C-a d" from screen's controlling terminal. -D is  the  equiva-
	    lent to the power detach key.  If no session can be detached, this option is ignored.
	    In combination with the -r/-R option more powerful effects can be achieved:

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach a session and if necessary detach or even create it first.

       -d -RR  Reattach a session and if necessary detach or create it. Use the first session  if
	       more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary detach and logout remotely first.

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is running, then reattach.
	       If necessary detach and logout remotely first.  If it was not  running  create  it
	       and notify the user. This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

	    Note:  It  is  always  a  good  idea to check the status of your sessions by means of
	    "screen -list".

       -e xy
	    specifies the command character to be x and the character generating a  literal  com-
	    mand  character  to y (when typed after the command character).  The default is "C-a"
	    and `a', which can be specified as "-e^Aa".  When creating	a  screen  session,  this
	    option  sets  the  default	command character. In a multiuser session all users added
	    will start off with this command character. But when attaching to an already  running
	    session,  this option changes only the command character of the attaching user.  This
	    option is equivalent to either the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
	    turns flow-control on, off, or "automatic switching mode".	This can also be  defined
	    through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
	    Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will  cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the display immediately when
	    flow-control is on.  See the "defflow" .screenrc command for  details.   The  use  of
	    this option is discouraged.

       -l and -ln
	    turns  login  mode	on or off (for /var/run/utmp updating).  This can also be defined
	    through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls and -list
	    does not start screen, but prints a list of pid.tty.host strings and  creation  time-
	    stamps  identifying  your screen sessions.	Sessions marked `detached' can be resumed
	    with "screen -r". Those marked `attached' are running and have a  controlling  termi-
	    nal.  If the session runs in multiuser mode, it is marked `multi'. Sessions marked as
	    `unreachable' either live on a different host or are `dead'.  An unreachable  session
	    is	considered  dead, when its name matches either the name of the local host, or the
	    specified parameter, if any.  See the -r flag for  a  description  how  to	construct
	    matches.   Sessions  marked  as `dead' should be thoroughly checked and removed.  Ask
	    your system administrator if you are not sure. Remove sessions with the -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.

       -m   causes screen to ignore the $STY environment variable. With "screen -m" creation of a
	    new  session  is  enforced,  regardless  whether screen is called from within another
	    screen session or not. This flag has a special meaning in connection  with	the  `-d'

       -d -m   Start  screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session but doesn't attach to
	       it. This is useful for system startup scripts.

       -D -m   This also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork a  new  process.  The
	       command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects a more optimal output mode for your terminal rather than true VT100 emulation
	    (only affects auto-margin terminals without `LP').	This can  also	be  set  in  your
	    .screenrc by specifying `OP' in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name
	    Preselect  a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to a specific window or
	    you want to send a command via the "-X" option to a specific window. As with screen's
	    select  command,  "-"  selects  the blank window. As a special case for reattach, "="
	    brings up the windowlist on the blank window.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the exit value  is  as
	    follows: 9 indicates a directory without sessions. 10 indicates a directory with run-
	    ning but not attachable sessions. 11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.
	    In	combination with "-r" the exit value is as follows: 10 indicates that there is no
	    session to resume. 12 (or more) indicates that there are  2  (or  more)  sessions  to
	    resume  and  you  should specify which one to choose.  In all other cases "-q" has no

       -r [pid.tty.host]
       -r sessionowner/[pid.tty.host]
	    resumes a detached screen session.	No other options (except combinations with -d/-D)
	    may  be  specified, though an optional prefix of [pid.]tty.host may be needed to dis-
	    tinguish between multiple detached screen sessions.  The second form is used to  con-
	    nect  to  another  user's screen session which runs in multiuser mode. This indicates
	    that screen should look for sessions  in  another  user's  directory.  This  requires

       -R   attempts  to  resume the youngest (in terms of creation time) detached screen session
	    it finds.  If successful, all other command-line options are ignored.  If no detached
	    session  exists,  starts a new session using the specified options, just as if -R had
	    not been specified. The option is set by default if screen is run  as  a  login-shell
	    (actually  screen  uses "-xRR" in that case).  For combinations with the -d/-D option
	    see there.	Note: Time-based session selection is a Debian addition.

       -s   sets the default shell to the program specified, instead of the value in the environ-
	    ment variable $SHELL (or "/bin/sh" if not defined).  This can also be defined through
	    the "shell" .screenrc command.

       -S sessionname
	    When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify a meaningful name for
	    the  session.  This  name  identifies  the session for "screen -list" and "screen -r"
	    actions. It substitutes the default [tty.host] suffix.

       -t name
	    sets the title (a.k.a.) for the default shell or specified	program.   See	also  the
	    "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -U   Run  screen  in  UTF-8  mode.  This  option tells screen that your terminal sends and
	    understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also sets the default encoding for new  win-
	    dows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
	    does the same as "screen -ls", but removes destroyed sessions instead of marking them
	    as `dead'.	An unreachable session is considered dead, when its name  matches  either
	    the  name  of  the local host, or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r
	    flag for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach to a not detached screen session. (Multi display  mode).   Screen  refuses  to
	    attach  from  within  itself.   But  when  cascading  multiple screens, loops are not
	    detected; take care.

       -X   Send the specified command to a running screen session. You can  use  the  -d  or  -r
	    option  to	tell  screen  to look only for attached or detached screen sessions. Note
	    that this command doesn't work if the session is password protected.

       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed  by  one	other  character.
       For  your convenience, all commands that are bound to lower-case letters are also bound to
       their control character counterparts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-
       a  c" as well as "C-a C-c" can be used to create a window. See section "CUSTOMIZATION" for
       a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings:

       C-a '	   (select)	 Prompt for a window name or number to switch to.

       C-a "	   (windowlist -b)
				 Present a list of all windows for selection.

       C-a 0	   (select 0)
	...	      ...
       C-a 9	   (select 9)
       C-a -	   (select -)	 Switch to window number 0 - 9, or to the blank window.

       C-a tab	   (focus)	 Switch the input focus to the	next  region.	See  also  split,
				 remove, only.

       C-a C-a	   (other)	 Toggle to the window displayed previously.  Note that this bind-
				 ing defaults to the command character typed twice, unless  over-
				 ridden.   For	instance, if you use the option "-e]x", this com-
				 mand becomes "]]".

       C-a a	   (meta)	 Send the command character (C-a) to window. See escape command.

       C-a A	   (title)	 Allow the user to enter a name for the current window.

       C-a b
       C-a C-b	   (break)	 Send a break to window.

       C-a B	   (pow_break)	 Reopen the terminal line and send a break.

       C-a c
       C-a C-c	   (screen)	 Create a new window with a shell and switch to that window.

       C-a C	   (clear)	 Clear the screen.

       C-a d
       C-a C-d	   (detach)	 Detach screen from this terminal.

       C-a D D	   (pow_detach)  Detach and logout.

       C-a f
       C-a C-f	   (flow)	 Toggle flow on, off or auto.

       C-a F	   (fit)	 Resize the window to the current region size.

       C-a C-g	   (vbell)	 Toggles screen's visual bell mode.

       C-a h	   (hardcopy)	 Write a hardcopy of the current window to the file "hardcopy.n".

       C-a H	   (log)	 Begins/ends logging of the current window to the  file  "screen-

       C-a i
       C-a C-i	   (info)	 Show info about this window.

       C-a k
       C-a C-k	   (kill)	 Destroy current window.

       C-a l
       C-a C-l	   (redisplay)	 Fully refresh current window.

       C-a L	   (login)	 Toggle this windows login slot. Available only if screen is con-
				 figured to update the utmp database.

       C-a m
       C-a C-m	   (lastmsg)	 Repeat the last message displayed in the message line.

       C-a M	   (monitor)	 Toggles monitoring of the current window.

       C-a space
       C-a n
       C-a C-n	   (next)	 Switch to the next window.

       C-a N	   (number)	 Show the number (and title) of the current window.

       C-a backspace
       C-a h
       C-a p
       C-a C-p	   (prev)	 Switch to the previous window (opposite of C-a n).

       C-a q
       C-a C-q	   (xon)	 Send a control-q to the current window.

       C-a Q	   (only)	 Delete all regions but the current one.  See also split, remove,

       C-a r
       C-a C-r	   (wrap)	 Toggle  the current window's line-wrap setting (turn the current
				 window's automatic margins on and off).

       C-a s
       C-a C-s	   (xoff)	 Send a control-s to the current window.

       C-a S	   (split)	 Split the current region horizontally into two  new  ones.   See
				 also only, remove, focus.

       C-a t
       C-a C-t	   (time)	 Show system information.

       C-a v	   (version)	 Display the version and compilation date.

       C-a C-v	   (digraph)	 Enter digraph.

       C-a w
       C-a C-w	   (windows)	 Show a list of window.

       C-a W	   (width)	 Toggle 80/132 columns.

       C-a x
       C-a C-x	   (lockscreen)  Lock this terminal.

       C-a X	   (remove)	 Kill the current region.  See also split, only, focus.

       C-a z
       C-a C-z	   (suspend)	 Suspend screen.  Your system must support BSD-style job-control.

       C-a Z	   (reset)	 Reset the virtual terminal to its "power-on" values.

       C-a .	   (dumptermcap) Write out a ".termcap" file.

       C-a ?	   (help)	 Show key bindings.

       C-a C-\	   (quit)	 Kill all windows and terminate screen.

       C-a :	   (colon)	 Enter command line mode.

       C-a [
       C-a C-[
       C-a esc	   (copy)	 Enter copy/scrollback mode.

       C-a ]	   (paste .)	 Write the contents of the paste buffer to the stdin queue of the
				 current window.

       C-a {
       C-a }	   (history)	 Copy and paste a previous (command) line.

       C-a >	   (writebuf)	 Write paste buffer to a file.

       C-a <	   (readbuf)	 Reads the screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.

       C-a =	   (removebuf)	 Removes the file used by C-a < and C-a >.

       C-a ,	   (license)	 Shows where screen comes from, where it went to and why you  can
				 use it.

       C-a _	   (silence)	 Start/stop monitoring the current window for inactivity.

       C-a |	   (split -v)	 Split the current region vertically into two new ones.

       C-a *	   (displays)	 Show a listing of all currently attached displays.

       The  "socket  directory"  defaults  either  to  $HOME/.screen or simply to /tmp/screens or
       preferably to /var/run/screen chosen at compile-time. If screen is installed  setuid-root,
       then  the  administrator  should  compile screen with an adequate (not NFS mounted) socket
       directory. If screen is not running setuid-root, the user can specify any mode 700  direc-
       tory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization commands from the files "/etc/screenrc"
       and ".screenrc" in the user's home directory. These are the "programmer's  defaults"  that
       can  be overridden in the following ways: for the global screenrc file screen searches for
       the environment variable $SYSSCREENRC (this override feature may be disabled  at  compile-
       time).  The  user  specific  screenrc file is searched in $SCREENRC, then $HOME/.screenrc.
       The command line option -c takes precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands in these files are used to set options, bind functions to keys, and to	automati-
       cally establish one or more windows at the beginning of your screen session.  Commands are
       listed one per line, with empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are	separated
       by tabs or spaces, and may be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A `#' turns the rest
       of the line into a comment, except in quotes.  Unintelligible lines are warned  about  and
       ignored.   Commands  may  contain  references  to environment variables. The syntax is the
       shell-like "$VAR " or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with previous screen
       versions,  as  now the '$'-character has to be protected with '\' if no variable substitu-
       tion shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is also protected from variable substi-

       Two   configuration   files  are  shipped  as  examples	with  your  screen  distribution:
       "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain a number of useful examples for various

       Customization  can  also  be  done 'on-line'. To enter the command mode type `C-a :'. Note
       that commands starting with "def" change default values, while others change current  set-

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]
       addacl usernames

       Enable  users  to  fully  access this screen session. Usernames can be one user or a comma
       separated list of users. This command enables to attach to the screen session and performs
       the  equivalent	of `aclchg usernames +rwx "#?"'.  executed. To add a user with restricted
       access, use the `aclchg' command below.	If an optional second parameter is  supplied,  it
       should  be  a  crypted  password for the named user(s). `Addacl' is a synonym to `acladd'.
       Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list
       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits are represented as
       `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants the permission, `-' removes it. The third parameter
       is a comma separated list of commands  and/or  windows  (specified  either  by  number  or
       title). The special list `#' refers to all windows, `?' to all commands. if usernames con-
       sists of a single `*', all known users are affected.  A command can be executed	when  the
       user  has the `x' bit for it.  The user can type input to a window when he has its `w' bit
       set and no other user obtains a writelock for  this  window.   Other  bits  are	currently
       ignored.   To  withdraw the writelock from another user in window 2: `aclchg username -w+w
       2'.  To allow read-only access to the session: `aclchg username -w  "#"'.  As  soon  as	a
       user's  name  is  known	to screen he can attach to the session and (per default) has full
       permissions for all command and windows. Execution permission for the acl  commands,  `at'
       and  others  should  also  be  removed or the user may be able to regain write permission.
       Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the "su"  command).   `Chacl'
       is a synonym to `aclchg'.  Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove  a  user	from  screen's access control list. If currently attached, all the user's
       displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach again.	Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates groups of users that share common access rights. The name  of  the  group  is  the
       username  of  the group leader. Each member of the group inherits the permissions that are
       granted to the group leader. That means, if a user fails an access check, another check is
       made  for the group leader.  A user is removed from all groups the special value "none" is
       used for groupname.  If the second parameter is omitted all groups  the	user  is  in  are

       aclumask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]
       umask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]

       This  specifies	the access other users have to windows that will be created by the caller
       of the command.	Users may be no, one or a comma separated list of known usernames. If  no
       users are specified, a list of all currently known users is assumed.  Bits is any combina-
       tion of access control bits allowed defined with the "aclchg" command. The  special  user-
       name "?" predefines the access that not yet known users will be granted to any window ini-
       tially.	The special username "??" predefines the access that  not  yet	known  users  are
       granted	to any command.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the
       "su" command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When any activity occurs in a background window that is being monitored, screen displays a
       notification  in the message line.  The notification message can be re-defined by means of
       the "activity" command.	Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by  the  number  of
       the  window in which activity has occurred, and each occurrence of `^G' is replaced by the
       definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

		   'Activity in window %n'

       Note that monitoring is off for all windows by default, but can be altered by use  of  the
       "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If  set	to  on, only the current cursor line is refreshed on window change.  This affects
       all windows and is useful for slow terminal lines. The previous	setting  of  full/partial
       refresh	for  each  window  is restored with "allpartial off".  This is a global flag that
       immediately takes effect on all windows overriding the "partial"  settings.  It	does  not
       change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If  set	to  on,  "alternate screen" support is enabled in virtual terminals, just like in
       xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ... ]

       Execute a command at other displays or windows as if it	had  been  entered  there.   "At"
       changes the context (the `current window' or `current display' setting) of the command. If
       the first parameter describes a non-unique context, the command will be executed  multiple
       times.  If  the	first  parameter  is of the form `identifier*' then identifier is matched
       against user names.  The command is  executed  once  for  each  display	of  the  selected
       user(s). If the first parameter is of the form `identifier%' identifier is matched against
       displays. Displays are named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or  `/dev/tty'
       may  be	omitted  from  the identifier.	If identifier has a `#' or nothing appended it is
       matched against window numbers and titles. Omitting an identifier in front of the `#', `*'
       or  `%'-character  selects  all	users, displays or windows because a prefix-match is per-
       formed. Note that on the affected display(s) a short message will describe what	happened.
       Permission  is  checked	for  initiator	of  the  "at"  command, not for the owners of the
       affected display(s).  Note that the '#' character works as a comment introducer when it is
       preceded by whitespace. This can be escaped by prefixing a '\'.	Permission is checked for
       the initiator of the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).
       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least once  per  window.
       Commands  that  change  the  internal  arrangement of windows (like "other") may be called
       again. In shared windows the command will be repeated for each attached	display.  Beware,
       when  issuing toggle commands like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process") require that a
       display is associated with the target windows.  These  commands	may  not  work	correctly
       under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the color of the text. If the
       attribute attrib is in use, the specified attribute/color modifier is also applied. If  no
       modifier  is  given,  the current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the
       syntax of the modifier. Screen understands two pseudo-attributes,  "i"  stands  for  high-
       intensity foreground color and "I" for high-intensity background color.


	      attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

	      attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

	      attrcolor b ".I"

       Use bright colors for bold text. Most terminal emulators do this already.

	      attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets  whether  screen  will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves all your running
       programs until they are resumed with a screen -r command.  When turned off, a hangup  sig-
       nal will terminate screen and all the processes it contains. Autodetach is on by default.

       autonuke on|off

       Sets  whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all the output that has not been written
       to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args...
       backtick id

       Program the backtick command with the numerical id id.  The output of such  a  command  is
       used  for  substitution of the "%`" string escape. The specified lifespan is the number of
       seconds the output is considered valid. After this time, the command is	run  again  if	a
       corresponding  string  escape is encountered.  The autorefresh parameter triggers an auto-
       matic refresh for caption and hardstatus strings after the specified  number  of  seconds.
       Only the last line of output is used for substitution.
       If  both  the  lifespan	and  the autorefresh parameters are zero, the backtick program is
       expected to stay in the background and generate output once in a while.	In this case, the
       command	is  executed  right away and screen stores the last line of output. If a new line
       gets printed screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.
       The second form of the command deletes the backtick command with the numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all characters cleared by an
       erase/insert/scroll/clear  operation  will  be  displayed in the current background color.
       Otherwise the default background color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When a bell character is sent to a background window, screen displays  a  notification  in
       the  message  line.   The  notification	message  can be re-defined by this command.  Each
       occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of the window to which a	bell  has
       been  sent,  and  each  occurrence  of `^G' is replaced by the definition for bell in your
       termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

		   'Bell in window %n'

       An empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to suppress output of a message
       line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current message is shown.

       bind [-c class] key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by screen are bound to
       one or more keys as indicated in the "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section, e.g. the  command  to
       create a new window is bound to "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be used to redefine
       the key bindings and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either a single  charac-
       ter, a two-character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a backslash followed by an
       octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character), or a backslash  followed  by	a
       second character, such as "\^" or "\\".	The argument can also be quoted, if you like.  If
       no further argument is given, any previously established binding for this key is  removed.
       The command argument can be any command listed in this section.

       If  a  command  class is specified via the "-c" option, the key is bound for the specified
       class. Use the "command" command to activate a class. Command classes can be used to  cre-
       ate multiple command keys or multi-character bindings.

       Some examples:

		   bind ' ' windows
		   bind ^k
		   bind k
		   bind K kill
		   bind ^f screen telnet foobar
		   bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would  bind the space key to the command that displays a list of windows (so that the com-
       mand usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would also be available as "C-a space"). The next  three
       lines  remove  the default kill binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then bound
       to the kill command. Then it binds "C-f" to the command "create a  window  with	a  TELNET
       connection  to  foobar", and bind "escape" to the command that creates an non-login window
       with a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a superuser shell and  a  scrollback  buffer  of  1000

		   bind -c demo1 0 select 10
		   bind -c demo1 1 select 11
		   bind -c demo1 2 select 12
		   bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

		   bind -c demo2 0 select 10
		   bind -c demo2 1 select 11
		   bind -c demo2 2 select 12
		   bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd args]]

       This  command  manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry in one of the tables
       tells screen how to react if a certain sequence of characters is  encountered.  There  are
       three  tables: one that should contain actions programmed by the user, one for the default
       actions used for terminal emulation and one for screen's copy mode to do cursor	movement.
       See section "INPUT TRANSLATION" for a list of default key bindings.
       If  the	-d  option is given, bindkey modifies the default table, -m changes the copy mode
       table and with neither option the user table is selected.   The	argument  string  is  the
       sequence of characters to which an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a
       termcap keyboard capability name (selectable with the -k option).
       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string if application mode is turned on
       (e.g  the  cursor  keys).   Such  keys  have two entries in the translation table. You can
       select the application mode entry by specifying the -a option.
       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One cannot turn off the  tim-
       ing if a termcap capability is used.
       Cmd  can  be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number of args.	If cmd is omitted
       the key-binding is removed from the table.
       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

	       bindkey -d
       Show all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries are marked with [A].

	       bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

	       bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled  so  that  users  can
       type slowly.

	       bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This  key-binding  makes  "^T"  an escape character for key-bindings. If you did the above
       "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter the word "foo" by typing "^Tfoo".	If  you  want  to
       insert a "^T" you have to press the key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

	       bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).

       break [duration]

       Send  a	break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.	For non-Posix systems the
       time interval may be rounded up to full seconds.  Most useful if  a  character  device  is
       attached  to the window rather than a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The
       maximum duration of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate the screen blanker. First the  screen  is  cleared.  If  no  blanker  program  is
       defined,  the  cursor  is turned off, otherwise, the program is started and it's output is
       written to the screen.  The screen blanker is killed with the first keypress, the read key
       is discarded.
       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker program if no arguments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of	the  available methods of generating a break signal for terminal devices.
       This command should affect the current window only.  But it  still  behaves  identical  to
       "defbreaktype". This will be changed in the future.  Calling "breaktype" with no parameter
       displays the break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.	If  the  optional
       argument  to  the  "bufferfile"	command  is  omitted,  the default setting ("/tmp/screen-
       exchange") is reactivated.  The following example will paste the  system's  password  file
       into the screen window (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

		   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
		   C-a < C-a ]
		   C-a : bufferfile

       c1 [on|off]

       Change  c1 code processing. "C1 on" tells screen to treat the input characters between 128
       and 159 as control functions.  Such an 8-bit code is normally the same as ESC followed  by
       the  corresponding  7-bit  code.  The  default  setting	is to process c1 codes and can be
       changed with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters in the  c1
       positions may want to turn this off.

       caption always|splitonly [string]
       caption string [string]

       This  command controls the display of the window captions. Normally a caption is only used
       if more than one window is shown on the display (split screen mode). But if  the  type  is
       set  to always screen shows a caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is

       The second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use all  escapes	from  the
       "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       charset set

       Change  the  current  character	set slot designation and charset mapping.  The first four
       character of set are treated as charset designators while the fifth  and  sixth	character
       must be in range '0' to '3' and set the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may
       be used to indicate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed  (set  is
       padded to six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New windows have "BBBB02" as
       default charset, unless a "encoding" command is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change the current directory of screen to the specified directory or, if called without an
       argument,  to your home directory (the value of the environment variable $HOME).  All win-
       dows that are created by means of the "screen" command from within ".screenrc" or by means
       of  "C-a  :  screen  ..." or "C-a c" use this as their default directory.  Without a chdir
       command, this would be the directory from which screen  was  invoked.   Hardcopy  and  log
       files  are  always written to the window's default directory, not the current directory of
       the process running in the window.  You can  use  this  command	multiple  times  in  your
       .screenrc  to  start  various windows in different default directories, but the last chdir
       value will affect all the windows you create interactively.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows you to enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful for on-the-fly modification  of  key
       bindings,  specific  window creation and changing settings. Note that the "set" keyword no
       longer exists! Usually commands affect the current window rather than default settings for
       future windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def...'.

       If  you	consider  this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard "C-a esc" (copy
       mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This command has the same effect as typing the screen escape character (^A). It is  proba-
       bly  only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c" option is given, select the specified com-
       mand class.  See also "bind" and "bindkey".

       compacthist [on|off]

       This tells screen whether to suppress trailing blank lines when scrolling up text into the
       history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs  or  un-grabs  the  machines  console  output  to a window.  Note: Only the owner of
       /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is only available if  the  machine
       supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter  copy/scrollback  mode. This allows you to copy text from the current window and its
       history into the paste buffer. In this mode a vi-like `full screen editor' is active:
       Movement keys:
	 h, j, k, l move the cursor line by line or column by column.
	 0, ^ and $ move to the leftmost column, to the first or last non-whitespace character on
	   the line.
	 H,  M	and L move the cursor to the leftmost column of the top, center or bottom line of
	   the window.
	 + and - positions one line up and down.
	 G moves to the specified absolute line (default: end of buffer).
	 | moves to the specified absolute column.
	 w, b, e move the cursor word by word.
	 B, E move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
	 C-u and C-d scroll the display up/down by the specified amount of lines while preserving
	   the cursor position. (Default: half screen-full).
	 C-b and C-f scroll the display up/down a full screen.
	 g moves to the beginning of the buffer.
	 % jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.

	   Emacs  style  movement  keys can be customized by a .screenrc command.  (E.g. markkeys
	   "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is no simple method for a full  emacs-style	keymap,  as  this
	   involves multi-character codes.

	   The copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text between these marks will be
	   highlighted. Press
	 space to set the first or second mark respectively.
	 Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of line.
	 W marks exactly one word.
       Repeat count:
	   Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by pressing digits
	 0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.
	   Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15 into the paste buffer.
	 / Vi-like search forward.
	 ? Vi-like search backward.
	 C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
	 C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
	   There are however some keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi does not allow one to
	   yank rectangular blocks of text, but screen does. Press
	 c  or	C to set the left or right margin respectively. If no repeat count is given, both
	   default to the current cursor position.
	   Example: Try this on a rather full text screen: "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE	c  10  l  5  j	C

	   This  moves	one to the middle line of the screen, moves in 20 columns left, marks the
	   beginning of the paste buffer, sets the left column, moves 5 columns  down,	sets  the
	   right column, and then marks the end of the paste buffer. Now try:
	   "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

	   and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.
	 J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a newline character (012),
	   lines glued seamless, lines separated by  a	single	whitespace  and  comma	separated
	   lines.  Note that you can prepend the newline character with a carriage return charac-
	   ter, by issuing a "crlf on".
	 v is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it toggles the left margin between  col-
	   umn 9 and 1. Press
	 a  before  the  final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus the contents of the paste
	   buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended to.
	 A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.
	 > sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the  paste  buffer  to  the  screen-
	   exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once copy-mode is finished.
	   This example demonstrates how to dump the whole scrollback buffer to that file: "C-A [
	   g SPACE G $ >".
	 C-g gives information about the current line and column.
	 x exchanges the first mark and the current cursor position. You can use this  to  adjust
	   an already placed mark.
	 @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.
	 All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This  affects  the copying of text regions with the `C-a [' command. If it is set to `on',
       lines will be separated by the two character sequence `CR' -  `LF'.   Otherwise	(default)
       only `LF' is used.  When no parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns  runtime debugging on or off. If screen has been compiled with option -DDEBUG debug-
       ging available and is turned on per default. Note that this command only affects debugging
       output  from the main "SCREEN" process correctly. Debug output from attacher processes can
       only be turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Initial
       setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same  as the autonuke command except that the default setting for new displays is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you can use the special `AN' terminal  capability  if
       you want to have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same  as  the bce command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Ini-
       tial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a break signal for terminal devices. The
       preferred  methods  are	tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK.  The third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete
       screen session for the duration of the break, but it may be the only way to generate  long
       breaks.	 Tcsendbreak  and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes (e.g. 4
       per second). This is not only system-dependent, this also  differs  between  serial  board
       drivers.  Calling "defbreaktype" with no parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Shows
       current default if called without argument.

       defescape xy

       Set the default command characters. This is equivalent to the "escape" except that  it  is
       useful  multiuser sessions only. In a multiuser session "escape" changes the command char-
       acter of the calling user, where "defescape" changes the default  command  characters  for
       users that will be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same  as the flow command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Ini-
       tial setting is `auto'.	Specifying "defflow auto interrupt" is the same as  the  command-
       line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Initial
       setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that all new windows will get is set to status.  This command is  use-
       ful to make the hardstatus of every window display the window number or title or the like.
       Status may contain the same directives as in the window messages, but the directive escape
       character  is  '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.	This was done to make a misinterpretation
       of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.  If the parameter status is omitted, the
       current	default  string  is displayed.	Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is

       defencoding enc

       Same as the encoding command except that the default setting for new windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is the encoding taken from the terminal.

       deflog on|off

       Same  as  the log command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Ini-
       tial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. This
       is initialized with `on' as distributed (see config.h.in).

       defmode mode

       The  mode  of  each  newly  allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an octal number.
       When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same as the monitor command except that the default setting for new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same as the nonblock command except that the default setting for displays is changed. Ini-
       tial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting for new displays is changed.
       Initial	setting is 256 bytes.  Note that you can use the special 'OL' terminal capability
       if you want to have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same  as  the  silence command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec"

       Same as the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new windows is  changed.
       Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same  as the utf8 command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Ini-
       tial setting is `on' if screen was started with "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same as the wrap command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.  Ini-
       tially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with the "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means of
       "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same as the writelock command except that the default setting for new windows is  changed.
       Initially writelocks will off.

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym to the zombie command. Both currently change the default.  See there.

       detach [-h]

       Detach  the  screen  session  (disconnect  it  from the terminal and put it into the back-
       ground).  This returns you to the shell where you invoked screen.  A detached  screen  can
       be  resumed  by	invoking  screen  with	the  -r  option  (see  also section "COMMAND-LINE
       OPTIONS"). The -h option tells screen to immediately close the connection to the  terminal


       Show  what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know why features like
       color or the alternate charset don't work.


       Shows a tabular listing of all currently connected user front-ends  (displays).	 This  is
       most useful for multiuser sessions.

       digraph [preset]

       This  command  prompts  the user for a digraph sequence. The next two characters typed are
       looked up in a builtin table and the resulting character is inserted in the input  stream.
       For example, if the user enters 'a"', an a-umlaut will be inserted. If the first character
       entered is a 0 (zero), screen will treat the following characters  (up  to  three)  as  an
       octal number instead.  The optional argument preset is treated as user input, thus one can
       create an "umlaut" key.	For example the command "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user
       to generate an a-umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the currently active window
       to the file ".termcap" in the user's "$HOME/.screen" directory (or wherever screen  stores
       its sockets. See the "FILES" section below).  This termcap entry is identical to the value
       of the environment variable $TERMCAP that is set up by screen for each  window.	For  ter-
       minfo  based  systems you will need to run a converter like captoinfo and then compile the
       entry with tic.

       echo [-n] message

       The echo command may be used to annoy screen users with a 'message of the day'.	Typically
       installed  in  a  global  /etc/screenrc.  The option "-n" may be used to suppress the line
       feed.  See also "sleep".  Echo is also useful for online  checking  of  environment  vari-

       encoding enc [enc]

       Tell screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument sets the encoding of the
       current window. Each window can emulate a different encoding. The optional second  parame-
       ter overwrites the encoding of the connected terminal. It should never be needed as screen
       uses the locale setting to detect the encoding.	There is also a way to select a  terminal
       encoding depending on the terminal type by using the "KJ" termcap entry.

       Supported  encodings  are  eucJP,  SJIS,  eucKR,  eucCN, Big5, GBK, KOI8-R, CP1251, UTF-8,
       ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4, ISO8859-5, ISO8859-6,  ISO8859-7,  ISO8859-8,  ISO8859-9,
       ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

       See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new window.

       escape xy

       Set  the  command  character to x and the character generating a literal command character
       (by triggering the "meta" command) to y (similar to the	-e  option).   Each  argument  is
       either  a  single  character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a
       backslash followed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character),  or	a
       backslash followed by a second character, such as "\^" or "\\".	The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1 [command2 ...]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat] newcommand [args ...]]

       Run  a  unix subprocess (specified by an executable path newcommand and its optional argu-
       ments) in the current window. The flow of data  between	newcommands  stdin/stdout/stderr,
       the  process  originally  started in the window (let us call it "application-process") and
       screen itself (window) is controlled by the file descriptor pattern fdpat.   This  pattern
       is  basically  a three character sequence representing stdin, stdout and stderr of newcom-
       mand. A dot (.) connects the file descriptor to screen.	An exclamation	mark  (!)  causes
       the file descriptor to be connected to the application-process. A colon (:) combines both.
       User input will go to newcommand unless newcommand receives the application-process'  out-
       put  (fdpats  first  character  is  `!' or `:') or a pipe symbol (|) is added (as a fourth
       character) to the end of fdpat.
       Invoking `exec' without arguments shows name and arguments of the currently  running  sub-
       process in this window. Only one subprocess a time can be running in each window.
       When  a	subprocess  is	running  the `kill' command will affect it instead of the windows
       Refer to the postscript file `doc/fdpat.ps' for a confusing illustration of all 21  possi-
       ble combinations. Each drawing shows the digits 2,1,0 representing the three file descrip-
       tors of newcommand. The box marked `W' is the usual pty that has  the  application-process
       on  its	slave  side.   The box marked `P' is the secondary pty that now has screen at its
       master side.

       Whitespace between the word `exec' and fdpat and the command can be omitted. Trailing dots
       and  a  fdpat  consisting  only of dots can be omitted. A simple `|' is synonymous for the
       pattern `!..|'; the word exec can be omitted here and can always be replaced by `!'.


	      exec ... /bin/sh
	      exec /bin/sh

       Creates another shell in the same window, while the original shell is still running.  Out-
       put of both shells is displayed and user input is sent to the new /bin/sh.

	      exec !.. stty 19200
	      exec ! stty 19200
	      !!stty 19200

       Set  the  speed	of  the  window's  tty. If your stty command operates on stdout, then add
       another `!'.

	      exec !..| less

       This adds a pager to the window output. The special character `|' is needed  to	give  the
       user  control  over  the  pager although it gets its input from the window's process. This
       works, because less listens on stderr (a behavior that screen would not expect without the
       `|')  when its stdin is not a tty.  Less versions newer than 177 fail miserably here; good
       old pg still works.

	      !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

       Sends window output to both, the user and the sed command. The sed inserts  an  additional
       bell  character	(oct. 007) to the window output seen by screen.  This will cause "Bell in
       window x" messages, whenever the string "Error" appears in the window.


       Change the window size to the size of the current region. This command is  needed  because
       screen  doesn't	adapt  the window size automatically if the window is displayed more than

       flow [on|off|auto]

       Sets the flow-control mode for this window.  Without parameters it cycles the current win-
       dow's  flow-control  setting  from  "automatic"	to  "on" to "off".  See the discussion on
       "FLOW-CONTROL" later on in this document for full details and note, that this  is  subject
       to change in future releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [up|down|top|bottom]

       Move  the  input  focus	to  the next region. This is done in a cyclic way so that the top
       region is selected after the bottom one. If no subcommand is given it defaults to  `down'.
       `up'  cycles  in  the  opposite	order, `top' and `bottom' go to the top and bottom region
       respectively. Useful bindings are (j and k as in vi)
	   bind j focus down
	   bind k focus up
	   bind t focus top
	   bind b focus bottom
       Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input character with the 8th bit
       set,  it  will  use the charset stored in the GR slot and print the character with the 8th
       bit stripped. The default (see also "defgr") is not to process GR switching because other-
       wise the ISO88591 charset would not work.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes  out  the  currently displayed image to the file file, or, if no filename is speci-
       fied, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where n is the number of the current window.
       This  either  appends or overwrites the file if it exists. See below.  If the option -h is
       specified, dump also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by the  command  "C-a
       h", otherwise these files are overwritten each time.  Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines a directory where hardcopy files will be placed. If unset, hardcopys are dumped in
       screen's current working directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]
       hardstatus [always]lastline|message|ignore [string]
       hardstatus string [string]

       This command configures the use and emulation of the terminal's hardstatus line. The first
       form  toggles whether screen will use the hardware status line to display messages. If the
       flag is set to `off', these messages are overlaid in reverse video  mode  at  the  display
       line. The default setting is `on'.

       The  second  form  tells  screen what to do if the terminal doesn't have a hardstatus line
       (i.e. the termcap/terminfo capabilities "hs", "ts", "fs" and "ds" are  not  set).  If  the
       type "lastline" is used, screen will reserve the last line of the display for the hardsta-
       tus. "message" uses screen's message mechanism and "ignore" tells screen never to  display
       the  hardstatus.   If  you prepend the word "always" to the type (e.g., "alwayslastline"),
       screen will use the type even if the terminal supports a hardstatus.

       The third form specifies the contents of the hardstatus line.  '%h'  is	used  as  default
       string, i.e., the stored hardstatus of the current window (settable via "ESC]0;<string>^G"
       or "ESC_<string>ESC\") is displayed.  You can  customize  this  to  any	string	you  like
       including  the  escapes	from  the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. If you leave out the argument
       string, the current string is displayed.

       You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as additional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set the display height to a specified number of lines. When no argument is given  it  tog-
       gles  between  24 and 42 lines display. You can also specify a width if you want to change
       both values.  The -w option tells screen to leave the display size unchanged and just  set
       the window size, -d vice versa.

       help [-c class]

       Not  really  a  online  help, but displays a help screen showing you all the key bindings.
       The first pages list all the internal commands followed by their current bindings.  Subse-
       quent  pages  will  display  the  custom  commands, one command per key.  Press space when
       you're done reading each page, or return to exit early.	All other characters are ignored.
       If  the	"-c" option is given, display all bound commands for the specified command class.
       See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


       Usually users work with a shell that allows easy access to previous commands.  For example
       csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last command executed.  Screen allows you to have a
       primitive way of re-calling "the command that started ...": You just type the first letter
       of  that  command,  then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous line that matches
       with the `prompt character' to the left of the cursor. This line is pasted into this  win-
       dow's  input  queue.  Thus you have a crude command history (made up by the visible window
       and its scrollback buffer).

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout [cmd args]]

       Sets a command that is run after the specified number of seconds  inactivity  is  reached.
       This command will normally be the "blanker" command to create a screen blanker, but it can
       be any screen command.  If no command is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout  of
       zero (ot the special timeout off) disables the timer.  If no arguments are given, the cur-
       rent settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell screen to ignore the case of characters in searches. Default is `off'.


       Uses the message line to display some information about the  current  window:  the  cursor
       position  in  the form "(column,row)" starting with "(1,1)", the terminal width and height
       plus the size of the scrollback buffer in lines, like in "(80,24)+50", the  current  state
       of window XON/XOFF flow control is shown like this (See also section FLOW CONTROL):

	 +flow	   automatic flow control, currently on.
	 -flow	   automatic flow control, currently off.
	 +(+)flow  flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.
	 -(+)flow  flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
	 +(-)flow  flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
	 -(-)flow  flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.

       The  current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap' not) is also shown. The
       flags `ins', `org', `app', `log', `mon' or `nored' are displayed when  the  window  is  in
       insert mode, origin mode, application-keypad mode, has output logging, activity monitoring
       or partial redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3) and in square brackets the terminal
       character  sets	that are currently designated as G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is
       in UTF-8 mode, the string "UTF-8" is shown instead.

       Additional modes depending on the type of the window are displayed at the end of the  sta-
       tus line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").
       If  the state machine of the terminal emulator is in a non-default state, the info line is
       started with a string identifying the current state.
       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


       Kill current window.
       If there is an `exec' command running then it is killed.  Otherwise  the  process  (shell)
       running	in  the  window  receives a HANGUP condition, the window structure is removed and
       screen (your display) switches to another window.  When	the  last  window  is  destroyed,
       screen exits.  After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.
       Note:  Emacs  users  should  keep this command in mind, when killing a line.  It is recom-
       mended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape key or to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay the last contents of the message/status line.	Useful if you're  typing  when	a
       message appears, because  the message goes away when you press a key (unless your terminal
       has a hardware status line).  Refer to the commands "msgwait" and  "msgminwait"	for  fine


       Display	the  disclaimer  page.	This  is done whenever screen is started without options,
       which should be often enough. See also the "startup_message" command.


       Lock this display.  Call a  screenlock  program	(/local/bin/lck  or  /usr/bin/lock  or	a
       builtin if no other is available). Screen does not accept any command keys until this pro-
       gram terminates. Meanwhile processes in the windows may continue, as the  windows  are  in
       the  `detached' state. The screenlock program may be changed through the environment vari-
       able $LOCKPRG (which must be set in the shell from which screen is started)  and  is  exe-
       cuted with the user's uid and gid.
       Warning:  When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no password set on screen, the
       lock is void: One could easily re-attach from  an  unlocked  shell.  This  feature  should
       rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop  writing  output  of the current window to a file "screenlog.n" in the window's
       default directory, where n is the number of the	current  window.  This	filename  can  be
       changed with the `logfile' command. If no parameter is given, the state of logging is tog-
       gled. The session log is appended to the previous contents  of  the  file  if  it  already
       exists.	The  current contents and the contents of the scrollback history are not included
       in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename
       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name the log files will get. The default is "screenlog.%n".	The  second  form
       changes	the  number of seconds screen will wait before flushing the logfile buffer to the
       file-system. The default value is 10 seconds.

       login [on|off]

       Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database file for the current window.  This controls
       if  the	window is `logged in'.	When no parameter is given, the login state of the window
       is toggled.  Additionally to that toggle, it is convenient having a `log in'  and  a  `log
       out'  key.  E.g.  `bind I login on' and `bind O login off' will map these keys to be C-a I
       and C-a O.  The default setting (in config.h.in) should be "on" for  a  screen  that  runs
       under  suid-root.   Use	the  "deflogin" command to change the default login state for new
       windows. Both commands are only present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]
       logtstamp after [secs]
       logtstamp string [string]

       This command controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If time-stamps  are  turned
       "on", screen adds a string containing the current time to the logfile after two minutes of
       inactivity.  When output continues and more than another two minutes have passed, a second
       time-stamp  is  added  to  document the restart of the output. You can change this timeout
       with the second form of the command. The third form is used for customizing the time-stamp
       string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp -- %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by default).


       Tell  screen that the next input character should only be looked up in the default bindkey
       table. See also "bindkey".


       Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timo]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout of  timo  ms.  The
       default	timeout  is  300ms.  Maptimeout with no arguments shows the current setting.  See
       also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This is a method of changing the keymap used for copy/history mode.  The string is made up
       of  oldchar=newchar pairs which are separated by `:'. Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F" will
       change the keys `C-b' and `C-f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).   This
       happens	to be the default binding for `B' and `F'.  The command "markkeys h=^B:l=^F:$=^E"
       would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your terminal  sends	characters,  that
       cause you to abort copy mode, then this command may help by binding these characters to do
       nothing.  The no-op character is `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do not
       want  to  use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.  As shown in this example, multiple keys
       can be assigned to one function in a single statement.

       maxwin num

       Set the maximum window number screen will create. Doesn't affect already existing windows.
       The number may only be decreased.


       Insert the command character (C-a) in the current window's input stream.

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles activity monitoring of windows.	When monitoring is turned on and an affected win-
       dow is switched into the background, you will receive the activity notification message in
       the status line at the first sign of output and the window will also be marked with an `@'
       in the window-status display.  Monitoring is initially off for all windows.

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time screen delays a new message when one message is currently displayed.  The
       default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines	the time a message is displayed if screen is not disturbed by other activity. The
       default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation is singleuser.  In
       multiuser  mode	the  commands  `acladd',  `aclchg',  `aclgrp' and `acldel' can be used to
       enable (and disable) other users accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are familiar  with	the  game
       "nethack", you may enjoy the nethack-style messages which will often blur the facts a lit-
       tle, but are much funnier to read. Anyway, standard messages often tend to be  unclear  as
       This  option  is  only available if screen was compiled with the NETHACK flag defined. The
       default setting is then determined by the presence of the environment variable $NETHACKOP-
       TIONS and the file ~/.nethackrc - if either one is present, the default is on.


       Switch  to the next window.  This command can be used repeatedly to cycle through the list
       of windows.

       nonblock [on|off|numsecs]

       Tell screen how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that cease to accept output.  This
       can  happen  if	a  user  presses  ^S  or a TCP/modem connection gets cut but no hangup is
       received. If nonblock is off (this is the default) screen waits until the display restarts
       to  accept the output. If nonblock is on, screen waits until the timeout is reached (on is
       treated as 1s). If the display still doesn't receive characters, screen will  consider  it
       "blocked" and stop sending characters to it. If at some time it restarts to accept charac-
       ters, screen will unblock the display and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [n]

       Change the current windows number. If the given number n is already used by  another  win-
       dow,  both windows exchange their numbers. If no argument is specified, the current window
       number (and title) is shown.

       obuflimit [limit]

       If the output buffer contains more bytes than the specified limit, no more  data  will  be
       read  from the windows. The default value is 256. If you have a fast display (like xterm),
       you can set it to some higher value. If no argument is specified, the current  setting  is


       Kill all regions but the current one.


       Switch  to the window displayed previously. If this window does no longer exist, other has
       the same effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines whether the display should be refreshed (as with redisplay) after switching to the
       current	window.  This command only affects the current window.	To immediately affect all
       windows use the allpartial command.  Default is `off', of course.  This default is  fixed,
       as there is currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present	a  crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask for it, whenever
       someone attempts to resume a detached. This is useful if you have privileged programs run-
       ning  under  screen and you want to protect your session from reattach attempts by another
       user masquerading as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted password is  specified,
       screen  prompts twice for typing a password and places its encryption in the paste buffer.
       Default is `none', this disables password checking.

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write the (concatenated) contents of the specified registers to the  stdin  queue  of  the
       current	window. The register '.' is treated as the paste buffer. If no parameter is given
       the user is prompted for a single register to paste.  The paste buffer can be filled  with
       the  copy, history and readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled with the register,
       readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called with a second argument,	the  contents  of
       the specified registers is pasted into the named destination register rather than the win-
       dow. If '.' is used as the second argument, the displays paste buffer is the  destination.
       Note,  that "paste" uses a wide variety of resources: Whenever a second argument is speci-
       fied no current window is needed. When the source specification	only  contains	registers
       (not  the  paste  buffer) then there need not be a current display (terminal attached), as
       the registers are a global resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell screen to include font information in the paste buffer. The default is not to do  so.
       This command is especially useful for multi character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen the window's terminal line and send a break condition. See `break'.


       Power  detach.	Mainly	the  same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP signal to the parent
       process of screen.  CAUTION: This will result in a logout, when screen  was  started  from
       your login shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The  message  specified	here is output whenever a `Power detach' was performed. It may be
       used as a replacement for a logout message or to reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter,
       the current message is shown.


       Switch  to  the window with the next lower number.  This command can be used repeatedly to
       cycle through the list of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If cmd is not an empty string, screen will not use the terminal capabilities "po/pf" if it
       detects	an ansi print sequence ESC [ 5 i, but pipe the output into cmd.  This should nor-
       mally be a command like "lpr" or "'cat > /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without a command dis-
       plays the current setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes the pipe.
       Warning:  Be  careful with this command! If other user have write access to your terminal,
       they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input queue. If no argument  is
       given  you are prompted for a register name. The text is parsed as if it had been typed in
       from the user's keyboard. This command can be used to bind multiple actions  to	a  single


       Kill  all  windows  and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style terminals the keys C-4
       and C-\ are identical.  This makes the default bindings dangerous: Be careful not to  type
       C-a  C-4  when  selecting window no. 4.	Use the empty bind command (as in "bind '^\'") to
       remove a key binding.

       readbuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Reads the contents of the specified file into the paste buffer.	You can tell  screen  the
       encoding  of  the  file	via  the -e option.  If no file is specified, the screen-exchange
       filename is used.  See also "bufferfile" command.

       readreg [-e encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero or one arguments it it
       duplicates the paste buffer contents into the register specified or entered at the prompt.
       With two arguments it reads the contents of the named file  into  the  register,  just  as
       readbuf	reads  the  screen-exchange  file into the paste buffer.  You can tell screen the
       encoding of the file via the -e option.	The following example  will  paste  the  system's
       password file into the screen window (using register p, where a copy remains):

		   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
		   C-a : paste p


       Redisplay the current window. Needed to get a full redisplay when in partial redraw mode.

       register [-e encoding] key string

       Save  the  specified string to the register key.  The encoding of the string can be speci-
       fied via the -e option.	See also the "paste" command.


       Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one region.


       Unlinks the screen-exchange file used by the commands "writebuf" and "readbuf".


       Reset the virtual terminal to its "power-on" values. Useful when  strange  settings  (like
       scroll regions or graphics character set) are left over from an application.


       Resize  the current region. The space will be removed from or added to the region below or
       if there's not enough space from the region above.

	      resize +N   increase current region height by N

	      resize -N   decrease current region height by N

	      resize  N   set current region height to N

	      resize  =   make all windows equally high

	      resize  max maximize current region height

	      resize  min minimize current region height

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]]

       Establish a new window.	The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa), title (a.k.a.) option
       (-t),  login  options (-l and -ln) , terminal type option (-T <term>), the all-capability-
       flag (-a) and scrollback option (-h <num>) may be specified with each command.  The option
       (-M)  turns  monitoring	on  for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on for
       this window.  If an optional number n in the range 0..MAXWIN-1 is given, the window number
       n  is assigned to the newly created window (or, if this number is already in-use, the next
       available number).  If a command is specified after "screen", this command (with the given
       arguments)  is  started	in  the  window;  otherwise,  a  shell is created.  Thus, if your
       ".screenrc" contains the lines

		   # example for .screenrc:
		   screen 1
		   screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET connection to  the
       machine foobar (with no flow-control using the title "foobar" in window #2) and will write
       a logfile ("screenlog.2") of the telnet session.  Note, that unlike previous  versions  of
       screen no additional default window is created when "screen" commands are included in your
       ".screenrc" file. When the initialization is completed, screen switches to the last window
       specified in your .screenrc file or, if none, opens a default window #0.
       Screen  has  built  in  some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".  See also chapter "WINDOW

       scrollback num

       Set the size of the scrollback buffer for the current windows to num  lines.  The  default
       scrollback is 100 lines.  See also the "defscrollback" command and use "C-a i" to view the
       current setting.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be  a  prefix  of  a  window  title
       (alphanumeric  window name) or a window number.	The parameter is optional and if omitted,
       you get prompted for an identifier.  When a new window is established, the first available
       number is assigned to this window.  Thus, the first window can be activated by "select 0".
       The number of windows is limited at compile-time by  the  MAXWIN  configuration	parameter
       (which defaults to 40 in Debian).  There are two special WindowIDs, "-" selects the inter-
       nal blank window and "." selects the current window. The latter is  useful  if  used  with
       screen's "-X" option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename  the  current  session.  Note,  that  for "screen -list" the name shows up with the
       process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is omitted, the name of this session is  dis-
       played.	Caution:  Among  other problems, the $STY environment variable still reflects the
       old name.  Use of this command is strongly discouraged. Use the "-S" commandline option if
       you need this feature.  The default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is specified, the user will
       be prompted to enter a value.  If no parameters are specified, the user will  be  prompted
       for  both  variable  and  value.  The  environment is inherited by all subsequently forked

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally screen uses different sessions and process groups for the windows. If  setsid  is
       turned  off, this is not done anymore and all windows will be in the same process group as
       the screen backend process. This also breaks job-control, so be careful.  The  default  is
       on, of course. This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set  the  command to be used to create a new shell.  This overrides the value of the envi-
       ronment variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like to  run  a  tty-enhancer	which  is
       expecting  to  execute  the  program specified in $SHELL. If the command begins with a '-'
       character, the shell will be started as a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set the title for all shells created during startup  or	by  the  C-A  C-c  command.   For
       details about what a title is, see the discussion entitled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles	silence  monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned on and an affected window
       is switched into the background, you will receive the silence notification message in  the
       status  line  after a specified period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be
       changed with the `silencewait' command or by specifying a number  of  seconds  instead  of
       `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define  the  time  that	all windows monitored for silence should wait before displaying a
       message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This command will pause the execution of a  .screenrc  file  for  num  seconds.	 Keyboard
       activity  will  end the sleep.  It may be used to give users a chance to read the messages
       output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define the speed at which text is inserted into the current window by the paste ("C-a  ]")
       command.   If  the  slowpaste  value  is  nonzero  text is written character by character.
       screen will make a pause of msec milliseconds after each single character write	to  allow
       the application to process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.

       source file

       Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands  may  be  nested  to  a  maximum
       recursion level of ten. If file is not an absolute path and screen is already processing a
       source command, the parent directory of the running source command file is used to  search
       for the new command file before screen's current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only work at startup and reattach time, so
       they must be reached via the default screenrc files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr [color]]

       Change the way screen does highlighting for text marking and printing messages.	 See  the
       "STRING	ESCAPES"  chapter  for the syntax of the modifiers.  The default is currently "=s
       dd" (standout, default colors).

       split [-v]

       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the display are resized to make
       room  for the new region. The blank window is displayed on the new region. Splits are made
       horizontally unless -v is used. Use the "remove" or the "only" command to delete  regions.
       Use "focus" to toggle between regions.

       startup_message on|off

       Select  whether	you want to see the copyright notice during startup.  Default is `on', as
       you probably noticed.

       stuff string

       Stuff the string string in the input buffer of the  current  window.   This  is	like  the
       "paste"	command  but  with  much  less overhead.  You cannot paste large buffers with the
       "stuff" command. It is most useful for key bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]

       Substitute the user of a display. The command prompts for all parameters that are omitted.
       If  passwords are specified as parameters, they have to be specified un-crypted. The first
       password is matched against the systems passwd database, the second  password  is  matched
       against	the screen password as set with the commands "acladd" or "password".  "Su" may be
       useful for the screen administrator to test multiuser  setups.	When  the  identification
       fails, the user has access to the commands available for user nobody.  These are "detach",
       "license", "version", "help" and "displays".


       Suspend screen.	The windows are in the `detached' state, while screen is suspended.  This
       feature relies on the shell being able to do job control.

       term term

       In  each  window's  environment	screen	opens,	the  $TERM variable is set to "screen" by
       default.  But when no description for "screen" is installed in the local termcap  or  ter-
       minfo  data  base, you set $TERM to - say - "vt100". This won't do much harm, as screen is
       VT100/ANSI compatible.  The use of the "term" command is discouraged for non-default  pur-
       pose.   That  is, one may want to specify special $TERM settings (e.g. vt100) for the next
       "screen rlogin othermachine" command. Use the command "screen  -T  vt100  rlogin  otherma-
       chine" rather than setting and resetting the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       terminfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]

       Use  this  command  to  modify your terminal's termcap entry without going through all the
       hassles involved in creating a custom termcap entry.  Plus, you can  optionally	customize
       the  termcap  generated	for  the windows.  You have to place these commands in one of the
       screenrc startup files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.
       If your system works uses the terminfo database rather than termcap,  screen  will  under-
       stand  the  `terminfo'  command, which has the same effects as the `termcap' command.  Two
       separate commands are provided, as there  are  subtle  syntactic  differences,  e.g.  when
       parameter  interpolation (using `%') is required. Note that termcap names of the capabili-
       ties have to be used with the `terminfo' command.
       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and termcap syntax, you  can
       use the command `termcapinfo', which is just a shorthand for a pair of `termcap' and `ter-
       minfo' commands with identical arguments.

       The first argument specifies which terminal(s) should be affected by this definition.  You
       can  specify  multiple  terminal names by separating them with `|'s.  Use `*' to match all
       terminals and `vt*' to match all terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each tweak argument contains one or  more  termcap  defines  (separated	by  `:'s)  to  be
       inserted  at the start of the appropriate termcap entry, enhancing it or overriding exist-
       ing values.  The first tweak modifies your terminal's termcap,  and  contains  definitions
       that your terminal uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
       unchanged (e.g. '').  The second (optional) tweak modifies all the  window  termcaps,  and
       should contain definitions that screen understands (see the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

	      termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs	screen	that  all  terminals  that begin with `xterm' have firm auto-margins that
       allow the last position on the screen to be updated (LP), but they  don't  really  have	a
       status  line (no 'hs' - append `@' to turn entries off).  Note that we assume `LP' for all
       terminal names that start with "vt", but only if you don't specify a termcap  command  for
       that terminal.

	      termcap vt*  LP
	      termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies  the  firm-margined  `LP' capability for all terminals that begin with `vt', and
       the second line will also add the escape-sequences to switch into (Z0)  and  back  out  of
       (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if this is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1
       in your termcap to use the width-changing commands.)

	      termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This leaves your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function key  labels  to  each  window's
       termcap entry.

	      termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes  a  h19  or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables the insert mode
       (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@' in the `im' string is after the `=', so  it
       is  part  of  the  string).  Having the `im' and `ei' definitions put into your terminal's
       termcap will cause screen to automatically advertise the  character-insert  capability  in
       each  window's  termcap.   Each	window will also get the delete-character capability (dc)
       added to its termcap, which screen will translate into  a  line-update  for  the  terminal
       (we're pretending it doesn't support character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each window's termcap entry, you should instead set the
       $SCREENCAP variable prior to running screen.  See the discussion on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL"
       in this manual, and the termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time [string]

       Uses  the  message  line  to display the time of day, the host name, and the load averages
       over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this is available on  your  system).   For  window  specific
       information use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like it is described in
       the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is specified, screen prompts
       for one. This command was known as `aka' in previous releases.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off [on|off]]

       Change  the  encoding  used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the strings sent to
       the window will be UTF-8 encoded and vice versa. Omitting the parameter toggles	the  set-
       ting.  If a second parameter is given, the display's encoding is also changed (this should
       rather be done with screen's "-U" option).  See also "defutf8", which changes the  default
       setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets  the visual bell setting for this window. Omitting the parameter toggles the setting.
       If vbell is switched on, but your terminal does not support a visual bell,  a  `vbell-mes-
       sage'  is  displayed  in the status line when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual
       bell support of a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').
       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell is used.  See also `bell_msg'.

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line if the window receives
       a  bell	character  (^G), vbell is set to "on", but the terminal does not support a visual
       bell.  The default message is "Wuff, Wuff!!".  Without parameter, the current  message  is

       vbellwait sec

       Define  a delay in seconds after each display of screen's visual bell message. The default
       is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a window  is  created  (or
       resurrected from zombie state). Default is off.	Without parameter, the current setting is


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write a message to all displays. The message will appear in the terminal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle the window width between 80 and 132 columns or set it to cols columns if	an  argu-
       ment  is  specified.   This  requires  a capable terminal and the termcap entries "Z0" and
       "Z1".  See the "termcap" command for more information. You can also specify a  new  height
       if  you	want to change both values.  The -w option tells screen to leave the display size
       unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] [-m]
       windowlist string [string]
       windowlist title [title]

       Display all windows in a table for visual window selection.  The  desired  window  can  be
       selected  via  the  standard  movement keys (see the "copy" command) and activated via the
       return key.  If the -b option is given, screen will switch to the blank window before pre-
       senting	the  list,  so that the current window is also selectable.  The -m option changes
       the order of the windows, instead of sorting by window numbers screen  uses  its  internal
       most-recently-used list.

       The  table  format can be changed with the string and title option, the title is displayed
       as table heading, while the lines are made by using the string setting. The  default  set-
       ting  is  "Num Name%=Flags" for the title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the "STRING
       ESCAPES" chapter for more codes (e.g. color settings).


       Uses the message line to display a list of all the windows.  Each window is listed by num-
       ber  with the name of process that has been started in the window (or its title); the cur-
       rent window is marked with a `*'; the previous window is marked with a `-'; all	the  win-
       dows  that  are "logged in" are marked with a `$'; a background window that has received a
       bell is marked with a `!'; a background window that is being monitored and has had  activ-
       ity  occur  is  marked  with an `@'; a window which has output logging turned on is marked
       with `(L)'; windows occupied by other users are marked with `&';  windows  in  the  zombie
       state  are marked with `Z'.  If this list is too long to fit on the terminal's status line
       only the portion around the current window is displayed.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets the line-wrap setting for the current window.  When line-wrap is on, the second  con-
       secutive printable character output at the last column of a line will wrap to the start of
       the following line.  As an added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through	the  left
       margin to the previous line.  Default is `on'.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes  the  contents  of the paste buffer to the specified file, or the public accessible
       screen-exchange file if no filename is given. This is thought of as a primitive	means  of
       communication between screen users on the same host. If an encoding is specified the paste
       buffer is recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename  can  be  set	with  the
       bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write to the same window
       at once. Per default, writelock is in `auto' mode and grants exclusive input permission to
       the  user  who is the first to switch to the particular window. When he leaves the window,
       other users may obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the current  window
       is  disabled by the command "writelock off". If the user issues the command "writelock on"
       he keeps the exclusive write permission while switching to other windows.


       Insert a CTRL-s / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of the current window.

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]
       zmodem sendcmd [string]
       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for screen. Screen understands two different modes when it detects a
       zmodem  request:  "pass" and "catch".  If the mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all
       data to the attacher until the end of the transmission is reached.  In "catch" mode screen
       acts  as a zmodem endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands. If the mode is set
       to "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is a tty (e.g. a serial line),	otherwise
       it will use "pass".
       You  can  define  the  templates  screen uses in "catch" mode via the second and the third
       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]
       defzombie [keys]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as the windows process
       (e.g.  shell)  exits. When a string of two keys is specified to the zombie command, `dead'
       windows will remain in the list.  The kill command may be used to remove  such  a  window.
       Pressing  the  first  key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing the second
       key, screen will attempt to resurrect the window. The process that was  initially  running
       in  the	window	will  be launched again. Calling zombie without parameters will clear the
       zombie setting, thus making windows disappear when their process exits.

       As the zombie-setting is manipulated globally for all windows, this command should only be
       called defzombie. Until we need this as a per window setting, the commands zombie and def-
       zombie are synonymous.

       Optionally you can put the word "onerror" after the keys. This will cause screen to  moni-
       tor exit status of the process running in the window. If it exits normally ('0'), the win-
       dow disappears. Any other exit value causes the window to become a zombie.

       Screen displays informational messages and other diagnostics in	a  message  line.   While
       this  line  is  distributed  to	appear	at the bottom of the screen, it can be defined to
       appear at the top of the screen during compilation.  If your terminal has  a  status  line
       defined in its termcap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of the current screen will be temporarily  overwritten  and  output  will  be  momentarily
       interrupted.  The  message line is automatically removed after a few seconds delay, but it
       can also be removed early (on terminals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The message line facility can be used by an application running in the current  window  by
       means  of the ANSI Privacy message control sequence.  For instance, from within the shell,
       try something like:

	      echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where '<esc>' is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and '\\' turns into a single  back-

       Screen provides three different window types. New windows are created with screen's screen
       command (see also the entry in chapter "CUSTOMIZATION"). The first parameter to the screen
       command	defines  which type of window is created. The different window types are all spe-
       cial cases of the normal type. They have been added in order to allow screen  to  be  used
       efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       o  The  normal  window  contains  a shell (default, if no parameter is given) or any other
	  system command that could be executed from a shell (e.g.  slogin, etc...)

       o  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is specified as  the  first
	  parameter,  then  the window is directly connected to this device.  This window type is
	  similar to "screen cu -l /dev/ttya".	Read and write access is required on  the  device
	  node,  an  exclusive open is attempted on the node to mark the connection line as busy.
	  An optional parameter is allowed consisting of a comma separated list of flags  in  the
	  notation used by stty(1):

		 Usually  300,	1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission as well as receive

	  cs8 or cs7
		 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

	  ixon or -ixon
		 Enables (or disables) software flow-control (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q) for sending data.

	  ixoff or -ixoff
		 Enables (or disables) software flow-control for receiving data.

	  istrip or -istrip
		 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

	  You may want to specify as many of these options  as	applicable.  Unspecified  options
	  cause  the  terminal	driver	to make up the parameter values of the connection.  These
	  values are system dependent and may be in defaults or values saved from a previous con-

	  For  tty  windows, the info command shows some of the modem control lines in the status
	  line. These may include `RTS', `CTS', 'DTR', `DSR', `CD' and more.  This depends on the
	  available ioctl()'s and system header files as well as the on the physical capabilities
	  of the serial board.	Signals that are logical low (inactive) have their name  preceded
	  by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal is logical high (active).  Signals not
	  supported by the hardware but available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.
	  When the CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of modem  signals  is  placed  inside
	  curly  braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOCSOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS'
	  or `CD' are shown in parenthesis, respectively.

	  For tty windows, the command break causes the Data transmission line (TxD)  to  go  low
	  for  a  specified period of time. This is expected to be interpreted as break signal on
	  the other side.  No data is sent and no modem control line is changed when a	break  is

       o  If  the  first  parameter  is "//telnet", the second parameter is expected to be a host
	  name, and an optional third parameter may specify a TCP port	number	(default  decimal
	  23).	 Screen  will connect to a server listening on the remote host and use the telnet
	  protocol to communicate with that server.
	  For telnet windows, the command info shows  details  about  the  connection  in  square
	  brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

	  b	 BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

	  e	 ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

	  c	 SGA. The connection is in `character mode' (default: `line mode').

	  t	 TTYPE.  The  terminal	type has been requested by the remote host.  Screen sends
		 the name "screen" unless instructed otherwise (see also the command `term').

	  w	 NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size changes.

	  f	 LFLOW. The remote host will send flow	control  information.	(Ignored  at  the

	  Additional flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED and NEWENV).

	  For  telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet code IAC BREAK (decimal 243) to
	  the remote host.

	  This window type is only available if  screen  was  compiled	with  the  BUILTIN_TELNET
	  option defined.

       Screen  provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the current time into mes-
       sages or file names. The escape character is '%' with one exception: inside of a  window's
       hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used instead.

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       a      either 'am' or 'pm'

       A      either 'AM' or 'PM'

       c      current time HH:MM in 24h format

       C      current time HH:MM in 12h format

       d      day number

       D      weekday name

       f      flags of the window

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       l      current load of the system

       m      month number

       M      month name

       n      window number

       s      seconds

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all  window  numbers  and names. With '-' qualifier: up to the current window; with
	      '+' qualifier: starting with the window after the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       y      last two digits of the year number

       Y      full year number

       ?      the part to the next '%?' is displayed only if a '%' escape inside the part expands
	      to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad the string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill). If a number is specified,
	      pad to the percentage of the window's width.  A '0' qualifier tells screen to treat
	      the number as absolute position.	You can specify to pad relative to the last abso-
	      lute pad position by adding a '+' qualifier or to pad relative to the right  margin
	      by  using  '-'.  The  padding  truncates	the string if the specified position lies
	      before the current position. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark the current text position for the next truncation. When  screen  needs  to  do
	      truncation,  it  tries to do it in a way that the marked position gets moved to the
	      specified percentage of the output area. (The area starts from  the  last  absolute
	      pad  position and ends with the position specified by the truncation operator.) The
	      'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated parts with '...'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command. The length qualifier is misused
	      to identify one of the commands.

       The  'c'  and  'C'  escape  may be qualified with a '0' to make screen use zero instead of
       space as fill character. The '0' qualifier also makes the '=' escape  use  absolute  posi-
       tions. The 'n' and '=' escapes understand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can
       be prefixed with 'L' to generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags if 'L'
       is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is is used to change the attributes or the color settings. Its
       format is "[attribute modifier] [color description]". The attribute modifier must be  pre-
       fixed  by a change type indicator if it can be confused with a color description. The fol-
       lowing change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or a combination of  the
       following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors  are  coded  either  as  a hexadecimal number or two letters specifying the desired
       background and foreground color (in that order). The following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The capitalized versions of the letter specify bright colors. You can also use the pseudo-
       color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave the color unchanged.
       A  one  digit/letter color description is treated as foreground or background color depen-
       dent on the current attributes: if reverse mode is set, the background  color  is  changed
       instead	of the foreground color.  If you don't like this, prefix the color with a ".". If
       you want the same behavior for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them with a ".".
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that were set before the last
       change was made (i.e., pops one level of the color-change stack).


       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear all attributes, write in default color on yellow background.

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
	      The available windows centered at the current window and truncated to the available
	      width. The current window is displayed white on blue.  This can be used with "hard-
	      status alwayslastline".

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
	      The window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if one is set.  Also use a
	      red background if this is the active focus. Useful for "caption string".

       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals with the  XON  and
       XOFF  characters  (and perhaps the interrupt character).  When flow-control is turned off,
       screen ignores the XON and XOFF characters, which allows the user to send them to the cur-
       rent  program  by  simply  typing  them	(useful for the emacs editor, for instance).  The
       trade-off is that it will take longer for output from  a  "normal"  program  to	pause  in
       response  to  an  XOFF.	 With flow-control turned on, XON and XOFF characters are used to
       immediately pause the output of the current window.  You can still send	these  characters
       to  the	current  program,  but you must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
       (typically "C-a q" (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).  The xon/xoff commands are also  useful  for
       typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts these characters.

       Each  window  has an initial flow-control value set with either the -f option or the "def-
       flow" .screenrc command. Per default the windows are set to automatic flow-switching.   It
       can  then  be  toggled  between	the  three states 'fixed on', 'fixed off' and 'automatic'
       interactively with the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with flow control using	the  TIOCPKT  mode  (like
       "rlogin"  does).  If the tty driver does not support TIOCPKT, screen tries to find out the
       right mode based on the current setting of the application keypad - when  it  is  enabled,
       flow-control  is turned off and visa versa.  Of course, you can still manipulate flow-con-
       trol manually when needed.

       If you're running with flow-control enabled and find that pressing the interrupt key (usu-
       ally  C-c)  does  not  interrupt the display until another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try
       running screen with the "interrupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to the "flow" command
       in your .screenrc, or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the output that screen
       has accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.  One disadvantage is that  the
       virtual	terminal's  memory  contains the non-flushed version of the output, which in rare
       cases can cause minor inaccuracies in the output.  For example, if you switch screens  and
       return,	or  update  the  screen  with "C-a l" you would see the version of the output you
       would have gotten without "interrupt" being on.	Also, you might need to  turn  off  flow-
       control	(or  use auto-flow mode to turn it off automatically) when running a program that
       expects you to type the interrupt character as input, as it is possible to  interrupt  the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-control is enabled.  If
       this happens, a simple refresh of the screen with "C-a l" will restore it.  Give each mode
       a try, and use whichever mode you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with the "windows" com-
       mand (C-a w)) by setting it with one of the title commands.  Normally the  name	displayed
       is the actual command name of the program created in the window.  However, it is sometimes
       useful to distinguish various programs of the same name or to change the  name  on-the-fly
       to reflect the current state of the window.

       The  default  name  for	all shell windows can be set with the "shelltitle" command in the
       .screenrc file, while all other windows are created with a "screen" command and	thus  can
       have  their name set with the -t option.  Interactively, there is the title-string escape-
       sequence (<esc>kname<esc>\) and the "title" command (C-a A).  The  former  can  be  output
       from  an  application  to control the window's name under software control, and the latter
       will prompt for a name when typed.  You can also bind pre-defined names to keys	with  the
       "title" command to set things quickly without prompting.

       Finally,  screen  has  a  shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by setting the window's
       name to "search|name" and arranging to have a null title escape-sequence output as a  part
       of  your  prompt.   The search portion specifies an end-of-prompt search string, while the
       name portion specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the name ends in  a  `:'
       screen  will  add  what it believes to be the current command running in the window to the
       end of the window's shell name (e.g. "name:cmd").   Otherwise  the  current  command  name
       supersedes the shell name while it is running.

       Here's  how  it	works:	 you must modify your shell prompt to output a null title-escape-
       sequence (<esc>k<esc>\) as a part of your prompt.  The last part of your  prompt  must  be
       the  same  as  the string you specified for the search portion of the title.  Once this is
       set up, screen will use the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command	name  and
       get ready for the next command.	Then, when a newline is received from the shell, a search
       is made for the end of the prompt.  If found, it  will  grab  the  first  word  after  the
       matched	string	and  use  it as the command name.  If the command name begins with either
       '!', '%', or '^' screen will use the first word on the following line (if found) in  pref-
       erence  to  the just-found name.  This helps csh users get better command names when using
       job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

	      screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of the  "top"  command  in
       window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

		   shelltitle '> |csh'
		   screen 1

       These  commands	would start a shell with the given shelltitle.	The title specified is an
       auto-title that would expect the prompt and the typed command to look something	like  the

	      /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it  looks  after  the  '> ' for the command name).  The window status would show the name
       "trn" while the command was running, and revert to "csh" upon completion.

	      bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence "C-a R" to the "su" com-
       mand  and  give it an auto-title name of "root:".  For this auto-title to work, the screen
       could look something like this:

		   % !em
		   emacs file.c

       Here the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the previously entered "emacs"
       command.   The  window status would show "root:emacs" during the execution of the command,
       and revert to simply "root:" at its completion.

		   bind o title
		   bind E title ""
		   bind u title (unknown)

       The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so it would prompt you for a title. when you
       type  "C-a  o".	 The  second binding would clear an auto-title's current setting (C-a E).
       The third binding would set the current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One thing to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-sequence to your prompt is  that
       some  shells  (like  the csh) count all the non-control characters as part of the prompt's
       length.	If these invisible characters aren't a multiple of 8 then backspacing over a  tab
       will  result  in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a prompt like

	      set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The escape-sequence "<esc>[0000m" not only normalizes the character  attributes,  but  all
       the  zeros round the length of the invisible characters up to 8.  Bash users will probably
       want to echo the escape sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

	      PROMPT_COMMAND='echo -n -e "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).

       Each window in a screen session emulates a  VT100  terminal,  with  some  extra	functions
       added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other terminal types can be emulated.
       Usually	screen	tries  to  emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI standard as possible. But if
       your terminal lacks certain capabilities, the emulation may  not  be  complete.	In  these
       cases  screen  has to tell the applications that some of the features are missing. This is
       no problem on machines using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to cus-
       tomize the standard screen termcap.

       But  if	you  do  a  rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only terminfo this
       method fails. Because of this, screen offers a way to deal with these cases.  Here is  how
       it works:

       When  screen  tries  to figure out a terminal name for itself, it first looks for an entry
       named "screen.<term>", where <term> is the contents of your $TERM variable.   If  no  such
       entry  exists,  screen  tries "screen" (or "screen-w" if the terminal is wide (132 cols or
       more)).	If even this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an important  feature  (e.g.
       delete  char or clear to EOS) you can build a new termcap/terminfo entry for screen (named
       "screen.<dumbterm>") in which  this  capability	has  been  disabled.  If  this	entry  is
       installed  on  your  machines you are able to do a rlogin and still keep the correct term-
       cap/terminfo entry.  The terminal name is put in the $TERM variable of  all  new  windows.
       Screen also sets the $TERMCAP variable reflecting the capabilities of the virtual terminal
       emulated. Notice that, however, on machines using the terminfo database this variable  has
       no effect.  Furthermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the window number of each window.

       The  actual set of capabilities supported by the virtual terminal depends on the capabili-
       ties supported by the physical terminal.  If, for instance, the physical terminal does not
       support	underscore mode, screen does not put the `us' and `ue' capabilities into the win-
       dow's $TERMCAP variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum number of capabilities  must  be
       supported by a terminal in order to run screen; namely scrolling, clear screen, and direct
       cursor addressing (in addition, screen does not run on hardcopy terminals or on	terminals
       that over-strike).

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using the "termcap" .screenrc
       command, or by defining the variable $SCREENCAP prior to  startup.   When  the  is  latter
       defined, its value will be copied verbatim into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can
       either be the full terminal definition, or a filename where the terminal "screen"  (and/or
       "screen-w") is defined.

       Note  that  screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the system uses the terminfo
       database rather than termcap.

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the termcap entry for the terminal on which
       screen has been called, the terminal emulation of screen supports multiple character sets.
       This allows an application to make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character  set
       or  national character sets.  The following control functions from ISO 2022 are supported:
       lock shift G0 (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock shift G3, single shift G2, and
       single  shift G3.  When a virtual terminal is created or reset, the ASCII character set is
       designated as G0 through G3.  When the `G0' capability is present,  screen  evaluates  the
       capabilities  `S0',  `E0',  and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence the terminal uses to
       enable and start the graphics character set rather than SI.   `E0'  is  the  corresponding
       replacement  for  SO.  `C0' gives a character by character translation string that is used
       during semi-graphics mode. This string is built like the `acsc' terminfo capability.

       When the `po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's termcap entry,  applica-
       tions  running  in  a  screen  window can send output to the printer port of the terminal.
       This allows a user to have an application in one window sending output to a  printer  con-
       nected  to  the	terminal,  while  all other windows are still active (the printer port is
       enabled and disabled again for each chunk of output).  As a side-effect, programs  running
       in  different  windows  can  send  output to the printer simultaneously.  Data sent to the
       printer is not displayed in the window.	The info command displays a line starting  `PRIN'
       while the printer is active.

       Screen  maintains  a hardstatus line for every window. If a window gets selected, the dis-
       play's hardstatus will be updated to match the window's hardstatus line.  If  the  display
       has no hardstatus the line will be displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus
       line can be changed with the ANSI Application Program Command  (APC):  "ESC_<string>ESC\".
       As a convenience for xterm users the sequence "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some  capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of the virtual terminal if they
       can be efficiently implemented by the physical terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line)
       is  only put into the $TERMCAP variable if the terminal supports either delete line itself
       or scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the session is reattached
       on a different terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The  "alternate screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set the altscreen .screenrc
       command to enable it.

       The following is a list of control sequences recognized by screen.  "(V)" and "(A)"  indi-
       cate VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific functions, respectively.

       ESC E			  Next Line

       ESC D			  Index

       ESC M			  Reverse Index

       ESC H			  Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z			  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7		     (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8		     (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s		     (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u		     (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c			  Reset to Initial State

       ESC g			  Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p 		  Cursor Visibility (97801)

	   Pn = 6		  Invisible

		7		  Visible

       ESC =		     (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >		     (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8		     (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \		     (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^		     (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !			  Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k			  A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P		     (A)  Device  Control  String.  Outputs a string directly to the host
				  terminal without interpretation.

       ESC _		     (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus, xterm title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute screen command. This only works if  multi-user  support
				  is  compiled into screen. The pseudo-user ":window:" is used to
				  check the access control list. Use "addacl :window: -rwx #?" to
				  create  a  user  with  no rights and allow only the needed com-

       Control-N	     (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O	     (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n		     (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o		     (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N		     (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O		     (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H		  Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f		  same as above

       ESC [ Pn J		  Erase in Display

	     Pn = None or 0	  From Cursor to End of Screen

		  1		  From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

		  2		  Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K		  Erase in Line

	     Pn = None or 0	  From Cursor to End of Line

		  1		  From Beginning of Line to Cursor

		  2		  Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X		  Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A		  Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B		  Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C		  Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D		  Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E		  Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F		  Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G		  Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `		  same as above

       ESC [ Pn d		  Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps m	  Select Graphic Rendition

	     Ps = None or 0	  Default Rendition

		  1		  Bold

		  2	     (A)  Faint

		  3	     (A)  Standout Mode (ANSI: Italicized)

		  4		  Underlined

		  5		  Blinking

		  7		  Negative Image

		  22	     (A)  Normal Intensity

		  23	     (A)  Standout Mode off (ANSI: Italicized off)

		  24	     (A)  Not Underlined

		  25	     (A)  Not Blinking

		  27	     (A)  Positive Image

		  30	     (A)  Foreground Black

		  31	     (A)  Foreground Red

		  32	     (A)  Foreground Green

		  33	     (A)  Foreground Yellow

		  34	     (A)  Foreground Blue

		  35	     (A)  Foreground Magenta

		  36	     (A)  Foreground Cyan

		  37	     (A)  Foreground White

		  39	     (A)  Foreground Default

		  40	     (A)  Background Black

		  ...		  ...

		  49	     (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g		  Tab Clear

	     Pn = None or 0	  Clear Tab at Current Position

		  3		  Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r	     (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I	     (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z	     (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L	     (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M	     (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @	     (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P	     (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S		  Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T		  Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^		  same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps h	  Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps l	  Reset Mode

	     Ps = 4	     (A)  Insert Mode

		  20	     (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

		  34		  Normal Cursor Visibility

		  ?1	     (V)  Application Cursor Keys

		  ?3	     (V)  Change Terminal Width to 132 columns

		  ?5	     (V)  Reverse Video

		  ?6	     (V)  Origin Mode

		  ?7	     (V)  Wrap Mode

		  ?9		  X10 mouse tracking

		  ?25	     (V)  Visible Cursor

		  ?47		  Alternate Screen (old xterm code)

		  ?1000      (V)  VT200 mouse tracking

		  ?1047 	  Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

		  ?1049 	  Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i	     (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i	     (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t	  Resize the window to `Ph' lines and `Pw' columns (SunView  spe-

       ESC [ c			  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x			  Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c		  Send VT220 Secondary Device Attributes String

       ESC [ 6 n		  Send Cursor Position Report

       In  order  to do a full VT100 emulation screen has to detect that a sequence of characters
       in the input stream was generated by a keypress on the  user's  keyboard  and  insert  the
       VT100  style  escape  sequence.	Screen has a very flexible way of doing this by making it
       possible to map arbitrary commands on arbitrary	sequences  of  characters.  For  standard
       VT100  emulation the command will always insert a string in the input buffer of the window
       (see also command stuff in the command table).  Because the sequences generated by a  key-
       press  can  change after a reattach from a different terminal type, it is possible to bind
       commands to the termcap name of the keys.  Screen will insert the  correct  binding  after
       each reattach. See the bindkey command for further details on the syntax and examples.

       Here  is  the table of the default key bindings. (A) means that the command is executed if
       the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       Key name 	 Termcap name	 Command
       Cursor up	     ku 	 stuff \033[A
					 stuff \033OA	 (A)
       Cursor down	     kd 	 stuff \033[B
					 stuff \033OB	 (A)
       Cursor right	     kr 	 stuff \033[C
					 stuff \033OC	 (A)
       Cursor left	     kl 	 stuff \033[D
					 stuff \033OD	 (A)
       Function key 0	     k0 	 stuff \033[10~
       Function key 1	     k1 	 stuff \033OP
       Function key 2	     k2 	 stuff \033OQ
       Function key 3	     k3 	 stuff \033OR
       Function key 4	     k4 	 stuff \033OS
       Function key 5	     k5 	 stuff \033[15~
       Function key 6	     k6 	 stuff \033[17~
       Function key 7	     k7 	 stuff \033[18~
       Function key 8	     k8 	 stuff \033[19~
       Function key 9	     k9 	 stuff \033[20~
       Function key 10	     k; 	 stuff \033[21~
       Function key 11	     F1 	 stuff \033[23~
       Function key 12	     F2 	 stuff \033[24~
       Home		     kh 	 stuff \033[1~
       End		     kH 	 stuff \033[4~
       Insert		     kI 	 stuff \033[2~
       Delete		     kD 	 stuff \033[3~
       Page up		     kP 	 stuff \033[5~
       Page down	     kN 	 stuff \033[6~
       Keypad 0 	     f0 	 stuff 0
					 stuff \033Op	 (A)
       Keypad 1 	     f1 	 stuff 1
					 stuff \033Oq	 (A)
       Keypad 2 	     f2 	 stuff 2
					 stuff \033Or	 (A)
       Keypad 3 	     f3 	 stuff 3
					 stuff \033Os	 (A)
       Keypad 4 	     f4 	 stuff 4
					 stuff \033Ot	 (A)
       Keypad 5 	     f5 	 stuff 5
					 stuff \033Ou	 (A)
       Keypad 6 	     f6 	 stuff 6
					 stuff \033Ov	 (A)
       Keypad 7 	     f7 	 stuff 7
					 stuff \033Ow	 (A)
       Keypad 8 	     f8 	 stuff 8
					 stuff \033Ox	 (A)
       Keypad 9 	     f9 	 stuff 9
					 stuff \033Oy	 (A)
       Keypad + 	     f+ 	 stuff +
					 stuff \033Ok	 (A)
       Keypad - 	     f- 	 stuff -
					 stuff \033Om	 (A)
       Keypad * 	     f* 	 stuff *
					 stuff \033Oj	 (A)
       Keypad / 	     f/ 	 stuff /
					 stuff \033Oo	 (A)
       Keypad = 	     fq 	 stuff =
					 stuff \033OX	 (A)
       Keypad . 	     f. 	 stuff .
					 stuff \033On	 (A)
       Keypad , 	     f, 	 stuff ,
					 stuff \033Ol	 (A)
       Keypad enter	     fe 	 stuff \015
					 stuff \033OM	 (A)

       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recognized by screen  and
       are  not  in  the  termcap(5)  manual.	You  can place these capabilities in your termcap
       entries (in `/etc/termcap') or use them with the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and `term-
       capinfo'  in  your screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these capabilities in
       the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic margins'). Note that this capability
		    is obsolete because screen uses the standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize  display.  This  capability	has the desired width and height as argu-
		    ments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q direct to the application.
		    Same as 'flow off'. The opposite of this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' to the specified charset. Default is '\E(%.'.

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset. Default is '\E(B'.

       C0   (str)   Use  the  string  as a conversion table for font '0'. See the 'ac' capability
		    for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See the 'autonuke' command for more details.

       OL   (num)   Set the output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set the encoding of the terminal. See the 'encoding' command for valid encod-

       AF   (str)   Change  character  foreground  color  in an ANSI conform way. This capability
		    will almost always be set to '\E[3%dm' ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does understand ANSI set default fg/bg color (\E[39m / \E[49m).

       XC   (str)   Describe a translation of characters to  strings  depending  on  the  current
		    font. More details follow in the next section.

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences (OSC, mouse tracking).

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g. Eterm).

       TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info entry. (Set by default).

       Screen  has a powerful mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary strings depending on
       the current font and terminal type.  Use this feature if you want to work  with	a  common
       standard  character  set  (say  ISO8851-latin1)	even  on  terminals that scatter the more
       unusual characters over several national language font pages.

	   <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
	   <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A <charset-mapping> tells screen how to map characters in font <designator>  ('B':  Ascii,
       'A': UK, 'K': German, etc.)  to strings. Every <mapping> describes to what string a single
       character will be translated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the  codes
       have  a	lot  in  common (for example strings to switch to and from another charset). Each
       occurrence of '%'  in  <template>  gets	substituted  with  the	<template-arg>	specified
       together  with  the  character.	If your strings are not similar at all, then use '%' as a
       template and place the full string in <template-arg>. A quoting	mechanism  was	added  to
       make  it  possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes the special characters '\',
       '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

	   termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper case umlaut characters on
       a  hp700  terminal that has a German charset. '\304' gets translated to '\E(K[\E(B' and so
       on.  Note that this line gets parsed *three* times before the  internal	lookup	table  is
       built, therefore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another	extension was added to allow more emulation: If a mapping translates the unquoted
       '%' char, it will be sent to the terminal whenever screen switches  to  the  corresponding
       <designator>.  In  this	special  case  the template is assumed to be just '%' because the
       charset switch sequence and the character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

	   termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here, a part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If screen has to change
       to  the	'K'  charset, '\E(B' will be sent to the terminal, i.e. the ASCII charset is used
       instead. The template is just '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to  '\304',  '\'
       to '\326', and ']' to '\334'.

       COLUMNS	      Number of columns on the terminal (overrides termcap entry).
       HOME	      Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES	      Number of lines on the terminal (overrides termcap entry).
       LOCKPRG	      Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH	      Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL	      Default shell program for opening windows (default "/bin/sh").
       STY	      Alternate socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM	      Terminal name.
       TERMCAP	      Terminal description.
       WINDOW	      Window number of a window (at creation time).

       .../screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc Examples  in the screen distribution package for private
					 and global initialization files.
       /etc/screenrc			 screen initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc			 Read in after /etc/screenrc
       /var/run/screen/S-<login>	 Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>	 Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap	 Written by the "termcap" output function
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange		 screen `interprocess communication buffer'
       hardcopy.[0-9]			 Screen images created by the hardcopy function
       screenlog.[0-9]			 Output log files created by the log function
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*		 or
       /etc/termcap			 Terminal capability databases
       /var/run/utmp			 Login records
       $LOCKPRG 			 Program that locks a terminal.

       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)

       Originally created by Oliver Laumann, this latest version was produced by  Wayne  Davison,
       Juergen Weigert and Michael Schroeder.

       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
	    Juergen Weigert (jnweiger@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
	    Michael Schroeder (mlschroe@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of
       the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation;  either  ver-
       sion 2, or (at your option) any later version.
       This  program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
       without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR  PURPOSE.
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.
       You  should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program
       (see the file COPYING); if not, write to the Free Software  Foundation,	Inc.,  59  Temple
       Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA

       Ken Beal (kbeal@amber.ssd.csd.harris.com),
       Rudolf Koenig (rfkoenig@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de),
       Toerless Eckert (eckert@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de),
       Wayne Davison (davison@borland.com),
       Patrick Wolfe (pat@kai.com, kailand!pat),
       Bart Schaefer (schaefer@cse.ogi.edu),
       Nathan Glasser (nathan@brokaw.lcs.mit.edu),
       Larry W. Virden (lvirden@cas.org),
       Howard Chu (hyc@hanauma.jpl.nasa.gov),
       Tim MacKenzie (tym@dibbler.cs.monash.edu.au),
       Markku Jarvinen (mta@{cc,cs,ee}.tut.fi),
       Marc Boucher (marc@CAM.ORG),
       Doug Siebert (dsiebert@isca.uiowa.edu),
       Ken Stillson (stillson@tsfsrv.mitre.org),
       Ian Frechett (frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU),
       Brian Koehmstedt (bpk@gnu.ai.mit.edu),
       Don Smith (djs6015@ultb.isc.rit.edu),
       Frank van der Linden (vdlinden@fwi.uva.nl),
       Martin Schweikert (schweik@cpp.ob.open.de),
       David Vrona (dave@sashimi.lcu.com),
       E. Tye McQueen (tye%spillman.UUCP@uunet.uu.net),
       Matthew Green (mrg@eterna.com.au),
       Christopher Williams (cgw@pobox.com),
       Matt Mosley (mattm@access.digex.net),
       Gregory Neil Shapiro (gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU),
       Johannes Zellner (johannes@zellner.org),
       Pablo Averbuj (pablo@averbuj.com).

       This  is  version 4.0.2. Its roots are a merge of a custom version 2.3PR7 by Wayne Davison
       and several enhancements to Oliver Laumann's version 2.0. Note that all versions  numbered
       2.x are copyright by Oliver Laumann.

       The  latest  official  release of screen available via anonymous ftp from gnudist.gnu.org,
       nic.funet.fi or any other GNU distribution site. The home site of screen is ftp.uni-erlan-
       gen.de,	in  the  directory  pub/utilities/screen. The subdirectory `private' contains the
       latest beta testing release. If you want to help, send a note to screen@uni-erlangen.de.

       o  `dm' (delete mode) and `xs' are not handled  correctly  (they  are  ignored).  `xn'  is
	  treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       o  Screen  has  no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But this is the only
	  area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       o  It is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP when reattaching under a
	  different terminal type.

       o  The  support	of  terminfo  based systems is very limited. Adding extra capabilities to
	  $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       o  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       o  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most systems in order to be able
	  to  correctly change the owner of the tty device file for each window.  Special permis-
	  sion may also be required to write the file "/var/run/utmp".

       o  Entries in "/var/run/utmp" are not removed when screen is killed  with  SIGKILL.   This
	  will cause some programs (like "w" or "rwho") to advertise that a user is logged on who
	  really isn't.

       o  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       o  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach (or  quit)  unless
	  the  device  driver  is configured to send a HANGUP signal.  To detach a screen session
	  use the -D or -d command line option.

       o  If a password is set, the command line options -d and -D still detach a session without

       o  Both "breaktype" and "defbreaktype" change the break generating method used by all ter-
	  minal devices. The first should change a window  specific  setting,  where  the  latter
	  should change only the default for new windows.

       o  When	attaching  to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file is not sourced. Each
	  user's personal settings have to be included in the .screenrc file from which the  ses-
	  sion is booted, or have to be changed manually.

       o  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the features.

       o  Send	bug-reports,  fixes,  enhancements,  t-shirts, money, beer & pizza to screen@uni-

4th Berkeley Distribution		     Aug 2003					SCREEN(1)

All times are GMT -4. The time now is 11:08 PM.

Unix & Linux Forums Content Copyrightę1993-2018. All Rights Reserved.
Show Password