Unix/Linux Go Back    


Linux 2.6 - man page for csound (linux section 1)

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages
Man Page or Keyword Search:   man
Select Man Page Set:       apropos Keyword Search (sections above)


CSOUND COMMAND LINE(1)		  The Canonical Csound Reference	   CSOUND COMMAND LINE(1)

NAME
       csound - Csound command.

DESCRIPTION
       The csound command executes Csound.

SYNTAX
	   csound  [flags]  [orchname]	[scorename]

	   csound  [flags]  [csdfilename]

CSOUND COMMAND LINE FLAGS
       Listed below are the command line flags available in Csound5 in alphabetical order.
       Various platform implementations may not react the same way to different flags! You can
       view the command line flags organized by category in Command-line Flags (by Category).

       The command line arguments are of 2 types: flags arguments (beginning with a "-","--" or
       "-+"), and name arguments (such as filenames). Certain flag arguments take a following
       name or numeric argument. Flags that start with "--" and "-+" usually take an argument
       themselves using "=".

       Command-line Flags

       -@ FILE.
	   Provide an extended command-line in file "FILE"

       -3.
	   Use 24-bit audio samples.

       -8.
	   Use 8-bit unsigned character audio samples.

       --format=type.
	   Set the audio file output format to one of the formats available in libsndfile. At
	   present the list is aiff, au, avr, caf, flac, htk, ircam, mat4, mat5, nis, paf, pvf,
	   raw, sd2, sds, svx, voc, w64, wav, wavex and xi. Can also be used as
	   --format=type:format or --format=format:type to set both the file type (wav, aiff,
	   etc.) and sample format (short, long, float, etc.) at the same time.

       -A.
	   Write an AIFF format soundfile. Use with the -c, -s, -l, or -f flags.

       -a.
	   Use a-law audio samples.

       -B NUM.
	   Number of audio sample-frames held in the DAC hardware buffer. This is a threshold on
	   which software audio I/O (above) will wait before returning. A small number reduces
	   audio I/O delay; but the value is often hardware limited, and small values will risk
	   data lates. In the case of portaudio output (the default real-time output), the -B
	   parameter (more precisely, -B / sr) is passed as the "suggested latency" value. Other
	   than that, Csound has no control over how PortAudio interprets the parameter. The
	   default is 1024 on Linux, 4096 on Mac OS X and 16384 on Windows.

       -b NUM.
	   Number of audio sample-frames per sound i/o software buffer. Large is efficient, but
	   small will reduce audio I/O delay and improve the accuracy of the timing of real time
	   events. The default is 256 on Linux, 1024 on MacOS X, and 4096 on Windows. In
	   real-time performance, Csound waits on audio I/O on NUM boundaries. It also processes
	   audio (and polls for other input like MIDI) on orchestra ksmps boundaries. The two can
	   be made synchronous. For convenience, if NUM is negative, the effective value is ksmps
	   * -NUM (audio synchronous with k-period boundaries). With NUM small (e.g. 1) polling
	   is then frequent and also locked to fixed DAC sample boundaries.

	   Note: if both -iadc and -odac are used at the same time (full duplex real time audio),
	   the -b option should be set to an integer multiple of ksmps.

       -C.
	   Use Cscore processing of the scorefile.

       -c.
	   Use 8-bit signed character audio samples.

       --csd-line-nums=NUM.
	   Determines how line numbers are counted and displayed for error messages when
	   processing a Csound Unified Document file (.csd). This flag has no effect if separate
	   orchestra and score files are used. (Csound 5.08 and later).

	   o   0 = line numbers are relative to the beginning of the orchestra or score sections
	       of the CSD

	   o   1 = line numbers are relative to the beginning of the CSD file. This is the
	       default as of Csound 5.08.

	   -D.
	       Defer GEN01 soundfile loads until performance time.

	   -d.
	       Suppress all displays.

	   --displays.
	       Enables displays, reverting the effect of any previous -d flag.

	   --default-paths.
	       Reenables adding of directory of CSD/ORC/SCO to search paths, if it has been
	       disabled by a previous --no-default-paths (e.g. in .csoundrc).

	   --env:NAME=VALUE.
	       Set environment variable NAME to VALUE. Note: not all environment variables can be
	       set this way, because some are read before parsing the command line. INCDIR,
	       SADIR, SFDIR, and SSDIR are known to work.

	   --env:NAME+=VALUE.
	       Append VALUE to ';' separated list of search paths in environment variable NAME
	       (should be INCDIR, SADIR, SFDIR, or SSDIR). If a file is found in multiple
	       directories, the last will be used.

	   --expression-opt.

	       Since Csound 5.	Turns on some optimizations in expressions:

	       o   Redundant assignment operations are eliminated whenever possible. This means
		   that for example this line a1 = a2 + a3 will compile as a1 Add a2, a3 instead
		   of #a0 Add a2, a3 a1 = #a0 saving a temporary variable and an opcode call.
		   Less opcode calls result in reduced CPU usage (an average orchestra may
		   compile about 10% faster with --expression-opt, but it depends largely on how
		   many expressions are used, what the control rate is (see also below), etc.;
		   thus, the difference may be less, but also much more).

	       o   number of a- and k-rate temporary variables is significantly reduced. This
		   expression

					   (a1 + a2 + a3 + a4)

		   will compile as

					   #a0 Add a1, a2
					   #a0 Add #a0, a3
					   #a0 Add #a0, a4	 ; (the result is in #a0)

		   instead of

					   #a0 Add a1, a2
					   #a1 Add #a0, a3
					   #a2 Add #a1, a4	 ; (the result is in #a2)

		   The advantages of less temporary variables are:

		   o   less cache memory is used, which may improve performance of orchestras
		       with many a-rate expressions and a low control rate (e.g. ksmps = 100)

		   o   large orchestras may load faster due to less different identifier names

		   o   index overflow errors (i.e. when messages like this Case2: indx=-56004
		       (ffff253c); (short)indx = 9532 (253c) are printed and odd behavior or a
		       Csound crash occurs) may be fixed, because such errors are triggered by
		       too many different (especially a-rate) variable names in a single
		       instrument.
		       Note that this optimization (due to technical reasons) is not performed on
		       i-rate temporary variables.

			   Warning
			   When --expression-opt is turned on, it is not allowed to use the i()
			   function with an expression argument, and relying on the value of
			   k-rate expressions at i-time is unsafe.

		   -F FILE.
		       Read MIDI events from MIDI file FILE. The file should have only one track
		       in Csound versions 4.xx and earlier; this limitation is removed in Csound
		       5.00.

		   -f.
		       Use single-format float audio samples (not playable on some systems, but
		       can be read by -i, soundin and GEN01

		   -G.
		       Suppress graphics, use PostScript displays instead.

		   -g.
		       Suppress graphics, use ASCII displays instead.

		   -H#.
		       Print a heartbeat after each soundfile buffer write:

		       o   no NUM, a rotating bar.

		       o   NUM = 1, a rotating bar.

		       o   NUM = 2, a dot (.)

		       o   NUM = 3, filesize in seconds.

		       o   NUM = 4, sound a bell.

		       -h.
			   No header on output soundfile. Don't write a file header, just binary
			   samples.

		       --help.
			   Display on-line help message.

		       -I.

			   i-time only.  Allocate and initialize all instruments as per the
			   score, but skip all p-time processing (no k-signals or a-signals, and
			   thus no amplitudes and no sound). Provides a fast validity check of
			   the score pfields and orchestra i-variables. This option is exclusive
			   of the --syntax-check-only flag.

		       -i FILE.
			   Input soundfile name. If not a full pathname, the file will be sought
			   first in the current directory, then in that given by the environment
			   variable SSDIR (if defined), then by SFDIR. The name stdin will cause
			   audio to be read from standard input.

			   The name devaudio or adc will request sound from the host audio input
			   device. It is possible to select a device number by appending an
			   integer value in the range 0 to 1023, or a device name separated by a
			   : character (e.g. -iadc3, -iadc:hw:1,1). It depends on the host audio
			   interface whether a device number or a name should be used. In the
			   first case, an out of range number usually results in an error and
			   listing the valid device numbers.

		       -+id_artist=string.
			   (max. length = 200 characters) Artist tag in output soundfile (no
			   spaces)

		       -+id_comment=string.
			   (max. length = 200 characters) Comment tag in output soundfile (no
			   spaces)

		       -+id_copyright=string.
			   (max. length = 200 characters) Copyright tag in output soundfile (no
			   spaces)

		       -+id_date=string.
			   (max. length = 200 characters) Date tag in output soundfile (no
			   spaces)

		       -+id_software=string.
			   (max. length = 200 characters) Software tag in output soundfile (no
			   spaces)

		       -+id_title=string.
			   (max. length = 200 characters) Title tag in output soundfile (no
			   spaces)

		       -+ignore_csopts=integer.
			   If set to 1, Csound will ignore all options specified in the csd
			   file's CsOptions section. See Unified File Format for Orchestras and
			   Scores.

		       -+input_stream=string.
			   Pulseaudio input stream name.

		       -J.
			   Write an IRCAM format soundfile.

		       -+jack_client=[client_name].
			   The client name used by Csound, defaults to 'csound5'. If multiple
			   instances of Csound connect to the JACK server, different client names
			   need to be used to avoid name conflicts. (Linux and Mac OS X only)

		       -+jack_inportname=[input port name prefix], -+jack_outportname=[output
		       port name prefix] .
			   Name prefix of Csound JACK input/output ports; the default is 'input'
			   and 'output'. The actual port name is the channel number appended to
			   the name prefix. (Linux and Mac OS X only)

			   Example: with the above default settings, a stereo orchestra will
			   create these ports in full duplex operation:

					       csound5:input1		   (record left)
					       csound5:input2		   (record right)
					       csound5:output1		   (playback left)
					       csound5:output2		   (playback right)

		       -K.
			   Do not generate any PEAK chunks.

		       -k NUM.
			   Override the control rate (KR) supplied by the orchestra.

		       -L DEVICE.
			   Read line-oriented real-time score events from device DEVICE. The name
			   stdin will permit score events to be typed at your terminal, or piped
			   from another process. Each line-event is terminated by a
			   carriage-return. Events are coded just like those in a standard
			   numeric score, except that an event with p2=0 will be performed
			   immediately, and an event with p2=T will be performed T seconds after
			   arrival. Events can arrive at any time, and in any order. The score
			   carry feature is legal here, as are held notes (p3 negative) and
			   string arguments, but ramps and pp or np references are not.

		       -l.
			   Use long integer audio samples.

		       -M DEVICE.
			   Read MIDI events from device DEVICE. If using ALSA MIDI
			   (-+rtmidi=alsa), devices are selected by name and not number. So, you
			   need to use an option like -M hw:CARD,DEVICE where CARD and DEVICE are
			   the card and device numbers (e.g. -M hw:1,0). In the case of PortMidi
			   and MME, DEVICE should be a number, and if it is out of range, an
			   error occurs and the valid device numbers are printed.

		       -m NUM.
			   Message level for standard (terminal) output. Takes the sum of any of
			   the following values:

			   o   1 = note amplitude messages

			   o   2 = samples out of range message

			   o   4 = warning messages

			   o   128 = print benchmark information
			       And exactly one of these to select note amplitude format:

			       o   0 = raw amplitudes, no colours

			       o   32 = dB, no colors

			       o   64 = dB, out of range highlighted with red

			       o   96 = dB, all colors

			       o   256 = raw, out of range highlighted with red

			       o   512 = raw, all colours
				   The default is 135 (128+4+2+1), which means all messages, raw
				   amplitude values, and printing elapsed time at the end of
				   performance. The coloring of raw amplitudes was introduced in
				   version 5.04.

			       --m-amps=NUM.
				   Message level for amplitudes on standard (terminal) output.

				   o   0 = no note amplitude messages

				   o   1 = note amplitude messages

				   --m-range=NUM.
				       Message level for out of range messages on standard
				       (terminal) output.

				       o   0 = no samples out of range message

				       o   1 = samples out of range message

				       --m-warnings=NUM.
					   Message level for warnings on standard (terminal)
					   output.

					   o   0 = no warning messages

					   o   1 = warning messages

					   --m-dB=NUM.
					       Message level for amplitude format on standard
					       (terminal) output.

					       o   0 = absolute amplitude messages

					       o   1 = dB amplitude messages

					       --m-colours=NUM.
						   Message level for amplitude format on standard
						   (terminal) output.

						   o   0 = no colouring of amplitude messages

						   o   1 = colouring of amplitude messages

						   --m-benchmarks=NUM.
						       Message level for benchmark information on
						       standard (terminal) output.

						       o   0 = no benchnark numbers

						       o   1 = print benchnark numbers

						       -+max_str_len=integer.
							   (min: 10, max: 10000) Maximum length
							   of string variables + 1; defaults to
							   256 allowing a length of 255
							   characters. The length of string
							   constants is not limited by this
							   parameter.

						       --midi-key=N.
							   Route MIDI note on message key number
							   to pfield N as MIDI value [0-127].

						       --midi-key-cps=N.
							   Route MIDI note on message key number
							   to pfield N as cycles per second.

						       --midi-key-oct=N.
							   Route MIDI note on message key number
							   to pfield N as linear octave.

						       --midi-key-pch=N.
							   Route MIDI note on message key number
							   to pfield N as oct.pch (pitch class).

						       --midi-velocity=N.
							   Route MIDI note on message velocity
							   number to pfield N as MIDI value
							   [0-127].

						       --midi-velocity-amp=N.
							   Route MIDI note on message velocity
							   number to pfield N as amplitude
							   [0-0dbFS].

						       --midioutfile=FILENAME.
							   Save MIDI output to a file (Csound
							   5.00 and later only).

						       -+msg_color=boolean.
							   Enable message attributes (colors
							   etc.); might need to be disabled on
							   some terminals which print strange
							   characters instead of modifying text
							   attributes. default: true.

						       -+mute_tracks=string.
							   (max. length = 255 characters) Ignore
							   events (other than tempo changes) in
							   MIDI file tracks defined by pattern
							   (for example, -+mute_tracks=00101 will
							   mute the third and fifth tracks).

						       -N.
							   Notify (ring the bell) when score or
							   MIDI track is done.

						       -n.
							   No sound. Do all processing, but
							   bypass writing of sound to disk. This
							   flag does not change the execution in
							   any other way.

						       --no-default-paths.
							   Disables adding of directory of
							   CSD/ORC/SCO to search paths.

						       --no-expression-opt.
							   Disables expression optimization.

						       -O FILE.
							   Log output to file FILE. If FILE is
							   null (i.e.  -O null or --logfile=null)
							   all printing of messages to the
							   console is disabled.

						       -o FILE.
							   Output soundfile name. If not a full
							   pathname, the soundfile will be placed
							   in the directory given by the
							   environment variable SFDIR (if
							   defined), else in the current
							   directory. The name stdout will cause
							   audio to be written to standard
							   output, while null results in no sound
							   output similarly to the -n flag. If no
							   name is given, the default name will
							   be test.

							   The name devaudio or dac (you can use
							   -odac or -o dac) will request writing
							   sound to the host audio output device.
							   It is possible to select a device
							   number by appending an integer value
							   in the range 0 to 1023, or a device
							   name separated by a : character (e.g.
							   -odac3, -odac:hw:1,1). It depends on
							   the host audio interface whether a
							   device number or a name should be
							   used. In the first case, an out of
							   range number usually results in an
							   error and listing the valid device
							   numbers.

						       --omacro:XXX=YYY.
							   Set orchestra macro XXX to value YYY

						       -+output_stream=string.
							   Pulseaudio output stream name.

						       -Q DEVICE.
							   Enables MIDI OUT operations to device
							   id DEVICE. This flag allows parallel
							   MIDI OUT and DAC performance.
							   Unfortunately the real-time timing
							   implemented in Csound is completely
							   managed by DAC buffer sample flow. So
							   MIDI OUT operations can present some
							   time irregularities. These
							   irregularities can be reduced by using
							   a lower value for the -b flag.

							   If using ALSA MIDI (-+rtmidi=alsa),
							   devices are selected by name and not
							   number. So, you need to use an option
							   like -Q hw:CARD,DEVICE where CARD and
							   DEVICE are the card and device numbers
							   (e.g. -Q hw:1,0). In the case of
							   PortMidi and MME, DEVICE should be a
							   number, and if it is out of range, an
							   error occurs and the valid device
							   numbers are printed.

						       -R.
							   Continually rewrite the header while
							   writing the soundfile (WAV/AIFF).

						       -r NUM.
							   Override the sampling rate (SR)
							   supplied by the orchestra.

						       -+raw_controller_mode=boolean.
							   Disable special handling of MIDI
							   controllers like sustain pedal, all
							   notes off etc., allowing the use of
							   all the 128 controllers for any
							   purpose. This will also set the
							   initial value of all controllers to
							   zero. Default: no.

						       -+rtaudio=string.
							   (max. length = 20 characters) Real
							   time audio module name. The default is
							   PortAudio. Also available, depending
							   on platform and build options: Linux:
							   alsa, jack; Windows: mme; Mac OS X:
							   CoreAudio. In addition, null can be
							   used on all platforms, to disable the
							   use of any real time audio plugin.

						       -+rtmidi=string.
							   (max. length = 20 characters) Real
							   time MIDI module name. Defaults to
							   PortMidi, other options (depending on
							   build options): Linux: alsa; Windows:
							   mme, winmm. In addition, null can be
							   used on all platforms, to disable the
							   use of any real time MIDI plugin.

							   ALSA MIDI devices are selected by name
							   and not number. So, you need to use an
							   option like -M hw:CARD,DEVICE where
							   CARD and DEVICE are the card and
							   device numbers (e.g. -M hw:1,0).

						       -s.
							   Use short integer audio samples.

						       --sched.

							   Linux only.	Use real-time scheduling
							   and lock memory. (Also requires -d and
							   either -o dac or -o devaudio). See
							   also --sched=N below.

						       --sched=N.

							   Linux only.	Same as --sched, but
							   allows specifying a priority value: if
							   N is positive (in the range 1 to 99)
							   the scheduling policy SCHED_RR will be
							   used with a priority of N; otherwise,
							   SCHED_OTHER is used with the nice
							   level set to N. Can also be used in
							   the format --sched=N,MAXCPU,TIME to
							   enable the use of a "watchdog" thread
							   that terminates Csound if the average
							   CPU usage exceeds MAXCPU percents over
							   a peroid of TIME seconds (new in
							   Csound 5.00).

						       -+server=string.
							   Pulseaudio server name.

						       -+skip_seconds=float.
							   (min: 0) Start playback at the
							   specified time (in seconds), skipping
							   earlier events in the score and MIDI
							   file.

						       --smacro:XXX=YYY.
							   Set score macro XXX to value YYY

						       --strset.

							   Csound 5.  The --strset option allows
							   setting strset string values from the
							   command line, in the format
							   '--strsetN=VALUE'. It is useful for
							   passing parameters to the orchestra
							   (e.g. file names).

						       --syntax-check-only.
							   Causes Csound to exit immediately
							   after the orchestra and score parsers
							   finish checking the syntax of the
							   input files and before the orchestra
							   performs the score. This option is
							   exclusive of the --i-only flag.
							   (Csound 5.08 and later).

						       -T.
							   Terminate the performance when the end
							   of MIDI file is reached.

						       -t0.
							   Prevents Csound from deleting the
							   sorted score file, score.srt, upon
							   exit.

						       -t NUM.
							   Use the uninterpreted beats of
							   score.srt for this performance, and
							   set the initial tempo at NUM beats per
							   minute. When this flag is set, the
							   tempo of score performance is also
							   controllable from within the
							   orchestra. WARNING: this mode of
							   operation is experimental and may be
							   unreliable.

						       -U UTILITY.
							   Invoke the utility program UTILITY.
							   Use any invalid name to list the
							   available utilities.

						       -u.
							   Use u-law audio samples.

						       -v.
							   Verbose translate and run. Prints
							   details of orch translation and
							   performance, enabling errors to be
							   more clearly located.

						       -W.
							   Write a WAV format soundfile.

						       -x FILE.
							   Extract a portion of the sorted score,
							   score.srt, using the extract file FILE
							   (see Extract).

						       -Z.
							   Switch on dithering of audio
							   conversion from internal floating
							   point to 32, 16 and 8-bit formats. The
							   default form of the dither is
							   triangular.

						       -Z.
							   Switch on dithering of audio
							   conversion from internal floating
							   point to 32, 16 and 8-bit formats. In
							   the case of -Z the next digit should
							   be a 1 (for trangular) or a 2 (for
							   uniform). The exact interpretation
							   depends on the output system.

						       -z NUM.
							   List opcodes in this version:

							   o   no NUM, just show names

							   o   NUM = 0, just show names

							   o   NUM = 1, show arguments to each
							       opcode using the format <opname>
							       <outargs> <inargs>

AUTHOR
       Barry Vercoe
       MIT Media Lab

	   Author.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 1986, 1992 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MIT Media Lab 5.07			    06/23/2009			   CSOUND COMMAND LINE(1)
Unix & Linux Commands & Man Pages : ©2000 - 2018 Unix and Linux Forums


All times are GMT -4. The time now is 10:08 AM.