Linux and UNIX Man Pages

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages

aliases(5) [hpux man page]

aliases(5)							File Formats Manual							aliases(5)

aliases - aliases file for sendmail SYNOPSIS
The command (which is the same as see sendmail(1M)) builds the sendmail alias database from a text file. The default text file is Local addresses (local user names) are looked up in the alias database and expanded as necessary, unless the user name is preceded by a backslash When the aliases file contains multiple entries for a given alias, only the last entry is used. Except when the processing option (the send to me option) is set in the command or in the configuration file, the sender is not included in any alias expansions. For example, if sends a message to and the expansion of includes the message is not delivered to Each line of the alias text file must be of the form: Mailing lists can be continued onto multiple lines. Each continuation line must begin with white space. Lines beginning with # are com- ments. A mailing-list is a comma-separated list of one or more of the following: user-name Local user names occurring in alias expansions will themselves be looked up in the alias database unless they are preceded by backslash remote-address The remote address syntax understood by is configured in the configuration file, and typically includes the RFC-822-style and the UUCP-style filename This must be an absolute path name. appends a message to the file only if the directory in which it resides is readable and searchable by all, and only if the file already exists, is not executable, and is writable by all. pipes the message as standard input to the specified command. If command-line contains blanks, it must be enclosed in quotation marks (). For example, reads filename for a list of recipient addresses and forwards the message to each. For example, an alias such as: would read for the list of addresses making up the group. If a file named exists in a user's home directory and is owned by the user, redirects mail for that user to the list of addresses in the file. An address in a or file can be anything that can appear as a mailing-list in the alias text file. can run programs or write to files using file. This is controlled by the file. If the owner of the file lacks a valid shell as listed in file, the execution of such programs will be disallowed. The user can still execute such programs by placing the special string in the file. The alias database is examined before a recipient's file is examined. After aliasing has been done, local and valid recipients who have a file in their home directory will have messages forwarded to the list of users defined in that file. Aliasing occurs only on local names. Loops can not occur, since no message will be sent to any person more than once. Aliases defined in will NOT be expanded in headers from (see mailx(1)), but WILL be visible over networks and in headers from (see mail(1)). is only the raw data file. The actual aliasing information is placed into a binary format in the file using (see newaliases(1M)). A command should be executed each time the file is changed in order for the change to take effect. Note that the NIS alias maps are gener- ated by using which leaves and in the directory. AUTHOR
was developed by the University of California, Berkeley, and originally appeared in 4.0BSD. FILES
User's mail forwarding file raw data file for alias names database of alias names SEE ALSO
mail(1), mailx(1), makemap(1M), newaliases(1M), sendmail(1M). aliases(5)

Check Out this Related Man Page

mh-alias(4)						     Kernel Interfaces Manual						       mh-alias(4)

mh-alias - Alias file for MH message system DESCRIPTION
Aliasing allows you to send mail to a person or group of persons without typing their complete mail address. Both your MH personal alias file and the system alias file for mail delivery, /usr/lib/mh/MailAliases, process aliases in the same way. You can specify the name of your personal alias file in your .mh_profile. A line of the alias file can have the following formats: alias : address-group alias ; address-group < alias-file The first line of the example is the standard format. The alias appears at the start of the line, followed by a colon, followed by the address or addresses that it represents. If the alias is terminated with a semicolon (;) instead of a colon (:), the mail system outputs both the alias and the address-list in the correct format. If the line starts with a <, the file named after the < is read for more alias definitions. The reading is done recursively, so a < can occur in the beginning of an alias file with the expected results. Addresses can be expressed in the following formats: alias: address1, address2, address3, ... alias: <file alias: =group alias: +group alias: * Addresses are normally given in a list, separated by a comma and one or more spaces. If the list goes over one line, you can create a con- tinuation line by placing a back-slash () immediately before the new-line character. If the address-group begins with a <, the file named after the < is read and its contents added to the address list for the alias. If the address-group starts with an =, then the file /etc/group is consulted for the group named after the =. Each login name occurring as a member of the group is added to the address list for the alias. If the address-group starts with a +, then the file /etc/group is consulted to determine the group-id of the group named after the +. Each login name occurring in the /etc/passwd file whose group-id is indicated by this group is added to the address list for the alias. If the address-group is simply *, then the file /etc/passwd is consulted and all login names with a user-id greater than a given number (usually 200) are added to the address list for the alias. Aliases are resolved at posting time in the following way. A list of all the addresses from the message is built and duplicate addresses are eliminated. If the message originated on the local host, then alias resolution is performed for those addresses in the message that have no host specified. For each line in the alias file, aliases are compared against all of the existing addresses. If there is a match, the matched alias is removed from the address list, and each new address in the address-group is added to the address list, if it is not already on the list. The alias itself is not usually output; the address-group that the alias maps to is output instead. However, if the alias is terminated with a semicolon (;) instead of a colon (:), both the alias and the address are output in the correct format. This makes replies possible, because in MH aliases and personal aliases are unknown to the mail transport system. MH alias files are expanded into the headers of messages posted. This aliasing occurs first, at posting time, without the knowledge of the message transport system. In contrast, once the message transport system is given a message to deliver to a list of addresses, for each address that appears to be local, a system-wide alias file is consulted. These aliases are not expanded into the headers of messages delivered. An alias file must not reference itself directly, or indirectly through another alias file, using the <file construct. Using Aliasing To use aliasing in MH, you need to set up a personal alias file. It can have any name, but it is usually called aliases, and is usually located in your Mail directory. To set up the file, you need to perform the following steps. First, add the following line to your .mh_profile: Aliasfile: aliases If you have chosen a different name for your file, you should use this instead of aliases. If your file is in a directory other than your Mail directory, you must supply the full pathname. Next, create the file aliases in your Mail directory. You can now start to add aliases to your aliases file. EXAMPLES
This section gives an example of an alias file, followed by an explanation of the entries: sgroup: fred, fear, freida fred: frated@UCI work-committee: <work.aliases staff: =staff wheels: +wheel everyone: * On the first line of the example, sgroup is defined as an alias for the three names frated@UCI, fear, and freida. On the second line of the example, fred is defined as an alias for frated@UCI. Next, the definition of work-committee is given by reading the file work.aliases in your Mail directory. The alias staff is defined as all users who are listed as members of the group staff in the /etc/group file. The alias wheels is defined as all users whose group-id in /etc/passwd is equal to the group wheel. Finally, the alias everyone is defined as all users with a user-id in /etc/passwd greater than 200. FILES
/usr/lib/mh/MailAliases System alias file. $HOME/.mh_profile Your user profile. RELATED INFORMATION
ali(1), send(1), whom(1), group(4), passwd(4), mh_profile(4), mtstailor(4), conflict(8), post(8) delim off mh-alias(4)

Featured Tech Videos