install - install commands
dira] dirb] dirc] group] user] file [dirx ...]
is a command most commonly used in ``makefiles'' (see make(1)) to install a file (updated target file) in a specific place within a file
system. Each file is installed by copying it into the appropriate directory, thereby retaining the mode and owner of the original command.
The program prints messages telling the user exactly what files it is replacing or creating and where they are going.
is useful for installing new commands, or new versions of existing commands, in the standard directories (i.e. etc.).
If no options or directories (dirx...) are given, searches a set of default directories and in that order) for a file with the same name
as file. When the first occurrence is found, issues a message saying that it is overwriting that file with file (the new version), and
proceeds to do so. If the file is not found, the program states this and exits without further action.
If one or more directories (dirx ...) are specified after file, those directories are searched before the directories specified in the
Options are interpreted as follows:
Installs a new command
(file) in the directory specified by dira, only if it is not found. If it is found, issues a message saying that the
file already exists, and exits without overwriting it. Can be used alone or with the option.
Forces file to be installed in given directory, whether or not one already exists. If the file being installed does not
already exist, the mode and owner of the new file will be set to and respectively. If the file already exists, the
mode and owner will be that of the already existing file. Can be used alone or with the or options.
Ignores default directory list,
searching only through the given directories (dirx ...). Can be used alone or with any other options other than and
If file is not found in any of the searched directories, it is put in the directory specified in dirc. The mode and
owner of the new file will be set to and respectively. Can be used alone or with any other options other than and
If file is found, this option saves the ``found'' file by copying it to in the directory in which it was found. This
option is useful when installing a normally busy text file such as or where the existing file cannot be removed. Can
be used alone or with any other options other than
Causes file to be owned by group group. This option is available only to users who have appropriate privileges. Can be
used alone or with any other option.
Causes file to be owned by user user. This option is available only to users who have appropriate privileges. Can be used
alone or with any other option.
Suppresses printing of messages other than error messages.
Can be used alone or with any other options.
When no directories are specified (dirx ...), or when file cannot be placed in one of the directories specified, checks for the existence
of the file If exists, it is used to determine the final destination of file. If does not exist, the default directory list is further
scanned to determine where file is to be located.
The file contains a list of absolute pathnames, one per line. The pathname is the "official" destination (for example of the file as it
appears on a file system. The file serves as a master list for system command destinations. If there is no entry for file in the file the
default directory list is further scanned to determine where file is to be located.
The environment variable is used to locate the locations file (in the form This is necessary in cases where cross generation is being done
on a production system. Furthermore, each pathname in is appended to (for example, and used as the destination for file. Also, the
default directories are also appended to so that the default directories are actually and
The file does not exist on a distribution tape; it is created and used by local sites.
cannot create alias links for a command (for example, vi(1) is an alias link for ex(1)).