more(1) General Commands Manual more(1)
more, page - file perusal filter for screen viewing
number] command] tagstring] tabs] option] linenumber] pattern] [name]...
number] command] tagstring] tabs] option] linenumber] pattern] [name]...
The command is preferred in some standards and has some added functionality, but does not support character highlighting (see pg(1)).
is a filter for examining continuous text, one screenful at a time, on a screen terminal. It is quite similar to and is retained primarily
for backward compatibility. normally pauses after each screenful, printing the file name at the bottom of the screen. To display one more
line, press To display another screenful press Other possibilities are described later.
and differ only slightly. scrolls the screen upward as it prints the next page. clears the screen and prints a new screenful of text when
it prints a new page. Both provide one line of overlap between screenfuls.
name can be a file name or specifying standard input. processes file arguments in the order given.
supports the Basic Regular Expression syntax (see regexp(5)).
recognizes the following command line options:
Set the number of lines in the display window to
number, a positive decimal integer. The default is one line less than the the number of lines displayed by the ter-
minal; on a screen that displays 24 lines, the default is 23. The flag overrides any values obtained from the envi-
Same as except that the number of lines is set to n.
Draw each page by beginning at the top of the screen,
and erase each line just before drawing on it. This avoids scrolling the screen, making it easier to read while is
writing. This option is ignored if the terminal has no clear-to-end-of-line capability.
Prompt user with the message
at the end of each screenful. This is useful if is being used as a filter in some setting, such as a training class,
where many users might be unsophisticated.
Exit immediately after writing the last line of the last file in the
Count logical lines, rather than screen lines.
That is, long lines are not folded. This option is recommended if nroff output is being piped through ul, since the
latter can generate escape sequences. These escape sequences contain characters that would ordinarily occupy screen
positions, but which do not print when sent to the terminal as part of an escape sequence. Thus might assume lines
are longer than they really are, and fold lines erroneously.
Perform pattern matching in searches without regard to case.
Squeeze multiple blank lines from the output,
producing only one blank line. Especially helpful when viewing nroff output, this option maximizes the useful infor-
mation present on the screen.
Normally, handles underlining and bold such as produced by nroff in a manner appropriate to the particular terminal: if the
terminal supports underlining or has a highlighting (usually inverse video) mode, outputs appropriate escape
sequences to enable underlining, else highlighting mode, for underlined information in the source file. If the ter-
minal supports highlighting, uses that mode information that should be printed in boldface type. The option sup-
presses this processing, as do the "ul" and "os" terminfo flags.
Do not display nonprinting characters graphically; by default, all
non-ASCII and control characters (except and are displayed visibly in the form for or for non-ASCII character x.
Same as not specifying
with the exception of displaying as as and as
Execute the command initially in the command argument for each file examined. If the command is a positioning command, such as a
line number or a regular expression search, sets the current position to represent the final results of the command,
without writing any intermediate lines of the file. If the positioning command is unsuccessful, the first line in
the file is the current position.
Write the screenful of the file containing the tag named by the
tagstring argument. The specified tag appears in the current position. If both and options are specified, processes
first; that is, the file containing the tagstring is selected by and then the command is executed.
Set the tabstops every
tabs position. The default value for the tabs argument is 8.
Provides optional extensions to the
command. Currently, the following two options are supported:
Prevents from sending the terminal initialization string before displaying the file. This argument also pre-
vents from sending the terminal deinitialization string before exiting.
Causes to send the initialization and deinitialization strings. This is the default.
Start listing such that the current position is set to
Start listing such that the current position is set to two lines above
the line matching the regular expression pattern.
Note: Unlike editors, this construct should NOT end with a If it does, the trailing slash is taken as character in
the search pattern.
The number of lines available per screen is determined by the option, if present or by examining values in the environment. The actual
number of lines written is one less than this number, as the last line of the screen is used to write a user prompt and user input.
The number of columns available per line is determined by examining values in the environment. writes lines containing more characters
than would fit into this number of columns by breaking the line into one more logical lines where each of these lines but the last contains
the number of characters needed to fill the columns. The logical lines are written independently of each other; that is, commands affect-
ing a single line affect them separately.
While determining the number of lines and the number of columns, if the methods described above do not yield any number then uses terminfo
descriptor files (see term(4)). If this also fails then the number of lines is set to 24 and the number of columns to 80.
When standard output is a terminal and is not specified, treats backspace characters and carriage return characters specially.
o A character, followed first by a backspace character, then by an underscore (_), causes that character to be written as under-
lined text, if the terminal supports that. An underscore, followed first by a backspace character, then any character, also
causes that character to be written as underlined text, if the terminal supports that.
o A backspace character that appears between two identical printable characters causes the first of those two characters to be
written as emboldened text, if the terminal type supports that, and the second to be discarded. Immediately subsequent occur-
rences of backspaces/character pairs for that same character is also discarded.
o Other backspace character sequences is written directly to the terminal, which generally causes the character preceding the
backspace character to be suppressed in the display.
o A carriage return character at the end of a line is ignored, rather than being written as a control character.
If the standard output is not a terminal device, always exits when it reaches end-of-file on the last file in its argument list. Other-
wise, for all files but the last, prompts, with an indication that it has reached the end of file, along with the name of the next file.
For the last file specified, or for the standard input if no file is specified, prompts, indicating end-of-file, and accept additional com-
mands. If the next command specifies forward scrolling, will exit. If the option is specified, will exit immediately after writing the
last line of the last file.
uses the environment variable to preset any flags desired. The variable thus sets a string containing flags and arguments, preceded with
hyphens and blank-character-separated as on the command line. Any command-line flags or arguments are processed after those in the vari-
able, as if the command line were as follows:
For example, to view files using the mode of operation, the shell command sequence
or the csh command
causes all invocations of including invocations by programs such as man and msgs, to use this mode. The command sequence that sets up the
environment variable is usually placed in the .profile or .cshrc file.
In the following descriptions, the current position refers to two things:
o the position of the current line on the screen
o the line number (in the file) of the current line on the screen
The line on the screen corresponding to the current position is the third line on the screen. If this is not possible (there are fewer
than three lines to display or this is the first page of the file, or it is the last page of the file), then the current position is either
the first or last line on the screen.
Other sequences that can be typed when pauses, and their effects, are as follows (i
is an optional integer argument, defaulting to 1):
iSpace Scroll forward i lines. The default i for is one screenful; for and is one line. The entire i lines are written,
even if i is more than the screen size. At end-of-file, causes to continue with the next file in the list, or to
exit if the current file is the last file in the list.
iCtrl-d Scroll forward i lines, with a default of one half of the screen size. If i is specified, it becomes the new default
for subsequent and commands.
iCtrl-u Scrolls backward i lines, with a default of one half of the screen size. If i is specified, it becomes the new
default for subsequent and commands.
iCtrl-y Scrolls backward i lines, with a default of one line. The entire i lines are written, even if i is more than the
Display i more lines and sets the new window (screenful) size to i.
Go to line i in the file, with a default of 1 (beginning of file). Scroll or rewrite the screen so that the line is at the cur-
rent position. If i is not specified, then displays the first screenful in the file.
Go to line i in the file, with a default of the end of the file. If i is not specified, scrolls or rewrites screen so that the
last line in the file is at the bottom of the screen. If i is specified, scrolls or rewrites the screen so that the
line is at the current position.
Skip forward i lines, with a default of 1, and write the next screenful beginning at that point. If i would cause the current
position to be such that less than one screenful would be written, the last screenful in the file is written.
iCtrl-f Move forward i lines, with a default of one screenful. At end-of-file, will continue with the next file in the list,
or exit if the current file is the last file in the list.
iCtrl-b Move backward i lines, with a default of one screenful. If i is more than the screen size, only the final screenful
will be written.
Write the name of the file currently being examined, the number relative
to the total number of files there are to examine, the current line number, the current byte number, and the total
bytes to write and what percentage of the file precedes the current position. All of these items reference the first
byte of the line after the last line written.
Invoke an editor to edit the current file being examined.
The name of the editor is taken from the environment variable or defaults to If represents either or the editor is
invoked with options such that the current editor line is the physical line corresponding to the current position in
at the time of the invocation.
When the editor exits, resumes on the current file by rewriting the screen with the current line as the current posi-
Display a description of all the
Search forward in the file for the
i-th line containing the regular expression expression. The default value for i is 1. The search starts at the line
following the current position. If the search is successful, the screen is modified so that the searched-for line is
in the current position. The null regular expression repeats the search using the previous regular expression. If
the character is included, the lines for searching are those that do not contain expression.
If there are less than i occurrences of expression, and the input is a file rather than a pipe, then the position in
the file remains unchanged.
The user's erase and kill characters can be used to edit the regular expression. Erasing back past the first column
cancels the search command.
Same as but searches backward in the file for the i th line containing the regular expression expression.
Note: Unlike editors, the construct should NOT end with a If it does, the trailing slash is taken as a character in
the search pattern.
Repeat the previous search for the
i-th line (default 1) containing the last expression (or not containing the last expression, if the previous search
Repeat the search for the opposite direction of the previous search for the
i-th line (default 1) containing the last expression
(2 apostrophes) Return to the position from which the last large movement
command was executed ("large movement" is defined as any movement of more than a screenful of lines). If no such
movements have been made, return to the beginning of the file.
Invoke a shell with
command. The characters and in command are replaced with the current file name and the previous shell command,
respectively. If there is no current file name, is not expanded. The sequences and are replaced by and respec-
Examine a new file.
If the file argument is not specified, the "current" file (see the and commands) from the list of files in the com-
mand line is reexamined. The file name is subjected to the process of shell word expansions. If file is a (number
sign) character, the previously examined file is reexamined.
Examine the next file.
If i is specified, examines the i-th next file specified in the command line.
Examine the previous file.
If a number i is specified, examines the i-th previous file specified in the command line.
Go to the supplied
tagstring and scroll or rewrite the screen with that line in the current position.
Mark the current position with the specified letter, where
letter represents the name of one of the lowercase letters of the portable character set.
Return to the position that was previously marked with the specified
letter, making that line the current position.
Refresh the screen.
Refresh the screen, discarding any buffered input.
Dot. Repeat the previous command.
Halt a partial display of text.
stops sending output, and displays the usual prompt. Unfortunately, some output is lost as a result.
The commands take effect immediately; that is, it is not necessary to press Up to the time when the command character itself is given, the
line kill character can be used to cancel the numerical argument being formed.
If the standard output is not a teletype, is equivalent to cat(1).
supports the signal, and redraws the screen in response to window size changes.
Overrides the system-selected horizontal screen size.
Used by the command to select an editor.
Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset
or null. If is unset or null, the default value of "C" (see lang(5)) is used. If any of the internationalization variables
contains an invalid setting, will behave as if all internationalization variables are set to "C". See environ(5).
If set to a nonempty string value, overrides the values of all the other
Determines the interpretation of text as single and/or
multibyte characters, the classification of characters as printable, and the characters matched by character class expres-
sions in regular expressions.
Determines the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents
of diagnostic messages written to standard error and informative messages written to standard output.
Determines the location of message catalogues for the processing of
Overrides the system-selected vertical screen size, used as the number
of lines in a screenful. The option takes precedence over the variable for determining the number of lines in a screenful.
Determines a string containing options, preceded with hyphens
and blank-character-separated as on the command line. Any command-line options are processed after those in the variable.
The variable takes precedence over the and variables for determining the number of lines in a screenful.
Determines the name of the terminal type.
International Code Set Support
Single- and multibyte character code sets are supported.
When the standard output is not a terminal, none of the filter-modification options is effective. This is based on historical practice.
For example, a typical implementation of pipes its output through to squeeze excess white space for terminal users. When is piped to how-
ever, it is undesirable for this squeezing to happen.
To view a simple file, use:
To preview nroff output, use a command resembling:
If the file contains tables, use:
To display file in a fifteen line window and convert multiple adjacent blank lines into a single blank line:
To examine each file with its last screenful:
To examine each file starting with line 100 in the current position (third line, so line 98 is the first line written):
To examine the file that contains the tagstring tag with line 30 in the current position:
Standard error, file descriptor 2, is normally used for input during interactive use and should not be redirected (see Input/Output section
in the manpage of the shell in use).
compiled terminal capability data base
was developed by Mark Nudleman, University of California, Berkeley, OSF, and HP.
csh(1), man(1), pg(1), sh(1), term(4), terminfo(4), environ(5), lang(5), regexp(5).