dpkg(1) dpkg suite dpkg(1)
dpkg - package manager for Debian
dpkg [option...] action
This manual is intended for users wishing to understand dpkg's command line options and package states in more detail than that provided by
It should not be used by package maintainers wishing to understand how dpkg will install their packages. The descriptions of what dpkg does
when installing and removing packages are particularly inadequate.
dpkg is a tool to install, build, remove and manage Debian packages. The primary and more user-friendly front-end for dpkg is aptitude(1).
dpkg itself is controlled entirely via command line parameters, which consist of exactly one action and zero or more options. The action-
parameter tells dpkg what to do and options control the behavior of the action in some way.
dpkg can also be used as a front-end to dpkg-deb(1) and dpkg-query(1). The list of supported actions can be found later on in the ACTIONS
section. If any such action is encountered dpkg just runs dpkg-deb or dpkg-query with the parameters given to it, but no specific options
are currently passed to them, to use any such option the back-ends need to be called directly.
INFORMATION ABOUT PACKAGES
dpkg maintains some usable information about available packages. The information is divided in three classes: states, selection states and
flags. These values are intended to be changed mainly with dselect.
The package is not installed on your system.
Only the configuration files of the package exist on the system.
The installation of the package has been started, but not completed for some reason.
The package is unpacked, but not configured.
The package is unpacked and configuration has been started, but not yet completed for some reason.
The package awaits trigger processing by another package.
The package has been triggered.
The package is correctly unpacked and configured.
Package selection states
The package is selected for installation.
hold A package marked to be on hold is not handled by dpkg, unless forced to do that with option --force-hold.
The package is selected for deinstallation (i.e. we want to remove all files, except configuration files).
purge The package is selected to be purged (i.e. we want to remove everything from system directories, even configuration files).
ok A package marked ok is in a known state, but might need further processing.
A package marked reinstreq is broken and requires reinstallation. These packages cannot be removed, unless forced with option
-i, --install package-file...
Install the package. If --recursive or -R option is specified, package-file must refer to a directory instead.
Installation consists of the following steps:
1. Extract the control files of the new package.
2. If another version of the same package was installed before the new installation, execute prerm script of the old package.
3. Run preinst script, if provided by the package.
4. Unpack the new files, and at the same time back up the old files, so that if something goes wrong, they can be restored.
5. If another version of the same package was installed before the new installation, execute the postrm script of the old package.
Note that this script is executed after the preinst script of the new package, because new files are written at the same time old
files are removed.
6. Configure the package. See --configure for detailed information about how this is done.
Unpack the package, but don't configure it. If --recursive or -R option is specified, package-file must refer to a directory
Configure a package which has been unpacked but not yet configured. If -a or --pending is given instead of package, all unpacked
but unconfigured packages are configured.
To reconfigure a package which has already been configured, try the dpkg-reconfigure(8) command instead.
Configuring consists of the following steps:
1. Unpack the conffiles, and at the same time back up the old conffiles, so that they can be restored if something goes wrong.
2. Run postinst script, if provided by the package.
Processes only triggers (since dpkg 1.14.17). All pending triggers will be processed. If package names are supplied only those
packages' triggers will be processed, exactly once each where necessary. Use of this option may leave packages in the improper
triggers-awaited and triggers-pending states. This can be fixed later by running: dpkg --configure --pending.
-r, --remove package...|-a|--pending
Remove an installed package. This removes everything except conffiles, which may avoid having to reconfigure the package if it is
reinstalled later (conffiles are configuration files that are listed in the DEBIAN/conffiles control file). If -a or --pending is
given instead of a package name, then all packages unpacked, but marked to be removed in file /var/lib/dpkg/status, are removed.
Removing of a package consists of the following steps:
1. Run prerm script
2. Remove the installed files
3. Run postrm script
-P, --purge package...|-a|--pending
Purge an installed or already removed package. This removes everything, including conffiles. If -a or --pending is given instead of
a package name, then all packages unpacked or removed, but marked to be purged in file /var/lib/dpkg/status, are purged.
Note: some configuration files might be unknown to dpkg because they are created and handled separately through the configuration
scripts. In that case, dpkg won't remove them by itself, but the package's postrm script (which is called by dpkg), has to take care
of their removal during purge. Of course, this only applies to files in system directories, not configuration files written to
individual users' home directories.
Purging of a package consists of the following steps:
1. Remove the package, if not already removed. See --remove for detailed information about how this is done.
2. Run postrm script.
-V, --verify [package-name...]
Verifies the integrity of package-name or all packages if omitted, by comparing information from the files installed by a package
with the files metadata information stored in the dpkg database (since dpkg 1.17.2). The origin of the files metadata information
in the database is the binary packages themselves. That metadata gets collected at package unpack time during the installation
Currently the only functional check performed is an md5sum verification of the file contents against the stored value in the files
database. It will only get checked if the database contains the file md5sum. To check for any missing metadata in the database, the
--audit command can be used.
The output format is selectable with the --verify-format option, which by default uses the rpm format, but that might change in the
future, and as such, programs parsing this command output should be explicit about the format they expect.
-C, --audit [package-name...]
Performs database sanity and consistency checks for package-name or all packages if omitted (per package checks since dpkg 1.17.10).
For example, searches for packages that have been installed only partially on your system or that have missing, wrong or obsolete
control data or files. dpkg will suggest what to do with them to get them fixed.
Update dpkg's and dselect's idea of which packages are available. With action --merge-avail, old information is combined with
information from Packages-file. With action --update-avail, old information is replaced with the information in the Packages-file.
The Packages-file distributed with Debian is simply named <<Packages>>. If the Packages-file argument is missing or named <<->> then
it will be read from standard input (since dpkg 1.17.7). dpkg keeps its record of available packages in /var/lib/dpkg/available.
A simpler one-shot command to retrieve and update the available file is dselect update. Note that this file is mostly useless if you
don't use dselect but an APT-based frontend: APT has its own system to keep track of available packages.
-A, --record-avail package-file...
Update dpkg and dselect's idea of which packages are available with information from the package package-file. If --recursive or -R
option is specified, package-file must refer to a directory instead.
Now obsolete and a no-op as dpkg will automatically forget uninstalled unavailable packages (since dpkg 1.15.4), but only those that
do not contain user information such as package selections.
Erase the existing information about what packages are available.
Get list of package selections, and write it to stdout. Without a pattern, non-installed packages (i.e. those which have been
previously purged) will not be shown.
Set package selections using file read from stdin. This file should be in the format "package state", where state is one of install,
hold, deinstall or purge. Blank lines and comment lines beginning with '#' are also permitted.
The available file needs to be up-to-date for this command to be useful, otherwise unknown packages will be ignored with a warning.
See the --update-avail and --merge-avail commands for more information.
Set the requested state of every non-essential package to deinstall (since dpkg 1.13.18). This is intended to be used immediately
before --set-selections, to deinstall any packages not in list given to --set-selections.
Searches for packages selected for installation, but which for some reason still haven't been installed.
Print a single package which is the target of one or more relevant pre-dependencies and has itself no unsatisfied pre-dependencies.
If such a package is present, output it as a Packages file entry, which can be massaged as appropriate.
Returns 0 when a package is printed, 1 when no suitable package is available and 2 on error.
Add architecture to the list of architectures for which packages can be installed without using --force-architecture (since dpkg
1.16.2). The architecture dpkg is built for (i.e. the output of --print-architecture) is always part of that list.
Remove architecture from the list of architectures for which packages can be installed without using --force-architecture (since
dpkg 1.16.2). If the architecture is currently in use in the database then the operation will be refused, except if
--force-architecture is specified. The architecture dpkg is built for (i.e. the output of --print-architecture) can never be removed
from that list.
Print architecture of packages dpkg installs (for example, "i386").
Print a newline-separated list of the extra architectures dpkg is configured to allow packages to be installed for (since dpkg
Asserts that dpkg supports the requested feature. Returns 0 if the feature is fully supported, 1 if the feature is known but dpkg
cannot provide support for it yet, and 2 if the feature is unknown. The current list of assertable features is:
Supports the Pre-Depends field (since dpkg 1.1.0).
Supports epochs in version strings (since dpkg 22.214.171.124).
Supports long filenames in deb(5) archives (since dpkg 126.96.36.199).
Supports multiple Conflicts and Replaces (since dpkg 188.8.131.52).
Supports multi-arch fields and semantics (since dpkg 1.16.2).
Supports versioned Provides (since dpkg 1.17.11).
Validate that the thing string has a correct syntax (since dpkg 1.18.16). Returns 0 if the string is valid, 1 if the string is
invalid but might be accepted in lax contexts, and 2 if the string is invalid. The current list of validatable things is:
Validates the given package name (since dpkg 1.18.16).
Validates the given trigger name (since dpkg 1.18.16).
Validates the given architecture name (since dpkg 1.18.16).
Validates the given version (since dpkg 1.18.16).
--compare-versions ver1 op ver2
Compare version numbers, where op is a binary operator. dpkg returns true (0) if the specified condition is satisfied, and false (1)
otherwise. There are two groups of operators, which differ in how they treat an empty ver1 or ver2. These treat an empty version as
earlier than any version: lt le eq ne ge gt. These treat an empty version as later than any version: lt-nl le-nl ge-nl gt-nl. These
are provided only for compatibility with control file syntax: < << <= = >= >> >. The < and > operators are obsolete and should not
be used, due to confusing semantics. To illustrate: 0.1 < 0.1 evaluates to true.
Display a brief help message.
Give help about the --force-thing options.
Give help about debugging options.
Display dpkg version information.
See dpkg-deb(1) for more information about the following actions.
-b, --build directory [archive|directory]
Build a deb package.
-c, --contents archive
List contents of a deb package.
-e, --control archive [directory]
Extract control-information from a package.
-x, --extract archive directory
Extract the files contained by package.
-X, --vextract archive directory
Extract and display the filenames contained by a
-f, --field archive [control-field...]
Display control field(s) of a package.
Output the control tar-file contained in a Debian package.
Output the filesystem tar-file contained by a Debian package.
-I, --info archive [control-file...]
Show information about a package.
See dpkg-query(1) for more information about the following actions.
-l, --list package-name-pattern...
List packages matching given pattern.
-s, --status package-name...
Report status of specified package.
-L, --listfiles package-name...
List files installed to your system from package-name.
-S, --search filename-search-pattern...
Search for a filename from installed packages.
-p, --print-avail package-name...
Display details about package-name, as found in
/var/lib/dpkg/available. Users of APT-based frontends
should use apt-cache show package-name instead.
All options can be specified both on the command line and in the dpkg configuration file /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg or fragment files (with names
matching this shell pattern '[0-9a-zA-Z_-]*') on the configuration directory /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg.d/. Each line in the configuration file is
either an option (exactly the same as the command line option but without leading hyphens) or a comment (if it starts with a '#').
Change after how many errors dpkg will abort. The default is 50.
When a package is removed, there is a possibility that another installed package depended on the removed package. Specifying this
option will cause automatic deconfiguration of the package which depended on the removed package.
Switch debugging on. octal is formed by bitwise-oring desired values together from the list below (note that these values may change
in future releases). -Dh or --debug=help display these debugging values.
1 Generally helpful progress information
2 Invocation and status of maintainer scripts
10 Output for each file processed
100 Lots of output for each file processed
20 Output for each configuration file
200 Lots of output for each configuration file
40 Dependencies and conflicts
400 Lots of dependencies/conflicts output
10000 Trigger activation and processing
20000 Lots of output regarding triggers
40000 Silly amounts of output regarding triggers
1000 Lots of drivel about e.g. the dpkg/info dir
2000 Insane amounts of drivel
Force or refuse (no-force and refuse mean the same thing) to do some things. things is a comma separated list of things specified
below. --force-help displays a message describing them. Things marked with (*) are forced by default.
Warning: These options are mostly intended to be used by experts only. Using them without fully understanding their effects may
break your whole system.
all: Turns on (or off) all force options.
downgrade(*): Install a package, even if newer version of it is already installed.
Warning: At present dpkg does not do any dependency checking on downgrades and therefore will not warn you if the downgrade breaks
the dependency of some other package. This can have serious side effects, downgrading essential system components can even make your
whole system unusable. Use with care.
configure-any: Configure also any unpacked but unconfigured packages on which the current package depends.
hold: Process packages even when marked "hold".
remove-reinstreq: Remove a package, even if it's broken and marked to require reinstallation. This may, for example, cause parts of
the package to remain on the system, which will then be forgotten by dpkg.
remove-essential: Remove, even if the package is considered essential. Essential packages contain mostly very basic Unix commands.
Removing them might cause the whole system to stop working, so use with caution.
depends: Turn all dependency problems into warnings.
depends-version: Don't care about versions when checking dependencies.
breaks: Install, even if this would break another package (since dpkg 1.14.6).
conflicts: Install, even if it conflicts with another package. This is dangerous, for it will usually cause overwriting of some
confmiss: Always install the missing conffile without prompting. This is dangerous, since it means not preserving a change
(removing) made to the file.
confnew: If a conffile has been modified and the version in the package did change, always install the new version without
prompting, unless the --force-confdef is also specified, in which case the default action is preferred.
confold: If a conffile has been modified and the version in the package did change, always keep the old version without prompting,
unless the --force-confdef is also specified, in which case the default action is preferred.
confdef: If a conffile has been modified and the version in the package did change, always choose the default action without
prompting. If there is no default action it will stop to ask the user unless --force-confnew or --force-confold is also been given,
in which case it will use that to decide the final action.
confask: If a conffile has been modified always offer to replace it with the version in the package, even if the version in the
package did not change (since dpkg 1.15.8). If any of --force-confnew, --force-confold, or --force-confdef is also given, it will
be used to decide the final action.
overwrite: Overwrite one package's file with another's file.
overwrite-dir: Overwrite one package's directory with another's file.
overwrite-diverted: Overwrite a diverted file with an undiverted version.
unsafe-io: Do not perform safe I/O operations when unpacking (since dpkg 184.108.40.206). Currently this implies not performing file
system syncs before file renames, which is known to cause substantial performance degradation on some file systems, unfortunately
the ones that require the safe I/O on the first place due to their unreliable behaviour causing zero-length files on abrupt system
Note: For ext4, the main offender, consider using instead the mount option nodelalloc, which will fix both the performance
degradation and the data safety issues, the latter by making the file system not produce zero-length files on abrupt system crashes
with any software not doing syncs before atomic renames.
Warning: Using this option might improve performance at the cost of losing data, use with care.
script-chrootless: Run maintainer scrips without chroot(2)ing into instdir even if the package does not support this mode of
operation (since dpkg 1.18.5).
Warning: This can destroy your host system, use with extreme care.
architecture: Process even packages with wrong or no architecture.
bad-version: Process even packages with wrong versions (since dpkg 1.16.1).
bad-path: PATH is missing important programs, so problems are likely.
not-root: Try to (de)install things even when not root.
bad-verify: Install a package even if it fails authenticity check.
Ignore dependency-checking for specified packages (actually, checking is performed, but only warnings about conflicts are given,
--no-act, --dry-run, --simulate
Do everything which is supposed to be done, but don't write any changes. This is used to see what would happen with the specified
action, without actually modifying anything.
Be sure to give --no-act before the action-parameter, or you might end up with undesirable results. (e.g. dpkg --purge foo --no-act
will first purge package foo and then try to purge package --no-act, even though you probably expected it to actually do nothing)
Recursively handle all regular files matching pattern *.deb found at specified directories and all of its subdirectories. This can
be used with -i, -A, --install, --unpack and --record-avail actions.
-G Don't install a package if a newer version of the same package is already installed. This is an alias of --refuse-downgrade.
Change default administrative directory, which contains many files that give information about status of installed or uninstalled
packages, etc. (Defaults to <</var/lib/dpkg>>)
Change default installation directory which refers to the directory where packages are to be installed. instdir is also the
directory passed to chroot(2) before running package's installation scripts, which means that the scripts see instdir as a root
directory. (Defaults to <</>>)
Changing root changes instdir to <<dir>> and admindir to <<dir/var/lib/dpkg>>.
Only process the packages that are selected for installation. The actual marking is done with dselect or by dpkg, when it handles
packages. For example, when a package is removed, it will be marked selected for deinstallation.
Don't install the package if the same version of the package is already installed.
Set an invoke hook command to be run via "sh -c" before or after the dpkg run for the unpack, configure, install, triggers-only,
remove, purge, add-architecture and remove-architecture dpkg actions (since dpkg 1.15.4; add-architecture and remove-architecture
actions since dpkg 1.17.19). This option can be specified multiple times. The order the options are specified is preserved, with the
ones from the configuration files taking precedence. The environment variable DPKG_HOOK_ACTION is set for the hooks to the current
dpkg action. Note: front-ends might call dpkg several times per invocation, which might run the hooks more times than expected.
Set glob-pattern as a path filter, either by excluding or re-including previously excluded paths matching the specified patterns
during install (since dpkg 1.15.8).
Warning: take into account that depending on the excluded paths you might completely break your system, use with caution.
The glob patterns use the same wildcards used in the shell, were '*' matches any sequence of characters, including the empty string
and also '/'. For example, <</usr/*/READ*>> matches <</usr/share/doc/package/README>>. As usual, '?' matches any single character
(again, including '/'). And '[' starts a character class, which can contain a list of characters, ranges and complementations. See
glob(7) for detailed information about globbing. Note: the current implementation might re-include more directories and symlinks
than needed, to be on the safe side and avoid possible unpack failures; future work might fix this.
This can be used to remove all paths except some particular ones; a typical case is:
to remove all documentation files except the copyright files.
These two options can be specified multiple times, and interleaved with each other. Both are processed in the given order, with the
last rule that matches a file name making the decision.
The filters are applied when unpacking the binary packages, and as such only have knowledge of the type of object currently being
filtered (e.g. a normal file or a directory) and have not visibility of what objects will come next. Because these filters have
side effects (in contrast to find(1) filters), excluding an exact pathname that happens to be a directory object like /usr/share/doc
will not have the desired result, and only that pathname will be excluded (which could be automatically reincluded if the code sees
the need). Any subsequent files contained within that directory will fail to unpack.
Hint: make sure the globs are not expanded by your shell.
Sets the output format for the --verify command (since dpkg 1.17.2).
The only currently supported output format is rpm, which consists of a line for every path that failed any check. The lines start
with 9 characters to report each specific check result, a '?' implies the check could not be done (lack of support, file
permissions, etc), '.' implies the check passed, and an alphanumeric character implies a specific check failed; the md5sum
verification failure (the file contents have changed) is denoted with a '5' on the third character. The line is followed by a space
and an attribute character (currently 'c' for conffiles), another space and the pathname.
Send machine-readable package status and progress information to file descriptor n. This option can be specified multiple times. The
information is generally one record per line, in one of the following forms:
status: package: status
Package status changed; status is as in the status file.
status: package : error : extended-error-message
An error occurred. Any possible newlines in extended-error-message will be converted to spaces before output.
status: file : conffile-prompt : 'real-old' 'real-new' useredited distedited
User is being asked a conffile question.
processing: stage: package
Sent just before a processing stage starts. stage is one of upgrade, install (both sent before unpacking), configure,
trigproc, disappear, remove, purge.
Send machine-readable package status and progress information to the shell command's standard input, to be run via "sh -c" (since
dpkg 1.16.0). This option can be specified multiple times. The output format used is the same as in --status-fd.
Log status change updates and actions to filename, instead of the default /var/log/dpkg.log. If this option is given multiple times,
the last filename is used. Log messages are of the form:
YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS startup type command
For each dpkg invocation where type is archives (with a command of unpack or install) or packages (with a command of
configure, triggers-only, remove or purge).
YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS status state pkg installed-version
For status change updates.
YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS action pkg installed-version available-version
For actions where action is one of install, upgrade, configure, trigproc, disappear, remove or purge.
YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS conffile filename decision
For conffile changes where decision is either install or keep.
Do not try to verify package signatures.
Do not run any triggers in this run (since dpkg 1.14.17), but activations will still be recorded. If used with --configure package
or --triggers-only package then the named package postinst will still be run even if only a triggers run is needed. Use of this
option may leave packages in the improper triggers-awaited and triggers-pending states. This can be fixed later by running: dpkg
Cancels a previous --no-triggers (since dpkg 1.14.17).
0 The requested action was successfully performed. Or a check or assertion command returned true.
1 A check or assertion command returned false.
2 Fatal or unrecoverable error due to invalid command-line usage, or interactions with the system, such as accesses to the database,
memory allocations, etc.
PATH This variable is expected to be defined in the environment and point to the system paths where several required programs are to be
found. If it's not set or the programs are not found, dpkg will abort.
HOME If set, dpkg will use it as the directory from which to read the user specific configuration file.
TMPDIR If set, dpkg will use it as the directory in which to create temporary files and directories.
PAGER The program dpkg will execute when displaying the conffiles.
SHELL The program dpkg will execute when starting a new interactive shell.
Sets the number of columns dpkg should use when displaying formatted text. Currently only used by --list.
Sets the color mode (since dpkg 1.18.5). The currently accepted values are: auto (default), always and never.
Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to indicate which installation to act on (since dpkg 1.18.5). The value is
intended to be prepended to any path maintainer scripts operate on. During normal operation, this variable is empty. When
installing packages into a different instdir, dpkg normally invokes maintainer scripts using chroot(2) and leaves this variable
empty, but if --force-script-chrootless is specified then the chroot(2) call is skipped and instdir is non-empty.
Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to indicate the dpkg administrative directory to use (since dpkg 1.16.0). This
variable is always set to the current --admindir value.
Defined by dpkg on the shell spawned on the conffile prompt to examine the situation (since dpkg 1.15.6). Current valid value:
Defined by dpkg on the shell spawned on the conffile prompt to examine the situation (since dpkg 1.15.6). Contains the path to the
Defined by dpkg on the shell spawned on the conffile prompt to examine the situation (since dpkg 1.15.6). Contains the path to the
Defined by dpkg on the shell spawned when executing a hook action (since dpkg 1.15.4). Contains the current dpkg action.
Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the version of the currently running dpkg instance (since dpkg 1.14.17).
Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the (non-arch-qualified) package name being handled (since dpkg 1.14.17).
Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the package reference count, i.e. the number of package instances with a
state greater than not-installed (since dpkg 1.17.2).
Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the architecture the package got built for (since dpkg 1.15.4).
Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the name of the script running, one of preinst, postinst, prerm or postrm
(since dpkg 1.15.7).
Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to a value ('0' or '1') noting whether debugging has been requested (with the
--debug option) for the maintainer scripts (since dpkg 1.18.4).
Configuration fragment files (since dpkg 1.15.4).
Configuration file with default options.
Default log file (see /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg and option --log).
The other files listed below are in their default directories, see option --admindir to see how to change locations of these files.
List of available packages.
Statuses of available packages. This file contains information about whether a package is marked for removing or not, whether it is
installed or not, etc. See section INFORMATION ABOUT PACKAGES for more info.
The status file is backed up daily in /var/backups. It can be useful if it's lost or corrupted due to filesystems troubles.
The format and contents of a binary package are described in deb(5).
--no-act usually gives less information than might be helpful.
To list installed packages related to the editor vi(1) (note that dpkg-query does not load the available file anymore by default, and the
dpkg-query --load-avail option should be used instead for that):
dpkg -l '*vi*'
To see the entries in /var/lib/dpkg/available of two packages:
dpkg --print-avail elvis vim | less
To search the listing of packages yourself:
To remove an installed elvis package:
dpkg -r elvis
To install a package, you first need to find it in an archive or CDROM. The available file shows that the vim package is in section
dpkg -i vim_4.5-3.deb
To make a local copy of the package selection states:
dpkg --get-selections >myselections
You might transfer this file to another computer, and after having updated the available file there with your package manager frontend of
choice (see https://wiki.debian.org/Teams/Dpkg/FAQ for more details), for example:
apt-cache dumpavail | dpkg --merge-avail
or with dpkg 1.17.6 and earlier:
apt-cache dumpavail >"$avail"
dpkg --merge-avail "$avail"
you can install it with:
dpkg --set-selections <myselections
Note that this will not actually install or remove anything, but just set the selection state on the requested packages. You will need some
other application to actually download and install the requested packages. For example, run apt-get dselect-upgrade.
Ordinarily, you will find that dselect(1) provides a more convenient way to modify the package selection states.
Additional functionality can be gained by installing any of the following packages: apt, aptitude and debsums.
aptitude(1), apt(1), dselect(1), dpkg-deb(1), dpkg-query(1), deb(5), deb-control(5), dpkg.cfg(5), and dpkg-reconfigure(8).
See /usr/share/doc/dpkg/THANKS for the list of people who have contributed to dpkg.
220.127.116.11 2018-04-16 dpkg(1)