# cprojl(3) [freebsd man page]

```CIMAG(3)						   BSD Library Functions Manual 						  CIMAG(3)

NAME
cimag, cimagf, cimagl, conj, conjf, conjl, cproj, cprojf, cprojl, creal, crealf, creall -- functions to manipulate complex numbers

LIBRARY
Math Library (libm, -lm)

SYNOPSIS
#include <complex.h>

double
cimag(double complex z);

float
cimagf(float complex z);

long double
cimagl(long double complex z);

double complex
conj(double complex z);

float complex
conjf(float complex z);

long double complex
conjl(long double complex z);

double complex
cproj(double complex z);

float complex
cprojf(float complex z);

long double complex
cprojl(long double complex z);

double
creal(double complex z);

float
crealf(float complex z);

long double
creall(long double complex z);

DESCRIPTION
Let a+b*i denote the complex number z.

The creal() functions return the real part a, and the cimag() functions return the imaginary part b.

The conj() functions return the complex conjugate a-b*i.

The cproj() functions return the projection onto the Riemann sphere.  If z contains an infinite component, then the result is infinity +-
0*i, where the (zero) imaginary part of the result has the same sign as b.  Otherwise, the result is z.

These functions do not signal any floating point exceptions.

STANDARDS
The cimag(), conj(), cproj(), and creal() functions conform to ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (``ISO C99'').

HISTORY
The cimag(), conj() and creal() functions first appeared in FreeBSD 5.3.  The cproj() functions appeared in FreeBSD 8.0.

BSD								  August 7, 2008							       BSD```

## Check Out this Related Man Page

```CIMAG(3)						   BSD Library Functions Manual 						  CIMAG(3)

NAME
cimag, cimagf, cimagl, conj, conjf, conjl, cproj, cprojf, cprojl, creal, crealf, creall -- functions to manipulate complex numbers

LIBRARY
Math Library (libm, -lm)

SYNOPSIS
#include <complex.h>

double
cimag(double complex z);

float
cimagf(float complex z);

long double
cimagl(long double complex z);

double complex
conj(double complex z);

float complex
conjf(float complex z);

long double complex
conjl(long double complex z);

double complex
cproj(double complex z);

float complex
cprojf(float complex z);

long double complex
cprojl(long double complex z);

double
creal(double complex z);

float
crealf(float complex z);

long double
creall(long double complex z);

DESCRIPTION
Let a+b*i denote the complex number z.

The creal() functions return the real part a, and the cimag() functions return the imaginary part b.

The conj() functions return the complex conjugate a-b*i.

The cproj() functions return the projection onto the Riemann sphere.  If z contains an infinite component, then the result is infinity +-
0*i, where the (zero) imaginary part of the result has the same sign as b.  Otherwise, the result is z.

These functions do not signal any floating point exceptions.

STANDARDS
The cimag(), conj(), cproj(), and creal() functions conform to ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (``ISO C99'').

HISTORY
The cimag(), conj() and creal() functions first appeared in FreeBSD 5.3.  The cproj() functions appeared in FreeBSD 8.0.

BSD								  August 7, 2008							       BSD```
Man Page

## The Whole Story on #! /usr/bin/ksh

Introduction Originally, we only had one shell on unix. When ran a command, the shell would attempt to invoke one of the exec() system calls on it. It the command was an executable, the exec would succeed and the command would run. If the exec() failed, the shell would not give up, instead it...

## FreeBSD Kernel Internals, Dr. Marshall Kirk McKusick

FreeBSD Kernel Internals, Dr. Marshall Kirk McKusick nwbqBdghh6E The first hour of Marshall Kirk McKusick's course on FreeBSD kernel internals based on his book, The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System.

## Unix File Permissions

Introduction I have seen some misinformation regarding Unix file permissions. I will try to set the record straight. Take a look at this example of some output from ls: \$ ls -ld /usr/bin /usr/bin/cat drwxrwxr-x 3 root bin 8704 Sep 23 2004 /usr/bin -r-xr-xr-x 1 bin bin ...

## Memory Leaks

Suppose I have a main() function with only one malloc statement allocating say some 1 gb memory. Also say my system has 1 gb of ram. main() { malloc(1gb) return(0) } The program above exits without freeing the memory. In this case will the 1 gb of heap memory be returned...

## Scripts without shebang

I see lot of ad-hoc shell scripts in our servers which don't have a shebang at the beginning . Does this mean that it will run on any shell ? Is it a good practice to create scripts (even ad-hoc ones) without shebang ?

## Is UNIX an open source OS ?

Hi everyone, I know the following questions are noobish questions but I am asking them because I am confused about the basics of history behind UNIX and LINUX. Ok onto business, my questions are-: Was/Is UNIX ever an open source operating system ? If UNIX was...

## A simple UNIXtime component in Vue.js

A shout out to Scott who gave me a helping hand to turn a simple sample Vue.js app I wrote yesterday into a Vue.js component: Vue.component("unix-time", { template: `<div class="time">{{unixtime}}</div>`, data() { return { unixtime: "" }; }, methods: { ...

## Reason for no directory creation date

i read here that linux provides no way to determine when a directory was created. https://www.unix.com/shell-programming-and-scripting/157874-creation-date-directory.htmlI have a directory /home/andy/scripts that had a README file in it. That file says I put the script in that directory and...

## Valid separator in time and date format

Hello. I can use any particular (stupid or not) format when using bash date command. Example : ~> date --date "now" '+%Y-%m-%d %H!%M!%S' 2019-06-03 12!55!33or ~> date --date "now" '+%Y£%m£%d %H¤%M¤%S' 2019£06£03 12¤57¤36 or ~> date --date "now" '+%Y-%m-%d %H-%M-%S' 2019-06-03 12-58-51 ...

## UNIX Environment Setup - (Just starting!)

Morning All So, I am starting looking into the world of UNIX for a new job (luckily not my primary function!) and I am looking to get stared. Like anything I seem to learn best by trying things out first in an environment but I have a key question: Currently I use Oracle VirtualBox, can...

## Is it safe to install x86 Solaris 10 U6 after installed-Linux-and-FreeBSD?

I've installed Slack 14.2 on /dev/sda1 (/dev/sda2 is swap) and FreeBSD 12 on /dev/sda3 and lilo is the boot manager. FreeBSD slices are as follows; / on /dev/ada0S3a, swap on /dev/ada0s3e, /var on /dev/ada0s3b, /tmp on /dev/ada0s3d and /usr on /dev/ada0s3f. I hesitate to install Solaris 10...

## Controlling user input

I'm trying to use a bash script for a psych experiment that involves listening to sound files and responding. If I have something like the code below, how can I make sure that a key press is assigned to RESPONSE only after the second echo statement? for i in 1 2 3; do echo "Ready?" sleep 2 ...