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Test Your Knowledge in Computers #564
Difficulty: Medium
The negation operator is a null task operator not a unary operator.
True or False?
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sysexits(3) [freebsd man page]

SYSEXITS(3)						   BSD Library Functions Manual 					       SYSEXITS(3)

NAME
sysexits -- preferable exit codes for programs SYNOPSIS
#include <sysexits.h> DESCRIPTION
According to style(9), it is not a good practice to call exit(3) with arbitrary values to indicate a failure condition when ending a program. Instead, the pre-defined exit codes from sysexits should be used, so the caller of the process can get a rough estimation about the failure class without looking up the source code. The successful exit is always indicated by a status of 0, or EX_OK. Error numbers begin at EX__BASE to reduce the possibility of clashing with other exit statuses that random programs may already return. The meaning of the codes is approximately as follows: EX_USAGE (64) The command was used incorrectly, e.g., with the wrong number of arguments, a bad flag, a bad syntax in a parameter, or whatever. EX_DATAERR (65) The input data was incorrect in some way. This should only be used for user's data and not system files. EX_NOINPUT (66) An input file (not a system file) did not exist or was not readable. This could also include errors like ``No message'' to a mailer (if it cared to catch it). EX_NOUSER (67) The user specified did not exist. This might be used for mail addresses or remote logins. EX_NOHOST (68) The host specified did not exist. This is used in mail addresses or network requests. EX_UNAVAILABLE (69) A service is unavailable. This can occur if a support program or file does not exist. This can also be used as a catchall message when something you wanted to do does not work, but you do not know why. EX_SOFTWARE (70) An internal software error has been detected. This should be limited to non-operating system related errors as possi- ble. EX_OSERR (71) An operating system error has been detected. This is intended to be used for such things as ``cannot fork'', ``cannot create pipe'', or the like. It includes things like getuid returning a user that does not exist in the passwd file. EX_OSFILE (72) Some system file (e.g., /etc/passwd, /var/run/utx.active, etc.) does not exist, cannot be opened, or has some sort of error (e.g., syntax error). EX_CANTCREAT (73) A (user specified) output file cannot be created. EX_IOERR (74) An error occurred while doing I/O on some file. EX_TEMPFAIL (75) Temporary failure, indicating something that is not really an error. In sendmail, this means that a mailer (e.g.) could not create a connection, and the request should be reattempted later. EX_PROTOCOL (76) The remote system returned something that was ``not possible'' during a protocol exchange. EX_NOPERM (77) You did not have sufficient permission to perform the operation. This is not intended for file system problems, which should use EX_NOINPUT or EX_CANTCREAT, but rather for higher level permissions. EX_CONFIG (78) Something was found in an unconfigured or misconfigured state. The numerical values corresponding to the symbolical ones are given in parenthesis for easy reference. SEE ALSO
err(3), exit(3), style(9) HISTORY
The sysexits file appeared somewhere after 4.3BSD. AUTHORS
This manual page was written by Jorg Wunsch after the comments in <sysexits.h>. BUGS
The choice of an appropriate exit value is often ambiguous. BSD
January 21, 2010 BSD

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newaliases(1M)						  System Administration Commands					    newaliases(1M)

NAME
newaliases - rebuild the data base for the mail aliases file SYNOPSIS
newaliases DESCRIPTION
newaliases rebuilds the random access data base for the mail aliases file /etc/mail/aliases. newaliases accepts all the flags that sendmail(1M) accepts. However, most of these flags have no effect, except for the -C option and three of the Processing Options that can be set from a configuration file with the -o option: -C /path/to/alt/config/file Use alternate configuration file. -oAfile Specify possible alias files. -oLn Set the default log level to n. Defaults to 9. -on Validate the RHS of aliases when rebuilding the aliases(4) database. newaliases runs in verbose mode (-v option) automatically. EXAMPLES
Example 1 Running the newaliases Command The following command runs newaliases on an alias file different from the /etc/mail/aliases default in sendmail(1M): example% newaliases -oA/path/to/alternate/alias/file EXIT STATUS
newaliases returns an exit status describing what it did. The codes are defined in /usr/include/sysexits.h. EX_OK Successful completion on all addresses. EX_NOUSER User name not recognized. EX_UNAVAILABLE Catchall. Necessary resources were not available. EX_SYNTAX Syntax error in address. EX_SOFTWARE Internal software error, including bad arguments. EX_OSERR Temporary operating system error, such as "cannot fork". EX_NOHOST Host name not recognized. EX_TEMPFAIL Message could not be sent immediately, but was queued. FILES
/etc/aliases Symbolic link to /etc/mail/aliases /etc/mail/aliases.pag /etc/mail/aliases.dir ndbm files maintained by newaliases /etc/mail/aliases.db Berkeley DataBase file maintained by newaliases ATTRIBUTES
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes: +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Availability |SUNWsndmu | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ SEE ALSO
sendmail(1M), aliases(4), attributes(5) SunOS 5.11 14 Sep 2001 newaliases(1M)

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