UNITS(1) BSD General Commands Manual UNITS(1)
units -- conversion program
units [-f filename] [-qvUV] [from-unit to-unit]
The following options are available:
-h , --help
Show an overview of options
-f filename , --file filename
Specify the name of the units data file to load.
Behave as if -o '%6e' was typed.
-q , --quiet
Suppress prompting of the user for units and the display of statistics about the number of units loaded.
-U , --unitsfile
If the default unit file exists prints its location. If not, print "Units data file not found"
-t , --terse
Only print the result. This is used when calling units from other programs for easy to parse results.
-v , --verbose
Print the units in the conversion output. Be more verbose in general.
-o format , --output-format format
Select the output format string by which numbers are printed.
-V , --version
Print the version number, usage, and then exit.
Allow a single unit conversion to be done directly from the command line. The program will not print prompts. It will print out the
result of the single specified conversion.
The units program converts quantities expressed in various scales to their equivalents in other scales. The units program can only handle
multiplicative or affine scale changes. It works interactively by prompting the user for input:
You have: meters
You want: feet
You have: cm^3
You want: gallons
You have: meters/s
You want: furlongs/fortnight
You have: 1|2 inch
You want: cm
You have: 85 degF
You want: degC
Powers of units can be specified using the '^' character as shown in the example, or by simple concatenation: 'cm3' is equivalent to 'cm^3'.
Multiplication of units can be specified by using spaces, a dash or an asterisk. Division of units is indicated by the slash ('/'). Note
that multiplication has a higher precedence than division, so 'm/s/s' is the same as 'm/s^2' or 'm/s s'. Division of numbers must be indi-
cated using the vertical bar ('|'). To convert half a meter, you would write '1|2 meter'. If you write '1/2 meter' then the units program
would interpret that as equivalent to '0.5/meter'. If you enter incompatible unit types, the units program will print a message indicating
that the units are not conformable and it will display the reduced form for each unit:
You have: ergs/hour
You want: fathoms kg^2 / day
2.7777778e-11 kg m^2 / sec^3
2.1166667e-05 kg^2 m / sec
The conversion information is read from a units data file. The default file includes definitions for most familiar units, abbreviations and
metric prefixes. Some constants of nature included are:
pi ratio of circumference to diameter
c speed of light
e charge on an electron
g acceleration of gravity
force same as g
mole Avogadro's number
water pressure per unit height of water
mercury pressure per unit height of mercury
au astronomical unit
The unit 'pound' is a unit of mass. Compound names are run together so 'pound force' is a unit of force. The unit 'ounce' is also a unit of
mass. The fluid ounce is 'floz'. British units that differ from their US counterparts are prefixed with 'br', and currency is prefixed with
its country name: 'belgiumfranc', 'britainpound'. When searching for a unit, if the specified string does not appear exactly as a unit name,
then units will try to remove a trailing 's' or a trailing 'es' and check again for a match.
To find out what units are available read the standard units file. If you want to add your own units you can supply your own file. A unit
is specified on a single line by giving its name and an equivalence. Be careful to define new units in terms of old ones so that a reduction
leads to the primitive units which are marked with '!' characters. The units program will not detect infinite loops that could be caused by
careless unit definitions. Comments in the unit definition file begin with a '#' or '/' character at the beginning of a line.
Prefixes are defined in the same was as standard units, but with a trailing dash at the end of the prefix name. If a unit is not found even
after removing trailing 's' or 'es', then it will be checked against the list of prefixes. Prefixes will be removed until a legal base unit
Here is an example of a short units file that defines some basic units.
minute 60 sec
hour 60 min
inch 0.0254 m
ft 12 inches
mile 5280 ft
/usr/share/misc/units.lib the standard units library
Adrian Mariano <firstname.lastname@example.org>
The effect of including a '/' in a prefix is surprising.
Exponents entered by the user can be only one digit. You can work around this by multiplying several terms.
The user must use | to indicate division of numbers and / to indicate division of symbols. This distinction should not be necessary.
The program contains various arbitrary limits on the length of the units converted and on the length of the data file.
The program should use a hash table to store units so that it does not take so long to load the units list and check for duplication.
July 4, 2014 BSD