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systemd.unit(5) [debian man page]

SYSTEMD.UNIT(5) 						   systemd.unit 						   SYSTEMD.UNIT(5)

NAME
systemd.unit - systemd unit configuration files SYNOPSIS
systemd.service, systemd.socket, systemd.device, systemd.mount, systemd.automount, systemd.swap, systemd.target, systemd.path, systemd.timer, systemd.snapshot DESCRIPTION
A unit configuration file encodes information about a service, a socket, a device, a mount point, an automount point, a swap file or partition, a start-up target, a file system path or a timer controlled and supervised by systemd(1). The syntax is inspired by XDG Desktop Entry Specification[1] .desktop files, which are in turn inspired by Microsoft Windows .ini files. This man pages lists the common configuration options of all the unit types. These options need to be configured in the [Unit] resp. [Install] section of the unit files. In addition to the generic [Unit] and [Install] sections described here, each unit should have a type-specific section, e.g. [Service] for a service unit. See the respective man pages for more information. Unit files may contain additional options on top of those listed here. If systemd encounters an unknown option it will write a warning log message but continue loading the unit. If an option is prefixed with X- it is ignored completely by systemd. Applications may use this to include additional information in the unit files. Boolean arguments used in unit files can be written in various formats. For positive settings the strings 1, yes, true and on are equivalent. For negative settings the strings 0, no, false and off are equivalent. Time span values encoded in unit files can be written in various formats. A stand-alone number specifies a time in seconds. If suffixed with a time unit, the unit is honored. A concatenation of multiple values with units is supported, in which case the values are added up. Example: "50" refers to 50 seconds; "2min 200ms" refers to 2 minutes plus 200 milliseconds, i.e. 120200ms. The following time units are understood: s, min, h, d, w, ms, us. Empty lines and lines starting with # or ; are ignored. This may be used for commenting. Lines ending in a backslash are concatenated with the following line while reading and the backslash is replaced by a space character. This may be used to wrap long lines. If a line starts with .include followed by a file name, the specified file will be parsed at this point. Make sure that the file that is included has the appropriate section headers before any directives. Along with a unit file foo.service a directory foo.service.wants/ may exist. All units symlinked from such a directory are implicitly added as dependencies of type Wanted= to the unit. This is useful to hook units into the start-up of other units, without having to modify their unit configuration files. For details about the semantics of Wanted= see below. The preferred way to create symlinks in the .wants/ directory of a service is with the enable command of the systemctl(1) tool which reads information from the [Install] section of unit files. (See below.) A similar functionality exists for Requires= type dependencies as well, the directory suffix is .requires/ in this case. Note that while systemd offers a flexible dependency system between units it is recommended to use this functionality only sparsely and instead rely on techniques such as bus-based or socket-based activation which makes dependencies implicit, which both results in a simpler and more flexible system. Some unit names reflect paths existing in the file system name space. Example: a device unit dev-sda.device refers to a device with the device node /dev/sda in the file system namespace. If this applies a special way to escape the path name is used, so that the result is usable as part of a file name. Basically, given a path, "/" is replaced by "-", and all unprintable characters and the "-" are replaced by C-style "x20" escapes. The root directory "/" is encoded as single dash, while otherwise the initial and ending "/" is removed from all paths during transformation. This escaping is reversible. Optionally, units may be instantiated from a template file at runtime. This allows creation of multiple units from a single configuration file. If systemd looks for a unit configuration file it will first search for the literal unit name in the filesystem. If that yields no success and the unit name contains an @ character, systemd will look for a unit template that shares the same name but with the instance string (i.e. the part between the @ character and the suffix) removed. Example: if a service getty@tty3.service is requested and no file by that name is found, systemd will look for getty@.service and instantiate a service from that configuration file if it is found. To refer to the instance string from within the configuration file you may use the special %i specifier in many of the configuration options. Other specifiers exist, the full list is: Table 1. Specifiers available in unit files +----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+ |Specifier | Meaning | Details | +----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+ |%n | Full unit name | | +----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+ |%N | Unescaped full unit name | | +----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+ |%p | Prefix name | This refers to the string before the | | | | @, i.e. "getty" in the example | | | | above, where "tty3" is the instance | | | | name. | +----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+ |%P | Unescaped prefix name | | +----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+ |%i | Instance name | This is the string between the @ | | | | character and the suffix. | +----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+ |%I | Unescaped instance name | | +----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+ |%f | Unescaped file name | This is either the unescaped | | | | instance name (if set) with / | | | | prepended (if necessary), or the | | | | prefix name similarly prepended with | | | | /. | +----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+ |%c | Control group path of the unit | | +----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+ |%r | Root control group path of systemd | | +----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+ |%R | Parent directory of the root control | | | | group path of systemd | | +----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+ |%t | Runtime socket dir | This is either /run (for the system | | | | manager) or $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR (for | | | | user managers). | +----------+--------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+ If a unit file is empty (i.e. has the file size 0) or is symlinked to /dev/null its configuration will not be loaded and it appears with a load state of masked, and cannot be activated. Use this as an effective way to fully disable a unit, making it impossible to start it even manually. The unit file format is covered by the Interface Stability Promise[2]. OPTIONS
Unit file may include a [Unit] section, which carries generic information about the unit that is not dependent on the type of unit: Description= A free-form string describing the unit. This is intended for use in UIs to show descriptive information along with the unit name. Requires= Configures requirement dependencies on other units. If this unit gets activated, the units listed here will be activated as well. If one of the other units gets deactivated or its activation fails, this unit will be deactivated. This option may be specified more than once, in which case requirement dependencies for all listed names are created. Note that requirement dependencies do not influence the order in which services are started or stopped. This has to be configured independently with the After= or Before= options. If a unit foo.service requires a unit bar.service as configured with Requires= and no ordering is configured with After= or Before=, then both units will be started simultaneously and without any delay between them if foo.service is activated. Often it is a better choice to use Wants= instead of Requires= in order to achieve a system that is more robust when dealing with failing services. RequiresOverridable= Similar to Requires=. Dependencies listed in RequiresOverridable= which cannot be fulfilled or fail to start are ignored if the startup was explicitly requested by the user. If the start-up was pulled in indirectly by some dependency or automatic start-up of units that is not requested by the user this dependency must be fulfilled and otherwise the transaction fails. Hence, this option may be used to configure dependencies that are normally honored unless the user explicitly starts up the unit, in which case whether they failed or not is irrelevant. Requisite=, RequisiteOverridable= Similar to Requires= resp. RequiresOverridable=. However, if a unit listed here is not started already it will not be started and the transaction fails immediately. Wants= A weaker version of Requires=. A unit listed in this option will be started if the configuring unit is. However, if the listed unit fails to start up or cannot be added to the transaction this has no impact on the validity of the transaction as a whole. This is the recommended way to hook start-up of one unit to the start-up of another unit. Note that dependencies of this type may also be configured outside of the unit configuration file by adding a symlink to a .wants/ directory accompanying the unit file. For details see above. BindTo= Configures requirement dependencies, very similar in style to Requires=, however in addition to this behaviour it also declares that this unit is stopped when any of the units listed suddenly disappears. Units can suddenly, unexpectedly disappear if a service terminates on its own choice, a device is unplugged or a mount point unmounted without involvement of systemd. Conflicts= Configures negative requirement dependencies. If a unit has a Conflicts= setting on another unit, starting the former will stop the latter and vice versa. Note that this setting is independent of and orthogonal to the After= and Before= ordering dependencies. If a unit A that conflicts with a unit B is scheduled to be started at the same time as B, the transaction will either fail (in case both are required part of the transaction) or be modified to be fixed (in case one or both jobs are not a required part of the transaction). In the latter case the job that is not the required will be removed, or in case both are not required the unit that conflicts will be started and the unit that is conflicted is stopped. Before=, After= Configures ordering dependencies between units. If a unit foo.service contains a setting Before=bar.service and both units are being started, bar.service's start-up is delayed until foo.service is started up. Note that this setting is independent of and orthogonal to the requirement dependencies as configured by Requires=. It is a common pattern to include a unit name in both the After= and Requires= option in which case the unit listed will be started before the unit that is configured with these options. This option may be specified more than once, in which case ordering dependencies for all listed names are created. After= is the inverse of Before=, i.e. while After= ensures that the configured unit is started after the listed unit finished starting up, Before= ensures the opposite, i.e. that the configured unit is fully started up before the listed unit is started. Note that when two units with an ordering dependency between them are shut down, the inverse of the start-up order is applied. i.e. if a unit is configured with After= on another unit, the former is stopped before the latter if both are shut down. If one unit with an ordering dependency on another unit is shut down while the latter is started up, the shut down is ordered before the start-up regardless whether the ordering dependency is actually of type After= or Before=. If two units have no ordering dependencies between them they are shut down resp. started up simultaneously, and no ordering takes place. OnFailure= Lists one or more units that are activated when this unit enters the 'failed' state. PropagateReloadTo=, PropagateReloadFrom= Lists one or more units where reload requests on the unit will be propagated to/on the other unit will be propagated from. Issuing a reload request on a unit will automatically also enqueue a reload request on all units that the reload request shall be propagated to via these two settings. OnFailureIsolate= Takes a boolean argument. If true the unit listed in OnFailure= will be enqueued in isolation mode, i.e. all units that are not its dependency will be stopped. If this is set only a single unit may be listed in OnFailure=. Defaults to false. IgnoreOnIsolate= Takes a boolean argument. If true this unit will not be stopped when isolating another unit. Defaults to false. IgnoreOnSnapshot= Takes a boolean argument. If true this unit will not be included in snapshots. Defaults to true for device and snapshot units, false for the others. StopWhenUnneeded= Takes a boolean argument. If true this unit will be stopped when it is no longer used. Note that in order to minimize the work to be executed, systemd will not stop units by default unless they are conflicting with other units, or the user explicitly requested their shut down. If this option is set, a unit will be automatically cleaned up if no other active unit requires it. Defaults to false. RefuseManualStart=, RefuseManualStop= Takes a boolean argument. If true this unit can only be activated (resp. deactivated) indirectly. In this case explicit start-up (resp. termination) requested by the user is denied, however if it is started (resp. stopped) as a dependency of another unit, start-up (resp. termination) will succeed. This is mostly a safety feature to ensure that the user does not accidentally activate units that are not intended to be activated explicitly, and not accidentally deactivate units that are not intended to be deactivated. These options default to false. AllowIsolate= Takes a boolean argument. If true this unit may be used with the systemctl isolate command. Otherwise this will be refused. It probably is a good idea to leave this disabled except for target units that shall be used similar to runlevels in SysV init systems, just as a precaution to avoid unusable system states. This option defaults to false. DefaultDependencies= Takes a boolean argument. If true (the default), a few default dependencies will implicitly be created for the unit. The actual dependencies created depend on the unit type. For example, for service units, these dependencies ensure that the service is started only after basic system initialization is completed and is properly terminated on system shutdown. See the respective man pages for details. Generally, only services involved with early boot or late shutdown should set this option to false. It is highly recommended to leave this option enabled for the majority of common units. If set to false this option does not disable all implicit dependencies, just non-essential ones. JobTimeoutSec= When clients are waiting for a job of this unit to complete, time out after the specified time. If this time limit is reached the job will be cancelled, the unit however will not change state or even enter the 'failed' mode. This value defaults to 0 (job timeouts disabled), except for device units. NB: this timeout is independent from any unit-specific timeout (for example, the timeout set with Timeout= in service units) as the job timeout has no effect on the unit itself, only on the job that might be pending for it. Or in other words: unit-specific timeouts are useful to abort unit state changes, and revert them. The job timeout set with this option however is useful to abort only the job waiting for the unit state to change. ConditionPathExists=, ConditionPathExistsGlob=, ConditionPathIsDirectory=, ConditionPathIsSymbolicLink=, ConditionPathIsMountPoint=, ConditionDirectoryNotEmpty=, ConditionFileIsExecutable=, ConditionKernelCommandLine=, ConditionVirtualization=, ConditionSecurity=, ConditionCapability=, ConditionNull= Before starting a unit verify that the specified condition is true. With ConditionPathExists= a file existence condition can be checked before a unit is started. If the specified absolute path name does not exist, startup of a unit will not actually happen, however the unit is still useful for ordering purposes in this case. The condition is checked at the time the queued start job is to be executed. If the absolute path name passed to ConditionPathExists= is prefixed with an exclamation mark (!), the test is negated, and the unit is only started if the path does not exist. ConditionPathExistsGlob= works in a similar way, but checks for the existence of at least one file or directory matching the specified globbing pattern. ConditionPathIsDirectory= is similar to ConditionPathExists= but verifies whether a certain path exists and is a directory. ConditionPathIsSymbolicLink= is similar to ConditionPathExists= but verifies whether a certain path exists and is a symbolic link. ConditionPathIsMountPoint= is similar to ConditionPathExists= but verifies whether a certain path exists and is a mount point. ConditionFileIsExecutable= is similar to ConditionPathExists= but verifies whether a certain path exists, is a regular file and marked executable. ConditionDirectoryNotEmpty= is similar to ConditionPathExists= but verifies whether a certain path exists and is a non-empty directory. Similarly ConditionKernelCommandLine= may be used to check whether a specific kernel command line option is set (or if prefixed with the exclamation mark unset). The argument must either be a single word, or an assignment (i.e. two words, separated by the equality sign). In the former case the kernel command line is searched for the word appearing as is, or as left hand side of an assignment. In the latter case the exact assignment is looked for with right and left hand side matching. ConditionVirtualization= may be used to check whether the system is executed in a virtualized environment and optionally test whether it is a specific implementation. Takes either boolean value to check if being executed in any virtualized environment, or one of vm and container to test against a specific type of virtualization solution, or one of qemu, kvm, vmware, microsoft, oracle, xen, bochs, chroot, openvz, lxc, lxc-libvirt, systemd-nspawn to test against a specific implementation. If multiple virtualization technologies are nested only the innermost is considered. The test may be negated by prepending an exclamation mark. ConditionSecurity= may be used to check whether the given security module is enabled on the system. Currently the only recognized value is selinux. The test may be negated by prepending an exclamation mark. ConditionCapability= may be used to check whether the given capability exists in the capability bounding set of the service manager (i.e. this does not check whether capability is actually available in the permitted or effective sets, see capabilities(7) for details). Pass a capability name such as CAP_MKNOD, possibly prefixed with an exclamation mark to negate the check. Finally, ConditionNull= may be used to add a constant condition check value to the unit. It takes a boolean argument. If set to false the condition will always fail, otherwise succeed. If multiple conditions are specified the unit will be executed if all of them apply (i.e. a logical AND is applied). Condition checks can be prefixed with a pipe symbol (|) in which case a condition becomes a triggering condition. If at least one triggering condition is defined for a unit then the unit will be executed if at least one of the triggering conditions apply and all of the non-triggering conditions. If you prefix an argument with the pipe symbol and an exclamation mark the pipe symbol must be passed first, the exclamation second. Except for ConditionPathIsSymbolicLink=, all path checks follow symlinks. Names= Additional names for this unit. The names listed here must have the same suffix (i.e. type) as the unit file name. This option may be specified more than once, in which case all listed names are used. Note that this option is different from the Alias= option from the [Install] section mentioned below. See below for details. Note that in almost all cases this option is not what you want. A symlink alias in the file system is generally preferable since it can be used as lookup key. If a unit with a symlinked alias name is not loaded and needs to be it is easily found via the symlink. However, if a unit with an alias name configured with this setting is not loaded it will not be discovered. This settings' only use is in conjunction with service instances. Unit file may include a [Install] section, which carries installation information for the unit. This section is not interpreted by systemd(1) during runtime. It is used exclusively by the enable and disable commands of the systemctl(1) tool during installation of a unit: Alias= Additional names this unit shall be installed under. The names listed here must have the same suffix (i.e. type) as the unit file name. This option may be specified more than once, in which case all listed names are used. At installation time, systemctl enable will create symlinks from these names to the unit file name. Note that this is different from the Names= option from the [Unit] section mentioned above: The names from Names= apply unconditionally if the unit is loaded. The names from Alias= apply only if the unit has actually been installed with the systemctl enable command. Also, if systemd searches for a unit, it will discover symlinked alias names as configured with Alias=, but not names configured with Names= only. It is a common pattern to list a name in both options. In this case, a unit will be active under all names if installed, but also if not installed but requested explicitly under its main name. WantedBy= Installs a symlink in the .wants/ subdirectory for a unit. This has the effect that when the listed unit name is activated the unit listing it is activated too. WantedBy=foo.service in a service bar.service is mostly equivalent to Alias=foo.service.wants/bar.service in the same file. Also= Additional units to install when this unit is installed. If the user requests installation of a unit with this option configured, systemctl enable will automatically install units listed in this option as well. SEE ALSO
systemd(1), systemctl(8), systemd.special(7), systemd.service(5), systemd.socket(5), systemd.device(5), systemd.mount(5), systemd.automount(5), systemd.swap(5), systemd.target(5), systemd.path(5), systemd.timer(5), systemd.snapshot(5), capabilities(7) AUTHOR
Lennart Poettering <lennart@poettering.net> Developer NOTES
1. XDG Desktop Entry Specification http://standards.freedesktop.org/desktop-entry-spec/latest/ 2. Interface Stability Promise http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/InterfaceStabilityPromise systemd 10/07/2013 SYSTEMD.UNIT(5)
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