MASTER(8) System Manager's Manual MASTER(8)
master - Postfix master process
master [-Ddtvw] [-c config_dir] [-e exit_time]
The master(8) daemon is the resident process that runs Postfix daemons on demand: daemons to send or receive messages via the network, dae-
mons to deliver mail locally, etc. These daemons are created on demand up to a configurable maximum number per service.
Postfix daemons terminate voluntarily, either after being idle for a configurable amount of time, or after having serviced a configurable
number of requests. Exceptions to this rule are the resident queue manager, address verification server, and the TLS session cache and
pseudo-random number server.
The behavior of the master(8) daemon is controlled by the master.cf configuration file, as described in master(5).
Read the main.cf and master.cf configuration files in the named directory instead of the default configuration directory. This also
overrides the configuration files for other Postfix daemon processes.
-D After initialization, run a debugger on the master process. The debugging command is specified with the debugger_command in the
main.cf global configuration file.
-d Do not redirect stdin, stdout or stderr to /dev/null, and do not discard the controlling terminal. This must be used for debugging
Terminate the master process after exit_time seconds. Child processes terminate at their convenience.
-t Test mode. Return a zero exit status when the master.pid lock file does not exist or when that file is not locked. This is evidence
that the master(8) daemon is not running.
-v Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes. This option is passed on to child processes. Multiple -v options make the software
-w Wait in a dummy foreground process, while the real master daemon initializes in a background process. The dummy foreground process
returns a zero exit status only if the master daemon initialization is successful, and if it completes in a reasonable amount of
This feature is available in Postfix 2.10 and later.
SIGHUP Upon receipt of a HUP signal (e.g., after "postfix reload"), the master process re-reads its configuration files. If a service has
been removed from the master.cf file, its running processes are terminated immediately. Otherwise, running processes are allowed to
terminate as soon as is convenient, so that changes in configuration settings affect only new service requests.
Upon receipt of a TERM signal (e.g., after "postfix abort"), the master process passes the signal on to its child processes and ter-
minates. This is useful for an emergency shutdown. Normally one would terminate only the master ("postfix stop") and allow running
processes to finish what they are doing.
Problems are reported to syslogd(8). The exit status is non-zero in case of problems, including problems while initializing as a master
daemon process in the background.
After initialization, start a debugger as specified with the debugger_command configuration parameter in the main.cf configuration
Directory with Postfix configuration files.
Unlike most Postfix daemon processes, the master(8) server does not automatically pick up changes to main.cf. Changes to master.cf are
never picked up automatically. Use the "postfix reload" command after a configuration change.
RESOURCE AND RATE CONTROLS
The default maximal number of Postfix child processes that provide a given service.
The maximum amount of time that an idle Postfix daemon process waits for an incoming connection before terminating voluntarily.
The maximal number of incoming connections that a Postfix daemon process will service before terminating voluntarily.
How long the Postfix master(8) waits before forking a server that appears to be malfunctioning.
Available in Postfix version 2.6 and later:
Selectively disable master(8) listener ports by service type or by service name and type.
config_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
The default location of the Postfix main.cf and master.cf configuration files.
daemon_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
The directory with Postfix support programs and daemon programs.
The external command to execute when a Postfix daemon program is invoked with the -D option.
The network interface addresses that this mail system receives mail on.
The Internet protocols Postfix will attempt to use when making or accepting connections.
import_environment (see 'postconf -d' output)
The list of environment parameters that a Postfix process will import from a non-Postfix parent process.
The UNIX system account that owns the Postfix queue and most Postfix daemon processes.
The process ID of a Postfix command or daemon process.
The process name of a Postfix command or daemon process.
queue_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
The location of the Postfix top-level queue directory.
The syslog facility of Postfix logging.
syslog_name (see 'postconf -d' output)
The mail system name that is prepended to the process name in syslog records, so that "smtpd" becomes, for example, "postfix/smtpd".
To expand the directory names below into their actual values, use the command "postconf config_directory" etc.
$config_directory/main.cf, global configuration file.
$config_directory/master.cf, master server configuration file.
$queue_directory/pid/master.pid, master lock file.
$data_directory/master.lock, master lock file.
qmgr(8), queue manager
verify(8), address verification
master(5), master.cf configuration file syntax
postconf(5), main.cf configuration file syntax
syslogd(8), system logging
The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.
IBM T.J. Watson Research
P.O. Box 704
Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA