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wninput(5) [centos man page]

WNINPUT(5)						      WordNettm File Formats							WNINPUT(5)

noun.suffix, verb.suffix, adj.suffix, adv.suffix - WordNet lexicographer files that are input to grind(1) DESCRIPTION
WordNet's source files are written by lexicographers. They are the product of a detailed relational analysis of lexical semantics: a vari- ety of lexical and semantic relations are used to represent the organization of lexical knowledge. Two kinds of building blocks are dis- tinguished in the source files: word forms and word meanings. Word forms are represented in their familiar orthography; word meanings are represented by synonym sets (synsets) - lists of synonymous word forms that are interchangeable in some context. Two kinds of relations are recognized: lexical and semantic. Lexical relations hold between word forms; semantic relations hold between word meanings. Lexicographer files correspond to the syntactic categories implemented in WordNet - noun, verb, adjective and adverb. All of the synsets in a lexicographer file are in the same syntactic category. Each synset consists of a list of synonymous words or collocations (eg. "foun- tain pen", "take in"), and pointers that describe the relations between this synset and other synsets. These relations include (but are not limited to) hypernymy/hyponymy, antonymy, entailment, and meronymy/holonymy. A word or collocation may appear in more than one synset, and in more than one part of speech. Each use of a word in a synset represents a sense of that word in the part of speech corresponding to the synset. Adjectives may be organized into clusters containing head synsets and satellite synsets. Adverbs generally point to the adjectives from which they are derived. See wngloss(7) for a glossary of WordNet terminology and a discussion of the database's content and logical organization. Lexicographer File Names The names of the lexicographer files are of the form: pos.suffix where pos is either noun, verb, adj or adv. suffix may be used to organize groups of synsets into different files, for example noun.animal and noun.plant. See lexnames(5) for a list of lexicographer file names that are used in building WordNet. Pointers Pointers are used to represent the relations between the words in one synset and another. Semantic pointers represent relations between word meanings, and therefore pertain to all of the words in the source and target synsets. Lexical pointers represent relations between word forms, and pertain only to specific words in the source and target synsets. The following pointer types are usually used to indicate lexical relations: Antonym, Pertainym, Participle, Also See, Derivationally Related. The remaining pointer types are generally used to represent semantic relations. A relation from a source to a target synset is formed by specifying a word from the target synset in the source synset, followed by the pointer_symbol indicating the pointer type. The location of a pointer within a synset defines it as either lexical or semantic. The Lexi- cographer File Format section describes the syntax for entering a semantic pointer, and Word Syntax describes the syntax for entering a lexical pointer. Although there are many pointer types, only certain types of relations are permitted between synsets of each syntactic category. The pointer_symbols for nouns are: ! Antonym @ Hypernym @i Instance Hypernym ~ Hyponym ~i Instance Hyponym #m Member holonym #s Substance holonym #p Part holonym %m Member meronym %s Substance meronym %p Part meronym = Attribute + Derivationally related form ;c Domain of synset - TOPIC -c Member of this domain - TOPIC ;r Domain of synset - REGION -r Member of this domain - REGION ;u Domain of synset - USAGE -u Member of this domain - USAGE The pointer_symbols for verbs are: ! Antonym @ Hypernym ~ Hyponym * Entailment > Cause ^ Also see $ Verb Group + Derivationally related form ;c Domain of synset - TOPIC ;r Domain of synset - REGION ;u Domain of synset - USAGE The pointer_symbols for adjectives are: ! Antonym & Similar to < Participle of verb Pertainym (pertains to noun) = Attribute ^ Also see ;c Domain of synset - TOPIC ;r Domain of synset - REGION ;u Domain of synset - USAGE The pointer_symbols for adverbs are: ! Antonym Derived from adjective ;c Domain of synset - TOPIC ;r Domain of synset - REGION ;u Domain of synset - USAGE Many pointer types are reflexive, meaning that if a synset contains a pointer to another synset, the other synset should contain a corre- sponding reflexive pointer. grind(1) automatically inserts missing reflexive pointers for the following pointer types: +-----------------------+------------------------+ | Pointer | Reflect | +-----------------------+------------------------+ |Antonym | Antonym | |Hyponym | Hypernym | |Hypernym | Hyponym | |Instance Hyponym | Instance Hypernym | |Instance Hypernym | Instance Hyponym | |Holonym | Meronym | |Meronym | Holonym | |Similar to | Similar to | |Attribute | Attribute | |Verb Group | Verb Group | |Derivationally Related | Derivationally Related | |Domain of synset | Member of Doman | +-----------------------+------------------------+ Verb Frames Each verb synset contains a list of generic sentence frames illustrating the types of simple sentences in which the verbs in the synset can be used. For some verb senses, example sentences illustrating actual uses of the verb are provided. (See Verb Example Sentences in wndb(5).) Whenever there is no example sentence, the generic sentence frames specified by the lexicographer are used. The generic sen- tence frames are entered in a synset as a comma-separated list of integer frame numbers. The following list is the text of the generic frames, preceded by their frame numbers: 1 Something ----s 2 Somebody ----s 3 It is ----ing 4 Something is ----ing PP 5 Something ----s something Adjective/Noun 6 Something ----s Adjective/Noun 7 Somebody ----s Adjective 8 Somebody ----s something 9 Somebody ----s somebody 10 Something ----s somebody 11 Something ----s something 12 Something ----s to somebody 13 Somebody ----s on something 14 Somebody ----s somebody something 15 Somebody ----s something to somebody 16 Somebody ----s something from somebody 17 Somebody ----s somebody with something 18 Somebody ----s somebody of something 19 Somebody ----s something on somebody 20 Somebody ----s somebody PP 21 Somebody ----s something PP 22 Somebody ----s PP 23 Somebody's (body part) ----s 24 Somebody ----s somebody to INFINITIVE 25 Somebody ----s somebody INFINITIVE 26 Somebody ----s that CLAUSE 27 Somebody ----s to somebody 28 Somebody ----s to INFINITIVE 29 Somebody ----s whether INFINITIVE 30 Somebody ----s somebody into V-ing something 31 Somebody ----s something with something 32 Somebody ----s INFINITIVE 33 Somebody ----s VERB-ing 34 It ----s that CLAUSE 35 Something ----s INFINITIVE Lexicographer File Format Synsets are entered one per line, and each line is terminated with a newline character. A line containing a synset may be as long as nec- essary, but no newlines can be entered within a synset. Within a synset, spaces or tabs may be used to separate entities. Items enclosed in italicized square brackets may not be present. The general synset syntax is: { words pointers ( gloss ) } Synsets of this form are valid for all syntactic categories except verb, and are referred to as basic synsets. At least one word and a gloss are required to form a valid synset. Pointers entered following all the words in a synset represent semantic relations between all the words in the source and target synsets. For verbs, the basic synset syntax is defined as follows: { words pointers frames ( gloss ) } Adjective may be organized into clusters containing one or more head synsets and optional satellite synsets. Adjective clusters are of the form: [ head synset [satellite synsets] [-] [additional head/satellite synsets] ] Each adjective cluster is enclosed in square brackets, and may have one or more parts. Each part consists of a head synset and optional satellite synsets that are conceptually similar to the head synset's meaning. Parts of a cluster are separated by one or more hyphens (-) on a line by themselves, with the terminating square bracket following the last synset. Head and satellite synsets follow the syntax of basic synsets, however a "Similar to" pointer must be specified in a head synset for each of its satellite synsets. Most adjective clus- ters contain two antonymous parts. See wngloss(7) for a discussion of adjective clusters, and Special Adjective Syntax for more informa- tion on adjective cluster syntax. Synsets for relational adjectives (pertainyms) and participial adjectives do not adhere to the cluster structure. They use the basic synset syntax. Comments can be entered in a lexicographer file by enclosing the text of the comment in parentheses. Note that comments cannot appear within a synset, as parentheses within a synset have an entirely different meaning (see Gloss Syntax ). However, entire synsets (or adjec- tive clusters) can be "commented out" by enclosing them in parentheses. This is often used by the lexicographers to verify the syntax of files under development or to leave a note to oneself while working on entries. Word Syntax A synset must have at least one word, and the words of a synset must appear after the opening brace and before any other synset constructs. A word may be entered in either the simple word or word/pointer syntax. A simple word is of the form: word[ ( marker ) ][lex_id] , word may be entered in any combination of upper and lower case unless it is in an adjective cluster. A collocation is entered by joining the individual words with an underscore character (_). Numbers (integer or real) may be entered, either by themselves or as part of a word string, by following the number with a double quote ("). See Special Adjective Syntax for a description of adjective clusters and markers. word may be followed by an integer lex_id from 1 to 15. The lex_id is used to distinguish different senses of the same word within a lexi- cographer file. The lexicographer assigns lex_id values, usually in ascending order, although there is no requirement that the numbers be consecutive. The default is 0, and does not have to be specified. A lex_id must be used on pointers if the desired sense has a non-zero lex_id in its synset specification. Word/pointer syntax is of the form: [ word[ ( marker ) ][lex_id] , pointers ] This syntax is used when one or more pointers correspond only to the specific word in the word/pointer set, rather than all the words in the synset, and represents a lexical relation. Note that a word/pointer set appears within a synset, therefore the square brackets used to enclose it are treated differently from those used to define an adjective cluster. Only one word can be specified in each word/pointer set, and any number of pointers may be included. A synset can have any number of word/pointer sets. Each is treated by grind(1) essen- tially as a word, so they all must appear before any synset pointers representing semantic relations. For verbs, the word/pointer syntax is extended in the following manner to allow the user to specify generic sentence frames that, like pointers, correspond only to a specific word, rather than all the words in the synset. In this case, pointers are optional. [ word , [pointers] frames ] Pointer Syntax Pointers are optional in synsets. If a pointer is specified outside of a word/pointer set, the relation is applied to all of the words in the synset, including any words specified using the word/pointer syntax. This indicates a semantic relation between the meanings of the words in the synsets. If specified within a word/pointer set, the relation corresponds only to the word in the set and represents a lexi- cal relation. A pointer is of the form: [lex_filename: ]word[lex_id],pointer_symbol or: [lex_filename: ]word[lex_id]^word[lex_id],pointer_symbol For pointers, word indicates a word in another synset. When the second form of a pointer is used, the first word indicates a word in a head synset, and the second is a word in a satellite of that cluster. word may be followed by a lex_id that is used to match the pointer to the correct target synset. The synset containing word may reside in another lexicographer file. In this case, word is preceded by lex_filename as shown. See Pointers for a list of pointer_symbols and their meanings. Verb Frame List Syntax Frame numbers corresponding to generic sentence frames must be entered in each verb synset. If a frame list is specified outside of a word/pointer set, the verb frames in the list apply to all of the words in the synset, including any words specified using the word/pointer syntax. If specified within a word/pointer set, the verb frames in the list correspond only to the word in the set. A frame number list is entered as follows: frames: f_num[,f_num...] Where f_num specifies a generic frame number. See Verb Frames for a list of generic sentences and their corresponding frame numbers. Gloss Syntax A gloss is included in all synsets. The lexicographer may enter a text string of any length desired. A gloss is simply a string enclosed in parentheses with no embedded carriage returns. It provides a definition of what the synset represents and/or example sentences. Special Adjective Syntax The syntax for representing antonymous adjective synsets requires several additional conditions. The first word of a head synset must be entered in upper case, and can be thought of as the head word of the head synset. The word part of a pointer from one head synset to another head synset within the same cluster (usually an antonym) must also be entered in upper case. Usually antonymous adjectives are entered using the word/pointer syntax described in Word Syntax to indicate a lexical relation. There is no restriction on the number of parts that a cluster may have, and some clusters have three parts, representing antonymous triplets, such as solid, liquid, and gas. A cross-cluster pointer may be specified, allowing a head or satellite synset to point to a head synset in a different cluster. A cross- cluster pointer is indicated by entering the word part of the pointer in upper case. An adjective may be annotated with a syntactic marker indicating a limitation on the syntactic position the adjective may have in relation to noun that it modifies. If so marked, the marker appears between the word and its following comma. If a lex_id is specified, the marker immediately follows it. The syntactic markers are: (p) predicate position (a) prenominal (attributive) position (ip) immediately postnominal position EXAMPLES
(Note that these are hypothetical examples not found in the WordNet lexicographer files.) Sample noun synsets: { canine, [ dog1, cat,! ] pooch, canid,@ } { collie, dog1,@ (large multi-colored dog with pointy nose) } { hound, hunting_dog, pack,#m dog1,@ } { dog, } Sample verb synsets: { [ confuse, clarify,! frames: 1 ] blur, obscure, frames: 8, 10 } { [ clarify, confuse,! ] make_clear, interpret,@ frames: 8 } { interpret, construe, understand,@ frames: 8 } Sample adjective clusters: [ { [ HOT, COLD,! ] lukewarm(a), TEPID,^ (hot to the touch) } { warm, } - { [ COLD, HOT,! ] frigid, (cold to the touch) } { freezing, } ] Sample adverb synsets: { [ basically, adj.all:essential^basic, ] [ essentially, adj.all:basic^fundamental, ] ( by one's very nature )} { pointedly, adj.all:pungent^pointed, } { [ badly, adj.all:bad, well,! ] ill, ("He was badly prepared") } SEE ALSO
grind(1), wnintro(5), lexnames(5), wndb(5), uniqbeg(7), wngloss(7). Fellbaum, C. (1998), ed. "WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database". MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. WordNet 3.0 Dec 2006 WNINPUT(5)
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