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CentOS 7.0 - man page for fields (centos section 3pm)

fields(3pm)			 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		      fields(3pm)

       fields - compile-time class fields

	       package Foo;
	       use fields qw(foo bar _Foo_private);
	       sub new {
		   my Foo $self = shift;
		   unless (ref $self) {
		       $self = fields::new($self);
		       $self->{_Foo_private} = "this is Foo's secret";
		   $self->{foo} = 10;
		   $self->{bar} = 20;
		   return $self;

	   my $var = Foo->new;
	   $var->{foo} = 42;

	   # this will generate an error
	   $var->{zap} = 42;

	   # subclassing
	       package Bar;
	       use base 'Foo';
	       use fields qw(baz _Bar_private);        # not shared with Foo
	       sub new {
		   my $class = shift;
		   my $self = fields::new($class);
		   $self->SUPER::new(); 	       # init base fields
		   $self->{baz} = 10;		       # init own fields
		   $self->{_Bar_private} = "this is Bar's secret";
		   return $self;

       The "fields" pragma enables compile-time verified class fields.

       NOTE: The current implementation keeps the declared fields in the %FIELDS hash of the
       calling package, but this may change in future versions.  Do not update the %FIELDS hash
       directly, because it must be created at compile-time for it to be fully useful, as is done
       by this pragma.

       Only valid for perl before 5.9.0:

       If a typed lexical variable holding a reference is used to access a hash element and a
       package with the same name as the type has declared class fields using this pragma, then
       the operation is turned into an array access at compile time.

       The related "base" pragma will combine fields from base classes and any fields declared
       using the "fields" pragma.  This enables field inheritance to work properly.

       Field names that start with an underscore character are made private to the class and are
       not visible to subclasses.  Inherited fields can be overridden but will generate a warning
       if used together with the "-w" switch.

       Only valid for perls before 5.9.0:

       The effect of all this is that you can have objects with named fields which are as compact
       and as fast arrays to access. This only works as long as the objects are accessed through
       properly typed variables. If the objects are not typed, access is only checked at run

       The following functions are supported:

       new  perl before 5.9.0:	fields::new() creates and blesses a pseudo-hash comprised of the
	   fields declared using the "fields" pragma into the specified class.

	    perl 5.9.0 and higher:  fields::new() creates and blesses a restricted-hash comprised
	   of the fields declared using the "fields" pragma into the specified class.

	   This function is usable with or without pseudo-hashes.  It is the recommended way to
	   construct a fields-based object.

	   This makes it possible to write a constructor like this:

	       package Critter::Sounds;
	       use fields qw(cat dog bird);

	       sub new {
		   my $self = shift;
		   $self = fields::new($self) unless ref $self;
		   $self->{cat} = 'meow';		       # scalar element
		   @$self{'dog','bird'} = ('bark','tweet');    # slice
		   return $self;

	    before perl 5.9.0:

	   fields::phash() can be used to create and initialize a plain (unblessed) pseudo-hash.
	   This function should always be used instead of creating pseudo-hashes directly.

	   If the first argument is a reference to an array, the pseudo-hash will be created with
	   keys from that array.  If a second argument is supplied, it must also be a reference
	   to an array whose elements will be used as the values.  If the second array contains
	   less elements than the first, the trailing elements of the pseudo-hash will not be
	   initialized.  This makes it particularly useful for creating a pseudo-hash from
	   subroutine arguments:

	       sub dogtag {
		  my $tag = fields::phash([qw(name rank ser_num)], [@_]);

	   fields::phash() also accepts a list of key-value pairs that will be used to construct
	   the pseudo hash.  Examples:

	       my $tag = fields::phash(name => "Joe",
				       rank => "captain",
				       ser_num => 42);

	       my $pseudohash = fields::phash(%args);

	    perl 5.9.0 and higher:

	   Pseudo-hashes have been removed from Perl as of 5.10.  Consider using restricted
	   hashes or fields::new() instead.  Using fields::phash() will cause an error.


perl v5.16.3				    2013-03-04				      fields(3pm)

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