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XML::LibXML::Node(3)	       User Contributed Perl Documentation	     XML::LibXML::Node(3)

       XML::LibXML::Node - Abstract Base Class of XML::LibXML Nodes

	 use XML::LibXML;

	 $name = $node->nodeName;
	 $node->setNodeName( $newName );
	 $bool = $node->isSameNode( $other_node );
	 $bool = $node->isEqual( $other_node );
	 $content = $node->nodeValue;
	 $content = $node->textContent;
	 $type = $node->nodeType;
	 $childnode = $node->removeChild( $childnode );
	 $oldnode = $node->replaceChild( $newNode, $oldNode );
	 $childnode = $node->appendChild( $childnode );
	 $childnode = $node->addChild( $childnode );
	 $node = $parent->addNewChild( $nsURI, $name );
	 $newnode =$node->cloneNode( $deep );
	 $parentnode = $node->parentNode;
	 $nextnode = $node->nextSibling();
	 $nextnode = $node->nextNonBlankSibling();
	 $prevnode = $node->previousSibling();
	 $prevnode = $node->previousNonBlankSibling();
	 $boolean = $node->hasChildNodes();
	 $childnode = $node->firstChild;
	 $childnode = $node->lastChild;
	 $documentnode = $node->ownerDocument;
	 $node = $node->getOwner;
	 $node->setOwnerDocument( $doc );
	 $node->insertBefore( $newNode, $refNode );
	 $node->insertAfter( $newNode, $refNode );
	 @nodes = $node->findnodes( $xpath_expression );
	 $result = $node->find( $xpath );
	 print $node->findvalue( $xpath );
	 $bool = $node->exists( $xpath_expression );
	 @childnodes = $node->childNodes();
	 @childnodes = $node->nonBlankChildNodes();
	 $xmlstring = $node->toString($format,$docencoding);
	 $c14nstring = $node->toStringC14N();
	 $c14nstring = $node->toStringC14N($with_comments, $xpath_expression , $xpath_context);
	 $ec14nstring = $node->toStringEC14N();
	 $ec14nstring = $node->toStringEC14N($with_comments, $xpath_expression, $inclusive_prefix_list);
	 $ec14nstring = $node->toStringEC14N($with_comments, $xpath_expression, $xpath_context, $inclusive_prefix_list);
	 $str = $doc->serialize($format);
	 $localname = $node->localname;
	 $nameprefix = $node->prefix;
	 $uri = $node->namespaceURI();
	 $boolean = $node->hasAttributes();
	 @attributelist = $node->attributes();
	 $URI = $node->lookupNamespaceURI( $prefix );
	 $prefix = $node->lookupNamespacePrefix( $URI );
	 @nslist = $node->getNamespaces;
	 $strURI = $node->baseURI();
	 $lineno = $node->line_number();

       XML::LibXML::Node defines functions that are common to all Node Types. A LibXML::Node
       should never be created standalone, but as an instance of a high level class such as
       LibXML::Element or LibXML::Text. The class itself should provide only common
       functionality. In XML::LibXML each node is part either of a document or a document-
       fragment. Because of this there is no node without a parent. This may causes confusion
       with "unbound" nodes.

       Many functions listed here are extensively documented in the DOM Level 3 specification
       (<http://www.w3.org/TR/DOM-Level-3-Core/>). Please refer to the specification for
       extensive documentation.

	     $name = $node->nodeName;

	   Returns the node's name. This function is aware of namespaces and returns the full
	   name of the current node ("prefix:localname").

	   Since 1.62 this function also returns the correct DOM names for node types with
	   constant names, namely: #text, #cdata-section, #comment, #document,

	     $node->setNodeName( $newName );

	   In very limited situations, it is useful to change a nodes name. In the DOM
	   specification this should throw an error. This Function is aware of namespaces.

	     $bool = $node->isSameNode( $other_node );

	   returns TRUE \fIs0(1) if the given nodes refer to the same node structure, otherwise
	   FALSE \fIs0(0) is returned.

	     $bool = $node->isEqual( $other_node );

	   deprecated version of isSameNode().

	   NOTE isEqual will change behaviour to follow the DOM specification

	     $content = $node->nodeValue;

	   If the node has any content (such as stored in a "text node") it can get requested
	   through this function.

	   NOTE: Element Nodes have no content per definition. To get the text value of an
	   Element use textContent() instead!

	     $content = $node->textContent;

	   this function returns the content of all text nodes in the descendants of the given
	   node as specified in DOM.

	     $type = $node->nodeType;

	   Return a numeric value representing the node type of this node. The module XML::LibXML
	   by default exports constants for the node types (see the EXPORT section in the
	   XML::LibXML manual page).


	   Unbinds the Node from its siblings and Parent, but not from the Document it belongs
	   to. If the node is not inserted into the DOM afterwards, it will be lost after the
	   program terminates. From a low level view, the unbound node is stripped from the
	   context it is and inserted into a (hidden) document-fragment.

	     $childnode = $node->removeChild( $childnode );

	   This will unbind the Child Node from its parent $node. The function returns the
	   unbound node. If "oldNode" is not a child of the given Node the function will fail.

	     $oldnode = $node->replaceChild( $newNode, $oldNode );

	   Replaces the $oldNode with the $newNode. The $oldNode will be unbound from the Node.
	   This function differs from the DOM L2 specification, in the case, if the new node is
	   not part of the document, the node will be imported first.


	   This function is very similar to replaceChild(), but it replaces the node itself
	   rather than a childnode. This is useful if a node found by any XPath function, should
	   be replaced.

	     $childnode = $node->appendChild( $childnode );

	   The function will add the $childnode to the end of $node's children. The function
	   should fail, if the new childnode is already a child of $node. This function differs
	   from the DOM L2 specification, in the case, if the new node is not part of the
	   document, the node will be imported first.

	     $childnode = $node->addChild( $childnode );

	   As an alternative to appendChild() one can use the addChild() function. This function
	   is a bit faster, because it avoids all DOM conformity checks.  Therefore this function
	   is quite useful if one builds XML documents in memory where the order and ownership
	   ("ownerDocument") is assured.

	   addChild() uses libxml2's own xmlAddChild() function. Thus it has to be used with
	   extra care: If a text node is added to a node and the node itself or its last
	   childnode is as well a text node, the node to add will be merged with the one already
	   available. The current node will be removed from memory after this action. Because
	   perl is not aware of this action, the perl instance is still available. XML::LibXML
	   will catch the loss of a node and refuse to run any function called on that node.

	     my $t1 = $doc->createTextNode( "foo" );
	      my $t2 = $doc->createTextNode( "bar" );
	      $t1->addChild( $t2 );	  # is OK
	      my $val = $t2->nodeValue(); # will fail, script dies

	   Also addChild() will not check if the added node belongs to the same document as the
	   node it will be added to. This could lead to inconsistent documents and in more worse
	   cases even to memory violations, if one does not keep track of this issue.

	   Although this sounds like a lot of trouble, addChild() is useful if a document is
	   built from a stream, such as happens sometimes in SAX handlers or filters.

	   If you are not sure about the source of your nodes, you better stay with
	   appendChild(), because this function is more user friendly in the sense of being more
	   error tolerant.

	     $node = $parent->addNewChild( $nsURI, $name );

	   Similar to "addChild()", this function uses low level libxml2 functionality to provide
	   faster interface for DOM building. addNewChild() uses "xmlNewChild()" to create a new
	   node on a given parent element.

	   addNewChild() has two parameters $nsURI and $name, where $nsURI is an (optional)
	   namespace URI. $name is the fully qualified element name; addNewChild() will determine
	   the correct prefix if necessary.

	   The function returns the newly created node.

	   This function is very useful for DOM building, where a created node can be directly
	   associated with its parent. NOTE this function is not part of the DOM specification
	   and its use will limit your code to XML::LibXML.


	   addSibling() allows adding an additional node to the end of a nodelist, defined by the
	   given node.

	     $newnode =$node->cloneNode( $deep );

	   cloneNode creates a copy of $node. When $deep is set to 1 (true) the function will
	   copy all child nodes as well.  If $deep is 0 only the current node will be copied.
	   Note that in case of element, attributes are copied even if $deep is 0.

	   Note that the behavior of this function for $deep=0 has changed in 1.62 in order to be
	   consistent with the DOM spec (in older versions attributes and namespace information
	   was not copied for elements).

	     $parentnode = $node->parentNode;

	   Returns simply the Parent Node of the current node.

	     $nextnode = $node->nextSibling();

	   Returns the next sibling if any .

	     $nextnode = $node->nextNonBlankSibling();

	   Returns the next non-blank sibling if any (a node is blank if it is a Text or CDATA
	   node consisting of whitespace only). This method is not defined by DOM.

	     $prevnode = $node->previousSibling();

	   Analogous to getNextSibling the function returns the previous sibling if any.

	     $prevnode = $node->previousNonBlankSibling();

	   Returns the previous non-blank sibling if any (a node is blank if it is a Text or
	   CDATA node consisting of whitespace only). This method is not defined by DOM.

	     $boolean = $node->hasChildNodes();

	   If the current node has child nodes this function returns TRUE \fIs0(1), otherwise it
	   returns FALSE (0, not undef).

	     $childnode = $node->firstChild;

	   If a node has child nodes this function will return the first node in the child list.

	     $childnode = $node->lastChild;

	   If the $node has child nodes this function returns the last child node.

	     $documentnode = $node->ownerDocument;

	   Through this function it is always possible to access the document the current node is
	   bound to.

	     $node = $node->getOwner;

	   This function returns the node the current node is associated with. In most cases this
	   will be a document node or a document fragment node.

	     $node->setOwnerDocument( $doc );

	   This function binds a node to another DOM. This method unbinds the node first, if it
	   is already bound to another document.

	   This function is the opposite calling of XML::LibXML::Document's adoptNode() function.
	   Because of this it has the same limitations with Entity References as adoptNode().

	     $node->insertBefore( $newNode, $refNode );

	   The method inserts $newNode before $refNode. If $refNode is undefined, the newNode
	   will be set as the new last child of the parent node.  This function differs from the
	   DOM L2 specification, in the case, if the new node is not part of the document, the
	   node will be imported first, automatically.

	   $refNode has to be passed to the function even if it is undefined:

	     $node->insertBefore( $newNode, undef ); # the same as $node->appendChild( $newNode );
	      $node->insertBefore( $newNode ); # wrong

	   Note, that the reference node has to be a direct child of the node the function is
	   called on. Also, $newChild is not allowed to be an ancestor of the new parent node.

	     $node->insertAfter( $newNode, $refNode );

	   The method inserts $newNode after $refNode. If $refNode is undefined, the newNode will
	   be set as the new last child of the parent node.

	   Note, that $refNode has to be passed explicitly even if it is undef.

	     @nodes = $node->findnodes( $xpath_expression );

	   findnodes evaluates the xpath expression (XPath 1.0) on the current node and returns
	   the resulting node set as an array. In scalar context, returns an
	   XML::LibXML::NodeList object.

	   The xpath expression can be passed either as a string or or as a
	   XML::LibXML::XPathExpression object.


	   A common mistake about XPath is to assume that node tests consisting of an element
	   name with no prefix match elements in the default namespace. This assumption is wrong
	   - by XPath specification, such node tests can only match elements that are in no (i.e.
	   null) namespace.

	   So, for example, one cannot match the root element of an XHTML document with
	   "$node->find('/html')" since '/html' would only match if the root element "<html>" had
	   no namespace, but all XHTML elements belong to the namespace
	   http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml. (Note that "xmlns="..."" namespace declarations can also
	   be specified in a DTD, which makes the situation even worse, since the XML document
	   looks as if there was no default namespace).

	   There are several possible ways to deal with namespaces in XPath:

	   o   The recommended way is to use the XML::LibXML::XPathContext module to define an
	       explicit context for XPath evaluation, in which a document independent prefix-to-
	       namespace mapping can be defined. For example:

		 my $xpc = XML::LibXML::XPathContext->new;
		 $xpc->registerNs('x', 'http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml');

	   o   Another possibility is to use prefixes declared in the queried document (if
	       known). If the document declares a prefix for the namespace in question (and the
	       context node is in the scope of the declaration), "XML::LibXML" allows you to use
	       the prefix in the XPath expression, e.g.:


	   See also XML::LibXML::XPathContext->findnodes.

	     $result = $node->find( $xpath );

	   find evaluates the XPath 1.0 expression using the current node as the context of the
	   expression, and returns the result depending on what type of result the XPath
	   expression had. For example, the XPath "1 * 3 + 52" results in a XML::LibXML::Number
	   object being returned. Other expressions might return an XML::LibXML::Boolean object,
	   or an XML::LibXML::Literal object (a string). Each of those objects uses Perl's
	   overload feature to "do the right thing" in different contexts.

	   The xpath expression can be passed either as a string or or as a
	   XML::LibXML::XPathExpression object.

	   See also XML::LibXML::XPathContext->find.

	     print $node->findvalue( $xpath );

	   findvalue is exactly equivalent to:

	     $node->find( $xpath )->to_literal;

	   That is, it returns the literal value of the results. This enables you to ensure that
	   you get a string back from your search, allowing certain shortcuts.	This could be
	   used as the equivalent of XSLT's <xsl:value-of select="some_xpath"/>.

	   See also XML::LibXML::XPathContext->findvalue.

	   The xpath expression can be passed either as a string or or as a
	   XML::LibXML::XPathExpression object.

	     $bool = $node->exists( $xpath_expression );

	   This method behaves like findnodes, except that it only returns a boolean value (1 if
	   the expression matches a node, 0 otherwise) and may be faster than findnodes, because
	   the XPath evaluation may stop early on the first match (this is true for libxml2 >=

	   For XPath expressions that do not return node-set, the method returns true if the
	   returned value is a non-zero number or a non-empty string.

	     @childnodes = $node->childNodes();

	   childNodes implements a more intuitive interface to the childnodes of the current
	   node. It enables you to pass all children directly to a "map" or "grep". If this
	   function is called in scalar context, a XML::LibXML::NodeList object will be returned.

	     @childnodes = $node->nonBlankChildNodes();

	   This is like childNodes, but returns only non-blank nodes (where a node is blank if it
	   is a Text or CDATA node consisting of whitespace only). This method is not defined by

	     $xmlstring = $node->toString($format,$docencoding);

	   This method is similar to the method "toString" of a XML::LibXML::Document but for a
	   single node. It returns a string consisting of XML serialization of the given node and
	   all its descendants. Unlike "XML::LibXML::Document::toString", in this case the
	   resulting string is by default a character string (UTF-8 encoded with UTF8 flag on).
	   An optional flag $format controls indentation, as in
	   "XML::LibXML::Document::toString". If the second optional $docencoding flag is true,
	   the result will be a byte string in the document encoding (see

	     $c14nstring = $node->toStringC14N();
	     $c14nstring = $node->toStringC14N($with_comments, $xpath_expression , $xpath_context);

	   The function is similar to toString(). Instead of simply serializing the document
	   tree, it transforms it as it is specified in the XML-C14N Specification (see
	   <http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-c14n>). Such transformation is known as canonization.

	   If $with_comments is 0 or not defined, the result-document will not contain any
	   comments that exist in the original document. To include comments into the canonized
	   document, $with_comments has to be set to 1.

	   The parameter $xpath_expression defines the nodeset of nodes that should be visible in
	   the resulting document. This can be used to filter out some nodes.  One has to note,
	   that only the nodes that are part of the nodeset, will be included into the result-
	   document. Their child-nodes will not exist in the resulting document, unless they are
	   part of the nodeset defined by the xpath expression.

	   If $xpath_expression is omitted or empty, toStringC14N() will include all nodes in the
	   given sub-tree, using the following XPath expressions: with comments

	     (. | .//node() | .//@* | .//namespace::*)

	   and without comments

	     (. | .//node() | .//@* | .//namespace::*)[not(self::comment())]

	   An optional parameter $xpath_context can be used to pass an XML::LibXML::XPathContext
	   object defining the context for evaluation of $xpath_expression. This is useful for
	   mapping namespace prefixes used in the XPath expression to namespace URIs.  Note,
	   however, that $node will be used as the context node for the evaluation, not the
	   context node of $xpath_context!

	     $ec14nstring = $node->toStringEC14N();
	     $ec14nstring = $node->toStringEC14N($with_comments, $xpath_expression, $inclusive_prefix_list);
	     $ec14nstring = $node->toStringEC14N($with_comments, $xpath_expression, $xpath_context, $inclusive_prefix_list);

	   The function is similar to toStringC14N() but follows the XML-EXC-C14N Specification
	   (see <http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-exc-c14n>) for exclusive canonization of XML.

	   The arguments $with_comments, $xpath_expression, $xpath_context are as in
	   toStringC14N(). An ARRAY reference can be passed as the last argument
	   $inclusive_prefix_list, listing namespace prefixes that are to be handled in the
	   manner described by the Canonical XML Recommendation (i.e. preserved in the output
	   even if the namespace is not used). C.f. the spec for details.

	     $str = $doc->serialize($format);

	   An alias for toString(). This function was name added to be more consistent with

	   An alias for toStringC14N().

	   An alias for toStringEC14N().

	     $localname = $node->localname;

	   Returns the local name of a tag. This is the part behind the colon.

	     $nameprefix = $node->prefix;

	   Returns the prefix of a tag. This is the part before the colon.

	     $uri = $node->namespaceURI();

	   returns the URI of the current namespace.

	     $boolean = $node->hasAttributes();

	   returns 1 (TRUE) if the current node has any attributes set, otherwise 0 (FALSE) is

	     @attributelist = $node->attributes();

	   This function returns all attributes and namespace declarations assigned to the given

	   Because XML::LibXML does not implement namespace declarations and attributes the same
	   way, it is required to test what kind of node is handled while accessing the functions

	   If this function is called in array context the attribute nodes are returned as an
	   array. In scalar context, the function will return a XML::LibXML::NamedNodeMap object.

	     $URI = $node->lookupNamespaceURI( $prefix );

	   Find a namespace URI by its prefix starting at the current node.

	     $prefix = $node->lookupNamespacePrefix( $URI );

	   Find a namespace prefix by its URI starting at the current node.

	   NOTE Only the namespace URIs are meant to be unique. The prefix is only document
	   related. Also the document might have more than a single prefix defined for a


	   This function normalizes adjacent text nodes. This function is not as strict as
	   libxml2's xmlTextMerge() function, since it will not free a node that is still
	   referenced by the perl layer.

	     @nslist = $node->getNamespaces;

	   If a node has any namespaces defined, this function will return these namespaces.
	   Note, that this will not return all namespaces that are in scope, but only the ones
	   declared explicitly for that node.

	   Although getNamespaces is available for all nodes, it only makes sense if used with
	   element nodes.


	   This function is not specified for any DOM level: It removes all childnodes from a
	   node in a single step. Other than the libxml2 function itself (xmlFreeNodeList), this
	   function will not immediately remove the nodes from the memory. This saves one from
	   getting memory violations, if there are nodes still referred to from the Perl level.

       baseURI ()
	     $strURI = $node->baseURI();

	   Searches for the base URL of the node. The method should work on both XML and HTML
	   documents even if base mechanisms for these are completely different. It returns the
	   base as defined in RFC 2396 sections "5.1.1. Base URI within Document Content" and
	   "5.1.2. Base URI from the Encapsulating Entity". However it does not return the
	   document base (5.1.3), use method "URI" of "XML::LibXML::Document" for this.

       setBaseURI ($strURI)

	   This method only does something useful for an element node in an XML document.  It
	   sets the xml:base attribute on the node to $strURI, which effectively sets the base
	   URI of the node to the same value.

	   Note: For HTML documents this behaves as if the document was XML which may not be
	   desired, since it does not effectively set the base URI of the node. See RFC 2396
	   appendix D for an example of how base URI can be specified in HTML.


	   This function is not specified for any DOM level: It returns a canonical structure
	   based XPath for a given node.

	     $lineno = $node->line_number();

	   This function returns the line number where the tag was found during parsing.  If a
	   node is added to the document the line number is 0. Problems may occur, if a node from
	   one document is passed to another one.

	   IMPORTANT: Due to limitations in the libxml2 library line numbers greater than 65535
	   will be returned as 65535. Please see
	   <http://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=325533> for more details.

	   Note: line_number() is special to XML::LibXML and not part of the DOM specification.

	   If the line_numbers flag of the parser was not activated before parsing, line_number()
	   will always return 0.

       Matt Sergeant, Christian Glahn, Petr Pajas


       2001-2007, AxKit.com Ltd.

       2002-2006, Christian Glahn.

       2006-2009, Petr Pajas.

perl v5.16.3				    2013-05-13			     XML::LibXML::Node(3)
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