Locale::Codes::Changes(3) User Contributed Perl Documentation Locale::Codes::Changes(3)
Locale::Codes::Changes - details changes to Locale::Codes
This describes the changes made to modules in the Locale-Codes distribution. Major
changes are marked with asterisks (*). For the most part, all modules have remained
backward compatible at every release, but occasionally a change is made which is backward
incompatible. These are marked with an exclamation mark (!).
As of 3.00, the codes are autogenerated from the standards. With each release, codes will
be re-generated and tested to see if any code changed. Any time there are any changes to
the codes, it will be flagged below with a change: NEW CODE(s).
I intend to check for new codes four times a year (March, June, September, December). I
will also check on request, so if a code changes that you use, feel free to contact me.
Any time there are new codes, I will add them to the module and release a new version.
VERSION 3.28 (planned 2013-12-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.27 (planned 2013-09-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.26 (2013-06-03; sbeck)
Some of the examples were not correct. RT 84589
Some typos corrected. RT 85692
VERSION 3.25 (2013-03-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.24 (2012-12-03; sbeck)
Syria added as an alias. RT 82747
FIPS-10 country codes deprecated
The FIPS-10 document is being withdrawn. It was deprecated in 2008, and is being
updated now only until all the agencies that use it have switched to something else.
The current version no longer lists the long names for countries. These long names
(such as 'Republic of Albania' for Albania) only appeared in the old FIPS-10 document
which is no longer available, so they are no longer available in this module.
I will continue to support the FIPS-10 codeset as long as it is available, but at that
point, it will be withdrawn immediately. If an official end-of-life date is
announced, I will include a notice here. Otherwise, support for the codeset will be
discontinued when the document is withdrawn.
You are encouraged to no longer use the FIPS-10 codeset.
Domain country codes now come from ISO 3166
The IANA domain codes have changed slightly. The IANA no longer publishes a list of
countries associated with their codes. Instead, they use the ISO 3166 codes and
country names. However, they support a few non-standard codes, so I will continue to
maintain this codeset. The domain codes are now lowercase to correspond to the ISO
VERSION 3.23 (2012-09-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.22 (2012-06-01; sbeck)
Updated perl version required
Changed 'require 5.002' (which dated back to the version 2.xx Locale-Codes) to
'require 5.006'. Some features used in Locale-Codes are not supported that far back.
Sorted deprecated codes
The codes in the generated deprecated codes modules were not sorted making version
diffs bigger than they should be. Nicholas Clark
VERSION 3.21 (2012-03-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.20 (2011-12-01; sbeck)
Added limited support for deprecated codes
The code2XXX, XXX2code, all_XXX_codes, and all_XXX_names functions now support retired
codes. RT 71124
The 'South Sudan' country was all caps. RT 71024
Pod tests off by default
The pod tests will not run at install time. RT 71122
Codesets may be specified by name
All codesets may be specified by a constant or by their name now. Previously, they
were specified only by a constant.
The alias_code function exists for backward compatibility. It has been replaced by
rename_country_code . The alias_code function will be removed sometime after
September, 2013 .
All work is now done in the central module (Locale::Codes). Previously, some was
still done in the wrapper modules (Locale::Codes::*) but that is gone now.
Added LangFam module
Added Language Family codes (langfam) as defined in ISO 639-5.
VERSION 3.18 (2011-08-31; sbeck)
No longer use CIA data
The CIA world added non-standard values, so I no longer use it as a source of data.
Based on a report by Michiel Beijen.
VERSION 3.17 (2011-06-28; sbeck)
Added new types of codes
Added Language Extension codes (langext) and Language Variation codes (langvar) as
defined in the IANA language registry.
Added new codeset(s)
Added language codes from ISO 639-5
Added language/script codes from the IANA language subtag registry
Fixed an uninitialized value warning. RT 67438
Fixed the return value for the all_XXX_codes and all_XXX_names functions. RT 69100
Reorganized modules to move Locale::MODULE to Locale::Codes::MODULE to allow for
cleaner future additions. The original four modules (Locale::Language,
Locale::Currency, Locale::Country, Locale::Script) will continue to work, but all new
sets of codes will be added in the Locale::Codes namespace.
VERSION 3.16 (2011-03-01; sbeck)
VERSION 3.15 (2010-12-02; sbeck)
Added version number to Makefile.PL/Build.PL requirement for POD testing modules. RT
Changed 'use vars' to 'our'
VERSION 3.14 (2010-09-28; sbeck)
Stripped out some HTML that got included with some codes.
VERSION 3.13 (2010-06-04; sbeck)
VERSION 3.12 (2010-04-06; sbeck)
Renamed test.pl to testfunc.pl to avoid causing an error when built as part of perl.
VERSION 3.11 (2010-03-01; sbeck)
Added new codeset(s)
Added the IANA domain names to Country
Fixed a problem that produced warnings with perl 5.11.5. Jerry D. Hedden
VERSION 3.10 (2010-02-18; sbeck)
Moved support files into the Locale::Codes namespace.
The work done in each of the Locale::XXX modules was virtually identical to each
other. It has all been moved to a central module and the Locale::XXX modules are now
(!) Changed XXX_code2code behavior slightly
In previous versions, passing in the same code set for both code set arguments would
automatically return undef. For example:
This doesn't seem like reasonable behavior, so it has been changed to allow the same
Note that if an invalid code is passed in, undef will still be returned:
Added many semi-private routines
Previous versions had only two semi-private routines: rename_country and alias_code
which had the ability to modify the internal data in a couple very limited ways. It
was requested (in an anonymous posting by someone named Steve and also by Steve Hay)
that better support for modifying internal data, so a full set of routines were added.
The full set of routines includes:
Added "UK" alias. Steve Hay
VERSION 3.01 (2010-02-15; sbeck)
Fixed Makefile.PL and Build.PL
They now install as core modules as they are supposed to. Reported in RT 54526
VERSION 3.00 (2010-02-10; sbeck)
From 1997 to 2004, Locale::Codes was maintained by Neil Bowers. Unfortunately, no
updates were made from June 2004 to January 2010. During that time, a number of
changes have been made to the standards since then, so the data included was out-of-
I contacted Neil to get his permission to assume maintenance of the module, and he
(*) (!) All codes are generated from standards
All of the values returned by the various functions are now values directly from the
standards. This means that the values returned in the 2.xx series are not necessarily
the same as the values returned here.
As an example, the ISO 3166 standard which lists country codes refers to the country
associated with the code "bo" as "Bolivia, Plurinational State of", so that is what is
returned. In the 2.xx series, "Bolivia" was returned. Also, the country names vary
from one standard to another. So the code "bol" which is maintained by the United
Nations returns the name of the country as "Bolivia (Plurinational State of)". Some
common aliases have been added, so you can still request a code associated with a
county name "Bolivia".
Since the data comes from the standards, some "incorrect" values are no longer
supported. For example, 2.07 treated "Zaire" as an alias for "Congo", but the country
changed it's name, and "Zaire" is not in the standard, so it has been dropped in 3.00.
Added new codeset(s)
FIPS 10 country codes (requested in RT 1755)
Alpha-3 and Term language codes (requested in RT 11730)
Numeric currency codes (requested in RT 18797)
(*) (!) Locale::Script changed
In 2.xx, Locale::Script assigned scripts to country codes, which is NOT how it is done
currently in the standards. It appears that an older version of ISO 15924 did this,
but I haven't found an old version to confirm that, and in any case, that is not the
case in the current standards.
As a result, the Locale::Script module is completely incompatible with the 2.xx
version with respect to the types of codes it supports. None of the old codes will
Added missing functions
I've added in some functions which were "missing" previously (since there was only one
set of codes supported, the code2code functions didn't apply):
so the interfaces for each type of codes are consistent.
(!) Dropped support for _alias_code
In Locale::Country, _alias_code was an allowed, but deprecated function which was
documented to be supported in the 2.xx series. I've removed it.
(!) All functions return the standard value
code2country (and other equivalent functions) now returns the name of the country
specified in the standard (if the different standards refer to the country by
different variations in the name, the results will differ based on the CODESET)
(!) rename_country function altered
The rename_country function from 2.07 would guess the CODESET (unlike all other
functions which used a default of LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_2). The guess can cause problems
since (with the addition of FIPS) codes may appear in different codesets for different
countries. The behavior has been changed to be the same as other functions (default to
VERSION 2.07 (2004-06-10; neilb)
Made $_ local in the initialization code for each module change back-propagated from Perl
Removed two non ISO-8859-1 characters from language names change back-propagated from Perl
Added the following aliases, with a test case for each
- Burma added to Myanmar
- French Southern and Antarctic Lands to
French Southern Territories patch from TJ Mather
"Canadian Dollar" was misspelled as "Candian Dollar"
- noted by Nick Cabatoff, patch from Michael Hennecke
Changes to Locale::Country reflecting changes in ISO 3166
- added Aland Islands (ax, ala, 248)
- YUGOSLAVIA is now SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO
YU => CS
YUG => SCG
891 => 891 (unchanged)
(YUGOSLAVIA retained as an alias)
- EAST TIMOR changed to TIMOR-LESTE
(old name retained as an alias)
- three letter code for Romania changed from ROM to ROU
ZAIRE is now CONGO, THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE
ZR => CD
ZAR => COD
180 => 180 (unchanged)
(ZAIRE retained as alias)
VERSION 2.06 (2002-07-15; neilb)
The four modules which have data after __DATA__ weren't closing the DATA filehandle after
reading from it, which they should. Bug and patch from Steve Hay.
VERSION 2.05 (2002-07-08; neilb)
Added three letter codes for the countries that were missing them. Patch from TJ Mather.
Documentation bug: one of the examples used => where the lvalue was a constant, which
isn't allowed, unless you put the () with the constant to force the right interpretation.
Pointed out by TJ Mather and MYT.
Updated the URL for the appendix in the CIA world factbook. Patch from TJ Mather.
VERSION 2.04 (2002-05-23; neilb)
Updated according to changes in ISO 3166-1 described in ISO 3166-1 newsletters V-4 and
V-5, dated 2002-05-20:
- Kazakstan is now "Kazakhstan"
- Macau is now "Macao" The old names are retained as aliases.
The alpha-2 and alpha-3 codes for East Timor have changed:
tp -> tl
tmp -> tls the numeric code stays 626. If you want to support the old codes, you can
use the semi-private function alias_code().
VERSION 2.03 (2002-03-24; neilb)
Fixed a typo in the alias for the Vatican, reported (with patch) by Philip Newton.
Added "Moldova" as an alias for "Moldova, Republic of"
Updated Makefile.PL to include AUTHOR and ABSTRACT
VERSION 2.02 (2002-03-09; neilb)
Added semi-private routine rename_country() to Locale::Country, based on a patch from Iain
Added test rename.t for the above function.
Renamed _alias_code to be alias_code. Have retained the old name for backwards
compatibility. Will remove it when the major version number next changes.
VERSION 2.01 (2002-02-18; neilb)
Split the documentation for all modules into separate pod files.
Made sure all =over were =over 4; some were other values.
The code2code() methods had one more shift than was needed.
VERSION 2.00 (2002-02-17; neilb)
Created Locale::Script which provides an interface to the ISO codes for identification of
scripts (writing scripts, rather than perl style scripts). The codes are defined by ISO
15924, which is currently in final draft. Thanks to Jarkko for pointing out this new
standard. All three code sets are supported, and a test-suite added.
Added support for country name variants to Locale::Country, so that
country2code('United States of America') will all return 'us'. This had been in the
LIMITATIONS section since the first version. Patch from TJ Mather with additional
variants from me. Added test-cases for these.
Added VERSION to Locale::Constants. Thanks to Jarkko for pointing that it was missing.
Should really have bumped major version with previous release, since there was a change to
VERSION 1.06 (2001-03-04; neilb)
Added Locale::Constants, which defines three symbols for identifying which codeset is
Updated Locale::Country to support all three code sets defined by ISO 3166. This was
requested by Keith Wall. I haven't added multiple codeset support to the other modules
yet - I'll wait until someone asks for them.
VERSION 1.05 (2001-02-13; neilb)
Added Locale::Currency, contribution from Michael Hennecke.
Added test suite for it (t/currency.t) and added test cases to t/all.t for the all_*
VERSION 1.04 (2000-12-21; neilb)
Fixed very minor typos from 1.03!
VERSION 1.03 (2000-12-??; neilb)
- fixed spelling of a few countries
- added link to a relevant page from CIA world factbook
- fixed typo in the documentation (ISO 939 should be 639)
VERSION 1.02 (2000-05-04; neilb)
Updated Locale::Country and Locale::Language to reflect changes in the relevant ISO
standards. These mainly reflect languages which are new to the relevant standard, and
changes in the spelling of some country names.
Added official URLs for the standards to the SEE ALSO sections of the doc for each module.
Thanks to Jarkko Hietaniemi for pointing me at the pages with latest versions of ISO 3166
VERSION 1.00 (1998-03-09; neilb)
Added Locale::Country::_alias_code() so that 'uk' can be added as the code for "United
Kingdom", if you want it. This was prompted by Ed Jordan.
Added a new test suite for handling this case, and extended the existing test-suite to
include testing of the case where 'uk' hasn't been defined as a valid code.
VERSION 0.003 (1997-05-09; neilb)
First public release to CPAN
See Locale::Codes for full author history.
Currently maintained by Sullivan Beck (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Copyright (c) 2001-2010 Neil Bowers
Copyright (c) 2010-2013 Sullivan Beck
This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
terms as Perl itself.
perl v5.16.3 2013-06-03 Locale::Codes::Changes(3)