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END(3)				    Linux Programmer's Manual				   END(3)

       etext, edata, end - end of program segments

       extern etext;
       extern edata;
       extern end;

       The addresses of these symbols indicate the end of various program segments:

       etext  This is the first address past the end of the text segment (the program code).

       edata  This is the first address past the end of the initialized data segment.

       end    This  is	the  first  address  past the end of the uninitialized data segment (also
	      known as the BSS segment).

       Although these symbols have long been provided on most UNIX systems, they  are  not  stan-
       dardized; use with caution.

       The  program  must  explicitly  declare	these symbols; they are not defined in any header

       On some systems the names of these symbols are  preceded  by  underscores,  thus:  _etext,
       _edata, and _end.  These symbols are also defined for programs compiled on Linux.

       At  the start of program execution, the program break will be somewhere near &end (perhaps
       at the start of the following page).  However, the break will change as	memory	is  allo-
       cated  via  brk(2) or malloc(3).  Use sbrk(2) with an argument of zero to find the current
       value of the program break.

       When run, the program below produces output such as the following:

	   $ ./a.out
	   First address past:
	       program text (etext)	  0x8048568
	       initialized data (edata)   0x804a01c
	       uninitialized data (end)   0x804a024

   Program source

       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>

       extern char etext, edata, end; /* The symbols must have some type,
					  or "gcc -Wall" complains */

       main(int argc, char *argv[])
	   printf("First address past:\n");
	   printf("    program text (etext)	 %10p\n", &etext);
	   printf("    initialized data (edata)  %10p\n", &edata);
	   printf("    uninitialized data (end)  %10p\n", &end);


       objdump(1), readelf(1), sbrk(2), elf(5)

       This page is part of release 3.53 of the Linux man-pages project.  A  description  of  the
       project,     and    information	  about    reporting	bugs,	 can	be    found    at

GNU					    2008-07-17					   END(3)
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