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Devel::EnforceEncapsulation(3) User Contributed Perl Documentation Devel::EnforceEncapsulation(3)

       Devel::EnforceEncapsulation - Find access violations to blessed objects

	 package BankAccount;
	 sub new {
	    my $pkg = shift;
	    return bless {}, $pkg;
	 sub balance {
	    my $self = shift;
	    return $self->{balance};
	 # ... etc. ...

	 package main;
	 my $acct = BankAccount->new();
	 print $acct->balance(),"\n";  # ok
	 print $acct->{balance},"\n";  # dies

       Copyright 2006 Clotho Advanced Media, Inc., <cpan@clotho.com>

       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.

       Encapsulation is the practice of creating subroutines to access the properties of a class
       instead of accessing those properties directly.	The advantage of good encapsulation is
       that the author is permitted to change the internal implementation of a class without
       breaking its usage.

       Object-oriented programming in Perl is most commonly implemented via blessed hashes.  This
       practice makes it easy for users of a class to violate encapsulation by simply accessing
       the hash values directly.  Although less common, the same applies to classes implemented
       via blessed arrays, scalars, filehandles, etc.

       This module is a hack to block those direct accesses.  If you try to access a hash value
       of an object from it's own class, or a superclass or subclass, all goes well.  If you try
       to access a hash value from any other package, an exception is thrown.  The same applies
       to the scalar value of a blessed scalar, entry in a blessed array, etc.

       To be clear: this class is NOT intended for strict enforcement of encapsulation.  If you
       want bullet-proof encapsulation, use inside-out objects or the like.  Instead, this module
       is intended to be a development or debugging aid in catching places where direct access is
       used against classes implemented as blessed hashes.

       To repeat: the encapsulation enforced here is a hack and is easily circumvented.  Please
       use this module for good (finding bugs), not evil (making life harder for downstream

       $pkg->apply_to($other_pkg, {policy => 'carp'});
	   Add strict encapsulation to an existing $other_pkg.	The encapsulation changes only
	   apply to instances created after the call.

	   The optional "policy" argument allows you to change the response to an illegal access.
	   By default the policy is "croak", which invokes "Carp::croak()".  The alternative is
	   "carp" which invokes "Carp::carp()" instead.

	   Remove any encapsulation previously set by "apply_to()".  This does not affect
	   instances created before this call.

       Class::Privacy is a very similar implementation that is, in general, stricter than this
       module.	The key differences:

       o   D::E applies externally post-facto; C::P from inside the code.

       o   D::E allows access from sub/superclasses; C::P does not (deliberately!).

       o   D::E supports all dereferencers from overload.pm; C::P supports "%", "@", "$", and

       o   D::E allows access from anything in the same package; C::P allows access only from
	   matching package AND file.

   Inside-out classes
       Class::InsideOut, Object::InsideOut and Class::Std are all implementations of "inside-out"
       objects, which offer a stricter encapsulation style at the expense of a less familiar
       coding style.

       "Illegal attempt to access %s internals from %s"
	   (Fatal) You tried to access a hash property directly instead of via an accessor
	   method.  The %s values are the object and caller packages respectively.

       We care about code quality.  This distribution complies with the following quality

       o   Perl::Critic v0.20 passes

       o   Devel::Cover test coverage at 100%

       o   Pod::Coverage at 100%

       o   Test::Spelling passes

       o   Test::Portability::Files passes

       o   Test::Kwalitee passes

       The regression tests do not cover blessed code or glob references.

       Any other issues: <http://rt.cpan.org/Dist/Display.html?Queue=Devel-EnforceEncapsulation>

       Clotho Advanced Media Inc., cpan@clotho.com

       Maintainer: Chris Dolan

       This idea, and the original source code, came from Adrian Howard via Curtis "Ovid" Poe on
       <http://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=576707|perlmonks.org>.  Adrian has authorized me to
       release a variant of his code under the Perl license.

       Joshua ben Jore provided crucial improvements that simplified yet generalized the
       implementation.	This module would not be half as useful without his contributions.

       Ricardo Signes contributed the "{policy =" 'carp'}> feature (with tests!).

perl v5.16.3				    2006-10-11		   Devel::EnforceEncapsulation(3)
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