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LIBCGRAPH(3)			     Library Functions Manual			     LIBCGRAPH(3)

       libcgraph - abstract graph library

       #include <graphviz/cgraph.h>


       Agraph_t        *agopen(char *name, Agdesc_t kind, Agdisc_t *disc);
       int	       agclose(Agraph_t *g);
       Agraph_t        *agread(void *channel, Agdisc_t *);
       void	      agreadline(int line_no);
       void	      agsetfile(char *file_name);
       Agraph_t       *agconcat(Agraph_t *g, void *channel, Agdisc_t *disc)
       int	       agwrite(Agraph_t *g, void *channel);
       int		   agnnodes(Agraph_t *g),agnedges(Agraph_t *g);
       int		   agisdirected(Agraph_t * g),agisundirected(Agraph_t * g),agisstrict(Agraph_t * g), agissimple(Agraph_t * g);

       Agraph_t        *agsubg(Agraph_t *g, char *name, int createflag);
       Agraph_t       *agidsubg(Agraph_t * g, unsigned long id, int cflag);
       Agraph_t        *agfstsubg(Agraph_t *g), agnxtsubg(Agraph_t *);
       Agraph_t        *agparent(Agraph_t *g);
       int		   agdelsubg(Agraph_t * g, Agraph_t * sub);	/* same as agclose() */

       Agnode_t        *agnode(Agraph_t *g, char *name, int createflag);
       Agnode_t        *agidnode(Agraph_t *g, ulong id, int createflag);
       Agnode_t        *agsubnode(Agraph_t *g, Agnode_t *n, int createflag);
       Agnode_t        *agfstnode(Agraph_t *g);
       Agnode_t        *agnxtnode(Agraph_t *g, Agnode_t *n);
       Agnode_t        *agprvnode(Agraph_t *g, Agnode_t *n);
       Agnode_t        *aglstnode(Agraph_t *g);
       int	       agdelnode(Agraph_t *g, Agnode_t *n);
       int		   agdegree(Agnode_t *n, int use_inedges, int use_outedges);

       Agedge_t        *agedge(Agraph_t* g, Agnode_t *t, Agnode_t *h, char *name, int createflag);
       Agedge_t       *agidedge(Agraph_t * g, Agnode_t * t, Agnode_t * h, unsigned long id, int createflag);
       Agedge_t        *agsubedge(Agraph_t *g, Agedge_t *e, int createflag);
       Agnode_t        *aghead(Agedge_t *e), *agtail(Agedge_t *e);
       Agedge_t        *agfstedge(Agraph_t* g, Agnode_t *n);
       Agedge_t        *agnxtedge(Agraph_t* g, Agedge_t *e, Agnode_t *n);
       Agedge_t        *agfstin(Agraph_t* g, Agnode_t *n);
       Agedge_t        *agnxtin(Agraph_t* g, Agedge_t *e);
       Agedge_t        *agfstout(Agraph_t* g, Agnode_t *n);
       Agedge_t        *agnxtout(Agraph_t* g, Agedge_t *e);
       int	       agdeledge(Agraph_t *g, Agedge_t *e);

       Agsym_t		   *agattr(Agraph_t *g, int kind, char *name, char *value);
       Agsym_t		   *agattrsym(void *obj, char *name);
       Agsym_t		   *agnxtattr(Agraph_t *g, int kind, Agsym_t *attr);
       char	      *agget(void *obj, char *name);
       char	      *agxget(void *obj, Agsym_t *sym);
       int		   agset(void *obj, char *name, char *value);
       int		   agxset(void *obj, Agsym_t *sym, char *value);
       int		   agsafeset(void *obj, char *name, char *value, char *def);

       void	 *agbindrec(void *obj, char *name, unsigned int size, move_to_front);
       Agrec_t	   *aggetrec(void *obj, char *name, int move_to_front);
       int	   agdelrec(Agraph_t *g, void *obj, char *name);
       int	      agcopyattr(void *, void *);
       void	 aginit(Agraph_t * g, int kind, char *rec_name, int rec_size, int move_to_front);
       void	 agclean(Agraph_t * g, int kind, char *rec_name);

       Agcbdisc_t    *agpopdisc(Agraph_t *g);
       void	   agpushdisc(Agraph_t *g, Agcbdisc_t *disc);
       void	   agmethod(Agraph_t *g, void *obj, Agcbdisc_t *disc, int initflag);

       void	 *agalloc(Agraph_t *g, size_t request);
       void	 *agrealloc(Agraph_t *g, void *ptr, size_t oldsize, size_t newsize);
       void	 agfree(Agraph_t *g, void *ptr);

       char	 *agstrdup(Agraph_t *, char *);
       char	 *agstrdup_html(Agraph_t *, char *);
       int	 aghtmlstr(char *);
       char	 *agstrbind(Agraph_t * g, char *);
       int	 strfree(Agraph_t *, char *);
       char	 *agcanonStr(char *);
       char	 *agstrcanon(char *, char *);

       Agraph_t  *agraphof(void*);
       Agraph_t  *agroot(void*);
       int	      agcontains(Agraph_t*, void*);
       char	 *agnameof(void*);
       void	 agdelete(Agraph_t *g, void *obj);
       int	 agobjkind(void *obj);
       Agrec_t	      *AGDATA(void *obj);
       ulong	      AGID(void *obj);
       int	      AGTYPE(void *obj);

       typedef enum { AGWARN, AGERR, AGMAX, AGPREV } agerrlevel_t;
       typedef int (*agusererrf) (char*);
       agerrlevel_t agerrno;
       agerrlevel_t agseterr(agerrlevel_t);
       char *aglasterr(void);
       int agerr(agerrlevel_t level, char *fmt, ...);
       void agerrorf(char *fmt, ...);
       void agwarningf(char *fmt, ...);
       int agerrors(void);
       agusererrf agseterrf(agusererrf);

       Libcgraph supports graph programming by maintaining graphs in memory and reading and writ-
       ing graph files.  Graphs are composed of nodes, edges, and nested subgraphs.  These  graph
       objects may be attributed with string name-value pairs and programmer-defined records (see

       All of Libcgraph's global symbols have the prefix ag (case varying).

       A ``main'' or ``root'' graph defines a namespace for a collection of graph  objects  (sub-
       graphs,	nodes, edges) and their attributes.  Objects may be named by unique strings or by
       integer IDs.

       agopen creates a new graph with the given name and kind.   (Graph  kinds  are  Agdirected,
       Agundirected, Agstrictdirected, and Agstrictundirected.	A strict graph cannot have multi-
       edges or self-arcs.)  agclose deletes a graph, freeing its  associated  storage.   agread,
       agwrite,  and  agconcat	perform  file  I/O using the graph file language described below.
       agread constructs a new graph while agconcat merges the file contents with a  pre-existing
       graph.	Though I/O methods may be overridden, the default is that the channel argument is
       a stdio FILE pointer. agsetfile and agreadline are helper functions that  simply  set  the
       current file name and input line number for subsequent error reporting.

       agsubg  finds  or creates a subgraph by name.  A new subgraph is is initially empty and is
       of the same kind as its parent.	Nested subgraph trees may be created.  A subgraph's  name
       is  only  interpreted  relative to its parent.  A program can scan subgraphs under a given
       graph using agfstsubg and agnxtsubg.  A subgraph is deleted with agdelsubg (or agclose).

       By default, nodes are stored in ordered sets for efficient random access to insert,  find,
       and  delete  nodes.   The  edges  of a node are also stored in ordered sets.  The sets are
       maintained internally as splay tree dictionaries using Phong Vo's cdt library.

       agnnodes, agnedges, and agdegree return the sizes of node and edge sets of a  graph.   The
       agdegree  returns the size of the edge set of a nodes, and takes flags to select in-edges,
       out-edges, or both.

       An Agdisc_t defines callbacks to be invoked by libcgraph when initializing, modifying,  or
       finalizing  graph  objects.  (Casual users can ignore the following.) Disciplines are kept
       on a stack.  Libcgraph automatically calls the methods on the stack, top-down.	Callbacks
       are  installed  with  agpushdisc,  uninstalled  with agpopdisc, and can be held pending or
       released via agcallbacks.

       (Casual users may ignore the following.	When Libcgraph is compiled with Vmalloc (which is
       not  the  default),  each  graph  has its own heap.  Programmers may allocate application-
       dependent data within the same heap as the rest of the graph.  The  advantage  is  that	a
       graph  can be deleted by atomically freeing its entire heap without scanning each individ-
       ual node and edge.

       A node is created by giving a unique string name or programmer defined integer ID, and  is
       represented  by	a  unique internal object. (Node equality can checked by pointer compari-

       agnode searches in a graph or subgraph for a node with the given name, and returns  it  if
       found.	If  not  found, if createflag is boolean true a new node is created and returned,
       otherwise a nil pointer is returned.  agidnode allows a programmer to specify the node  by
       a  unique  integer  ID.	 agsubnode performs a similar operation on an existing node and a

       agfstnode and agnxtnode scan node lists.  agprvnode and aglstnode are symmetric	but  scan
       backward.   The	default  sequence  is  order  of  creation (object timestamp.)	agdelnode
       removes a node from a graph or subgraph.

       An abstract edge has two endpoint nodes called tail and head where the all outedges of the
       same  node have it as the tail value and similarly all inedges have it as the head.  In an
       undirected graph, head and tail are interchangeable.  If a graph has  multi-edges  between
       the same pair of nodes, the edge's string name behaves as a secondary key.

       agedge  searches  in  a graph of subgraph for an edge between the given endpoints (with an
       optional multi-edge selector name) and returns it if found.  Otherwise, if  createflag  is
       boolean true, a new edge is created and returned: otherwise a nil pointer is returned.  If
       the name is NULL, then an anonymous internal value is generated. agidedge  allows  a  pro-
       grammer	to  create an edge by giving its unique integer ID.  agfstin, agnxtint, agfstout,
       and agnxtout visit directed in- and out- edge lists, and ordinarily apply only in directed
       graphs.	 agfstedge  and  agnxtedge visit all edges incident to a node.	agtail and aghead
       get the endpoint of an edge.

       Programmer-defined values may be dynamically attached to  graphs,  subgraphs,  nodes,  and
       edges.	Such  values  are either uninterpreted binary records (for implementing efficient
       algorithms) or character string data (for I/O).

       String attributes are handled automatically in reading and writing graph files.	A  string
       attribute is identified by name and by an internal symbol table entry (Agsym_t) created by
       Libcgraph.  Attributes of nodes, edges, and graphs (with their  subgraphs)  have  separate
       namespaces.  The contents of an Agsym_t is listed below, followed by primitives to operate
       on string attributes.
       typedef struct Agsym_s {        /* symbol in one of the above dictionaries */
	   Dtlink_t	   link;
	   char 	   *name;      /* attribute's name */
	   char 	   *defval;    /* its default value for initialization */
	   int		   id;	       /* its index in attr[] */
	   unsigned char   kind;	  /* referent object type */
	   unsigned char   fixed;	  /* immutable value */
       } Agsym_t;

       agattr creates or looks up attributes.  kind may be AGRAPH, AGNODE, or AGEDGE.	If  value
       is  (char*)0),  the  request  is to search for an existing attribute of the given kind and
       name.  Otherwise, if the attribute already exists, its default for creating new objects is
       set  to	the  given value; if it does not exist, a new attribute is created with the given
       default, and the default is applied to all pre-existing objects of the given kind. If g is
       NIL,  the default is set for all graphs created subsequently.  agattrsym is a helper func-
       tion that looks up an attribute for a graph object given as an argument.   agnxtattr  per-
       mits  traversing  the list of attributes of a given type.  If NIL is passed as an argument
       it gets the first attribute, otherwise it returns the next one in  succession  or  returns
       NIL  at	the  end  of  the  list.   agget  and  agset allow fetching and updating a string
       attribute for an object taking the attribute name as an argument.  agxget  and  agxset  do
       this  but  with	an  attribute symbol table entry as an argument (to avoid the cost of the
       string lookup).	agsafeset is a convenience function that ensures the given  attribute  is
       declared before setting it locally on an object.

       Libcgraph  performs  its  own  storage management of strings as reference-counted strings.
       The caller does not need to dynamically allocate storage.

       agstrdup returns a pointer to a reference-counted copy of the  argument	string,  creating
       one  if necessary. agstrbind returns a pointer to a reference-counted string if it exists,
       or NULL if not.	All uses of cgraph strings need to be freed using agstrfree in	order  to
       correctly maintain the reference count.

       agcanonStr returns a pointer to a version of the input string canonicalized for output for
       later re-parsing. This includes quoting special characters and keywords. It uses  its  own
       internal  buffer, so the value will be lost on the next call to agcanonStr.  agstrcanon is
       an unsafe version of agcanonStr, in which the application passes in a buffer as the second
       argument.  Note that the buffer may not be used; if the input string is in canonical form,
       the function will just return a pointer to it.

       The cgraph parser handles HTML-like strings. These should be indistinguishable from  other
       strings for most purposes. To create an HTML-like string, use agstrdup_html. The aghtmlstr
       function can be used to query if a string is an ordinary string or an HTML-like string.

       Uninterpreted records may be attached to graphs, subgraphs, nodes, and edges for efficient
       operations  on  values  such as marks, weights, counts, and pointers needed by algorithms.
       Application programmers define the fields of these records, but they must be declared with
       a common header as shown below.

       typedef struct Agrec_s {
	   Agrec_t	   header;
	   /* programmer-defined fields follow */
       } Agrec_t;

       Records	are created and managed by Libcgraph. A programmer must explicitly attach them to
       the objects in a graph, either to individual objects one at a time via  agbindrec,  or  to
       all the objects of the same class in a graph via aginit.  (Note that for graphs, aginit is
       applied recursively to the graph and its subgraphs if rec_size is negative (of the  actual
       rec_size.))   The  name	argument  a record distinguishes various types of records, and is
       programmer defined (Libcgraph reserves the prefix  _ag).   If  size  is	0,  the  call  to
       agbindrec  is  simply  a  lookup.  agdelrec is the deletes records one at a time.  agclean
       does the same for all objects of the same class in an entire graph.

       Internally, records are maintained in circular linked lists attached to graph objects.  To
       allow  referencing  application-dependent data without function calls or search, Libcgraph
       allows setting and locking the list pointer of a graph, node,  or  edge	on  a  particular
       record.	 This  pointer	can  be  obtained  with the macro AGDATA(obj).	A cast, generally
       within a macro or inline function, is usually applied to convert the list  pointer  to  an
       appropriate programmer-defined type.

       To  control  the  setting  of  this  pointer,  the move_to_front flag may be AG_MTF_FALSE,
       AG_MTF_SOFT, or AG_MTF_HARD accordingly.  The  AG_MTF_SOFT  field  is  only  a  hint  that
       decreases overhead in subsequent calls of aggetrec; AG_MTF_HARD guarantees that a lock was
       obtained.  To release locks, use AG_MTF_SOFT or AG_MTF_FALSE.  Use of this feature implies
       cooperation  or	at least isolation from other functions also using the move-to-front con-

       (The following is not intended for casual users.)  Programmer-defined disciplines  custom-
       ize  certain resources- ID namespace, memory, and I/O - needed by Libcgraph.  A discipline
       struct (or NIL) is passed at graph creation time.

       struct Agdisc_s {	     /* user's discipline */
	    Agmemdisc_t 	     *mem;
	    Agiddisc_t		     *id;
	    Agiodisc_t		     *io;
       } ;

       A default discipline is supplied when NIL is given for any of these fields.

       An ID allocator discipline allows a client to control  assignment  of  IDs  (uninterpreted
       integer values) to objects, and possibly how they are mapped to and from strings.

       struct Agiddisc_s {	       /* object ID allocator */
	    void *(*open) (Agraph_t * g, Agdisc_t*);	   /* associated with a graph */
	    long (*map) (void *state, int objtype, char *str, unsigned long *id, int createflag);
	    long (*alloc) (void *state, int objtype, unsigned long id);
	    void (*free) (void *state, int objtype, unsigned long id);
	    char *(*print) (void *state, int objtype, unsigned long id);
	    void (*close) (void *state);

       open  permits  the  ID  discipline to initialize any data structures that it maintains per
       individual graph.  Its return value is then passed as the first argument (void *state)  to
       all subsequent ID manager calls.

       alloc  informs the ID manager that Libcgraph is attempting to create an object with a spe-
       cific ID that was given by a client.  The ID manager should return TRUE (nonzero)  if  the
       ID can be allocated, or FALSE (which aborts the operation).

       free is called to inform the ID manager that the object labeled with the given ID is about
       to go out of existence.

       map is called to create or look-up IDs by string name (if supported by  the  ID	manager).
       Returning  TRUE	(nonzero)  in all cases means that the request succeeded (with a valid ID
       stored through result.  There are four cases:

       name != NULL and createflag == 1: This requests mapping a string (e.g. a name in  a  graph
       file)  into a new ID.  If the ID manager can comply, then it stores the result and returns
       TRUE.  It is then also responsible for being able to print the ID again as a string.  Oth-
       erwise  the  ID manager may return FALSE but it must implement the following (at least for
       graph file reading and writing to work):

       name == NULL and createflag == 1: The ID manager creates a unique new ID of its own choos-
       ing.   Although	it may return FALSE if it does not support anonymous objects, but this is
       strongly discouraged (to support "local names" in graph files.)

       name != NULL and createflag == 0: This is a namespace probe.  If the name  was  previously
       mapped into an allocated ID by the ID manager, then the manager must return this ID.  Oth-
       erwise, the ID manager may either return FALSE, or  may	store  any  unallocated  ID  into
       result.	(This is convenient, for example, if names are known to be digit strings that are
       directly converted into integer values.)

       name == NULL and createflag == 0: forbidden.

       print is allowed to return a pointer to a static buffer; a caller must copy its	value  if
       needed  past  subsequent  calls.   NULL	should be returned by ID managers that do not map

       The map and alloc calls do not pass a pointer to the newly allocated object.  If a  client
       needs  to  install  object  pointers  in a handle table, it can obtain them via new object
       struct Agiodisc_s {
	    int       (*fread)(void *chan, char *buf, int bufsize);
	    int       (*putstr)(void *chan, char *str);
	    int       (*flush)(void *chan);    /* sync */
	    /* error messages? */
       } ;

       struct Agmemdisc_s {	/* memory allocator */
	    void *(*open)(Agdisc_t*);	       /* independent of other resources */
	    void *(*alloc)(void *state, size_t req);
	    void *(*resize)(void *state, void *ptr, size_t old, size_t req);
	    void (*free)(void *state, void *ptr);
	    void (*close)(void *state);
       } ;

       agroot takes any graph object (graph, subgraph, node, edge) and returns the root graph  in
       which  it  lives. agraphof does the same, except it is the identity function on graphs and
       subgraphs. Note that there is no function to  return  the  least  subgraph  containing  an
       object, in part because this is not well-defined as nodes and edges may be in incomparable

       agcontains(g,obj) returns non-zero if obj is a member of (sub)graph g. agdelete(g,obj)  is
       equivalent to agclose, agdelnode, and agclose for obj being a graph, node or edge, respec-
       tively. It returns -1 if obj does not belong to g.

       agnameof returns a string descriptor for the object. It returns the name of  the  node  or
       graph, and the key of an edge.  agobjkind is a synonym for AGTYPE.

       AGDATA, AGID, and AGTYPE are macros returning the specified fields of the argument object.
       The first is described in the RECORDS section above. The second returns the unique integer
       ID  associated  with  the object. The last returns AGRAPH, AGNODE, and AGEDGE depending on
       the type of the object.

       typedef int (*agusererrf) (char*); agusererrf agseterrf(agusererrf);

       The library provides a variety of mechanisms to control the reporting of errors and  warn-
       ings.  At  present, there are basically two types of messages: warnings and errors. A mes-
       sage is only written if its type has higher priority than a programmer-controlled minimum,
       which  is  AGWARN  by  default.	The  programmer  can set this value using agseterr, which
       returns the previous value. Calling agseterr(AGMAX) turns off the writing of messages.

       The function agerr if the main entry point for reporting an anomaly.  The  first  argument
       indicates  the type of message. Usually, the first argument in AGWARN or AGERR to indicate
       warnings and errors, respectively. Sometimes additional context information is only avail-
       able  in  functions calling the function where the error is actually caught. In this case,
       the calling function can indicate that it is continuing the current error by using  AGPREV
       as  the	first argument. The remaining arguments to agerr are the same as the arguments to

       The  functions  agwarningf  and	agerrorf   are	 shorthand   for   agerr(AGERR,...)   and
       agerr(AGWARN,...), respectively.

       Some applications desire to directly control the writing of messages.  Such an application
       can use the function agseterrf to register the function that the library  should  call  to
       actually write the message.  The previous error function is returned. By default, the mes-
       sage is written to stderr.

       Errors not written are stored in a log file. The last recorded error can be  retreived  by
       calling aglasterr.

       The function agerrors returns non-zero if errors have been reported.

       #include <graphviz/cgraph.h>
       typedef struct mydata_s {Agrec_t hdr; int x,y,z;} mydata;

       main(int argc, char **argv)
	   Agraph_t    *g;
	   Agnode_t    *v;
	   Agedge_t    *e;
	   Agsym_t     *attr;
	   Dict_t      *d
	   int	       cnt;
	   mydata      *p;

	   if (g = agread(stdin,NIL(Agdisc_t*))) {
		 cnt = 0; attr = 0;
		 while (attr = agnxtattr(g, AGNODE, attr)) cnt++;
		 printf("The graph %s has %d attributes0,agnameof(g),cnt);

		 /* make the graph have a node color attribute, default is blue */
	       attr = agattr(g,AGNODE,"color","blue");

	       /* create a new graph of the same kind as g */
	       h = agopen("tmp",g->desc);

	       /* this is a way of counting all the edges of the graph */
	       cnt = 0;
	       for (v = agfstnode(g); v; v = agnxtnode(g,v))
		   for (e = agfstout(g,v); e; e = agnxtout(g,e))

	       /* attach records to edges */
	       for (v = agfstnode(g); v; v = agnxtnode(g,v))
		   for (e = agfstout(g,v); e; e; = agnxtout(g,e)) {
		       p = (mydata*) agbindrec(g,e,"mydata",sizeof(mydata),TRUE);
		       p->x = 27;  /* meaningless data access example */
			   ((mydata*)(AGDATA(e)))->y = 999; /* another example */

       digraph G {
	   a -> b;
	   c [shape=box];
	   a -> c [weight=29,label="some text];
	   subgraph anything {
	       /* the following affects only x,y,z */
	       node [shape=circle];
	       a; x; y -> z; y -> z;  /* multiple edges */

       strict graph H {
	   n0 -- n1 -- n2 -- n0;  /* a cycle */
	   n0 -- {a b c d};	  /* a star */
	   n0 -- n3;
	   n0 -- n3 [weight=1];   /* same edge because graph is strict */


       It  is  difficult  to  change  endpoints of edges, delete string attributes or modify edge
       keys.  The work-around is to create a new object and copy the contents of an old one  (but
       new object obviously has a different ID, internal address, and object creation timestamp).

       The  API lacks convenient functions to substitute programmer-defined ordering of nodes and
       edges but in principle this can be supported.

       The library is not thread safe.

       Stephen North, north@research.att.com, AT&T Research.

					   30 JULY 2007 			     LIBCGRAPH(3)

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