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tic(1M) 										  tic(1M)

       tic - the terminfo entry-description compiler

       tic [-01CDGIKLNTUVacfgrstx] [-e names] [-o dir] [-R subset] [-v[n]] [-w[n]] file

       The  tic  command translates a terminfo file from source format into compiled format.  The
       compiled format is necessary for use with the library routines in ncurses(3X).

       As described in term(5), the database may be either a directory tree (one file per  termi-
       nal  entry)  or a hashed database (one record per entry).  The tic command writes only one
       type of entry, depending on how it was built:

       o   For directory trees, the top-level directory, e.g., /usr/share/terminfo, specifies the
	   location of the database.

       o   For	hashed	databases,  a filename is needed.  If the given file is not found by that
	   name, but can be found by adding the suffix ".db", then that is used.

	   The default name for the hashed database is the same as  the  default  directory  name
	   (only adding a ".db" suffix).

       In  either  case  (directory or hashed database), tic will create the container if it does
       not exist.  For a directory, this would be the "terminfo"  leaf,  versus  a  "terminfo.db"

       The  results are normally placed in the system terminfo database /usr/share/terminfo.  The
       compiled terminal description can be placed in a different terminfo database.   There  are
       two ways to achieve this:

       o   First,  you	may override the system default either by using the -o option, or by set-
	   ting the variable TERMINFO in your shell environment to a valid database location.

       o   Secondly, if tic cannot write in /usr/share/terminfo or the location  specified  using
	   your TERMINFO variable, it looks for the directory $HOME/.terminfo (or hashed database
	   $HOME/.terminfo.db); if that location exists, the entry is placed there.

       Libraries that read terminfo entries are expected to check in succession

       o   a location specified with the TERMINFO environment variable,

       o   $HOME/.terminfo,

       o   directories listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS environment variable,

       o   a compiled-in list of directories (no default value), and

       o   the system terminfo database (/usr/share/terminfo).

       -0     restricts the output to a single line

       -1     restricts the output to a single column

       -a     tells tic to retain commented-out capabilities rather than discarding them.   Capa-
	      bilities	are  commented by prefixing them with a period.  This sets the -x option,
	      because it treats the commented-out entries as user-defined names.  If  the  source
	      is  termcap,  accept  the 2-character names required by version 6.  Otherwise these
	      are ignored.

       -C     Force source translation to termcap format.  Note: this differs from the -C  option
	      of  infocmp(1M)  in  that  it  does not merely translate capability names, but also
	      translates terminfo strings to termcap format.  Capabilities that are not translat-
	      able  are  left  in the entry under their terminfo names but commented out with two
	      preceding dots.  The actual format used incorporates some improvements for  escaped
	      characters  from	terminfo  format.  For a stricter BSD-compatible translation, add
	      the -K option.

       -c     tells tic to only check file for errors, including  syntax  problems  and  bad  use
	      links.  If you specify -C (-I) with this option, the code will print warnings about
	      entries which, after use resolution, are more than 1023(4096) bytes long.  Due  to
	      a fixed buffer length in older termcap libraries, as well as buggy checking for the
	      buffer length (and a documented limit in terminfo), these entries  may  cause  core
	      dumps with other implementations.

       -D     tells tic to print the database locations that it knows about, and exit.	The first
	      location shown is the one to which it would write compiled  terminal  descriptions.
	      If tic is not able to find a writable database location according to the rules sum-
	      marized above, it will print a diagnostic and exit with an error rather than print-
	      ing a list of database locations.

       -e names
	      Limit  writes  and translations to the following comma-separated list of terminals.
	      If any name or alias of a terminal matches one of the names in the list, the  entry
	      will be written or translated as normal.	Otherwise no output will be generated for
	      it.  The option value is interpreted as a file containing the list if it contains a
	      '/'.  (Note: depending on how tic was compiled, this option may require -I or -C.)

       -f     Display  complex	terminfo  strings  which  contain  if/then/else/endif expressions
	      indented for readability.

       -G     Display constant literals in decimal form rather than their character equivalents.

       -g     Display constant character literals in quoted form rather than their decimal equiv-

       -I     Force source translation to terminfo format.

       -K     Suppress	some  longstanding  ncurses  extensions to termcap format, e.g., "\s" for

       -L     Force source translation to terminfo format using the long C variable names  listed
	      in <term.h>

       -N     Disable  smart  defaults.  Normally, when translating from termcap to terminfo, the
	      compiler makes a number of assumptions about the defaults  of  string  capabilities
	      reset1_string, carriage_return, cursor_left, cursor_down, scroll_forward, tab, new-
	      line, key_backspace, key_left, and key_down, then attempts to use obsolete  termcap
	      capabilities to deduce correct values.  It also normally suppresses output of obso-
	      lete termcap capabilities such as bs.  This option forces a more	literal  transla-
	      tion that also preserves the obsolete capabilities.

       -odir  Write compiled entries to given database location.  Overrides the TERMINFO environ-
	      ment variable.

	      Restrict output to a given subset.  This option is for use with archaic versions of
	      terminfo	like  those on SVr1, Ultrix, or HP/UX that do not support the full set of
	      SVR4/XSI Curses terminfo; and outright broken ports like AIX 3.x	that  have  their
	      own extensions incompatible with SVr4/XSI.  Available subsets are "SVr1", "Ultrix",
	      "HP", "BSD" and "AIX"; see terminfo(5) for details.

       -r     Force entry resolution (so there are no remaining tc capabilities) even when  doing
	      translation  to  termcap format.	This may be needed if you are preparing a termcap
	      file for a termcap library (such as GNU termcap through version 1.3 or BSD  termcap
	      through 4.3BSD) that does not handle multiple tc capabilities per entry.

       -s     Summarize the compile by showing the database location into which entries are writ-
	      ten, and the number of entries which are compiled.

       -T     eliminates size-restrictions on the generated text.   This  is  mainly  useful  for
	      testing  and  analysis, since the compiled descriptions are limited (e.g., 1023 for
	      termcap, 4096 for terminfo).

       -t     tells tic to discard commented-out capabilities.	Normally  when	translating  from
	      terminfo to termcap, untranslatable capabilities are commented-out.

       -U   tells  tic	to not post-process the data after parsing the source file.  Normally, it
	    infers data which is commonly missing in older terminfo data, or in termcaps.

       -V   reports the version of ncurses which was used in this program, and exits.

       -vn  specifies that (verbose) output be written to standard error trace information  show-
	    ing  tic's	progress.   The optional parameter n is a number from 1 to 10, inclusive,
	    indicating the desired level of detail of information.  If n is omitted, the  default
	    level is 1.  If n is specified and greater than 1, the level of detail is increased.

	    The debug flag levels are as follows:

	    1	   Names of files created and linked

	    2	   Information related to the ``use'' facility

	    3	   Statistics from the hashing algorithm

	    5	   String-table memory allocations

	    7	   Entries into the string-table

	    8	   List of tokens encountered by scanner

	    9	   All values computed in construction of the hash table

	    If the debug level n is not given, it is taken to be one.

       -wn  specifies  the width of the output.  The parameter is optional.  If it is omitted, it
	    defaults to 60.

       -x   Treat unknown capabilities as user-defined.  That is, if you supply a capability name
	    which tic does not recognize, it will infer its type (boolean, number or string) from
	    the syntax and make an  extended  table  entry  for  that.	 User-defined  capability
	    strings whose name begins with ``k'' are treated as function keys.

       file   contains	one  or  more  terminfo  terminal descriptions in source format [see ter-
	      minfo(5)].  Each description in the file describes the capabilities of a particular

	      If  file is ``-'', then the data is read from the standard input.  The file parame-
	      ter may also be the path of a character-device.

       All but one of the capabilities recognized by tic  are  documented  in  terminfo(5).   The
       exception is the use capability.

       When  a	use=entry-name	field is discovered in a terminal entry currently being compiled,
       tic reads in the binary from /usr/share/terminfo to complete the entry.	(Entries  created
       from  file will be used first.  tic duplicates the capabilities in entry-name for the cur-
       rent entry, with the exception of those capabilities that explicitly are  defined  in  the
       current entry.

       When  an  entry, e.g., entry_name_1, contains a use=entry_name_2 field, any canceled capa-
       bilities in entry_name_2 must also appear in entry_name_1 before use= for these	capabili-
       ties to be canceled in entry_name_1.

       Total  compiled entries cannot exceed 4096 bytes.  The name field cannot exceed 512 bytes.
       Terminal names exceeding the maximum alias length (32  characters  on  systems  with  long
       filenames,  14  characters  otherwise) will be truncated to the maximum alias length and a
       warning message will be printed.

       There is some evidence that historic tic implementations treated description  fields  with
       no  whitespace  in  them as additional aliases or short names.  This tic does not do that,
       but it does warn when description fields may be treated that way and check them	for  dan-
       gerous characters.

       Unlike the SVr4 tic command, this implementation can actually compile termcap sources.  In
       fact, entries in terminfo and termcap syntax can be mixed in a single  source  file.   See
       terminfo(5) for the list of termcap names taken to be equivalent to terminfo names.

       The  SVr4  manual  pages are not clear on the resolution rules for use capabilities.  This
       implementation of tic will find use targets anywhere in the source file,  or  anywhere  in
       the  file  tree	rooted at TERMINFO (if TERMINFO is defined), or in the user's $HOME/.ter-
       minfo database (if it exists), or (finally) anywhere in the system's file tree of compiled

       The  error messages from this tic have the same format as GNU C error messages, and can be
       parsed by GNU Emacs's compile facility.

       The -0, -1, -C, -G, -I, -N, -R, -T, -V, -a, -e, -f, -g, -o, -r, -s, -t and -x options  are
       not supported under SVr4.  The SVr4 -c mode does not report bad use links.

       System  V  does	not compile entries to or read entries from your $HOME/.terminfo database
       unless TERMINFO is explicitly set to it.

	    Compiled terminal description database.

       infocmp(1M), captoinfo(1M), infotocap(1M), toe(1M), curses(3X), term(5).  terminfo(5).

       This describes ncurses version 5.9 (patch 20130511).

       Eric S. Raymond <esr@snark.thyrsus.com> and
       Thomas E. Dickey <dickey@invisible-island.net>

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