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TRIAL(1)										 TRIAL(1)

NAME
       trial - run unit tests

SYNOPSIS
       trial [ options ] [ file | package | module | TestCase | testmethod ] ...

       trial --help | -h

DESCRIPTION
       trial  loads and executes a suite of unit tests, obtained from modules, packages and files
       listed on the command line.

       trial will take either filenames or fully  qualified  Python  names  as	arguments.   Thus
       `trial	myproject/foo.py',   `trial  myproject.foo'  and  `trial  myproject.foo.SomeTest-
       Case.test_method' are all valid ways to invoke trial.

       After running the given test suite, the default test reporter prints a summary of the test
       run. This consists of the word "PASSED" (if all tests ran as expected) or "FAILED" (if any
       test behaved unexpectedly) followed by a count of the  different  kinds	of  test  results
       encountered. The possible kinds of test results includes:

       successes
	      Tests  that  passed  all	their  assertions and completed without error.	These are
	      marked "PASSED" in the normal test output.

       failures
	      Tests that failed an assertion, called self.fail() or explicitly raised  self.fail-
	      ureException for some reason. These are marked "FAILED" in the normal test output.

       errors Tests  that  raised  an unexpected exception (including AssertionError), tests that
	      caused the tearDown() method to raise an exception, tests that run for longer  than
	      the  timeout interval, tests that caused something to call twisted.python.log.err()
	      without subsequently calling self.flushLoggedErrors(), tests that leave the reactor
	      in an unclean state, etc. These are marked "ERROR" in the normal test output.

	      Note  that because errors can be caused after the actual test method returns, it is
	      possible for a single test to be reported as both an error and a failure, and hence
	      the total number of test results can be greater than the total number of tests exe-
	      cuted.

       skips  Tests that were skipped, usually because of missing dependencies. These are  marked
	      "SKIPPED" in the normal test output.

       expectedFailures
	      Tests  that  failed,  but  were expected to fail, usually because the test is for a
	      feature that hasn't been implemented yet. These are marked  "TODO"  in  the  normal
	      test output.

       unexpectedSuccesses
	      Tests  that  should  have  been listed under expectedFailures, except that for some
	      reason the test succeeded. These are marked "SUCCESS!?!" in the normal test output.

OPTIONS
       -b, --debug
	      Run the tests in the Python debugger. Also does  post-mortem  debugging  on  excep-
	      tions. Will load `.pdbrc' from current directory if it exists.

       -B, --debug-stacktraces
	      Report Deferred creation and callback stack traces

       --coverage
	      Generate	coverage  information  in  the	`coverage' subdirectory of the trial temp
	      directory (`_trial_temp' by default). For each Python module touched by the  execu-
	      tion of the given tests, a file will be created in the coverage directory named for
	      the module's fully-qualified name with the suffix `.cover'.  For	example,  because
	      the  trial  test	runner	is  written in Python, the coverage directory will almost
	      always contain a file named `twisted.trial.runner.cover'.

	      Each `.cover' file contains a copy of the Python source of the module in	question,
	      with  a  prefix at the beginning of each line containing coverage information.  For
	      lines that are not executable (blank lines, comments, etc.)  the prefix  is  blank.
	      For executable lines that were run in the course of the test suite, the prefix is a
	      number indicating the number of times that line was executed.  The string  `>>>>>>'
	      prefixes executable lines that were not executed in the course of the test suite.

	      Note  that  this functionality uses Python's sys.settrace() function, so tests that
	      call sys.settrace() themselves are likely to break trial's coverage functionality.

       --disablegc
	      Disable the garbage collector for the duration of the test run.  As  each  test  is
	      run,  trial saves the TestResult objects, which means that Python's garbage collec-
	      tor has more non-garbage objects to wade through,  making  each  garbage-collection
	      run  slightly  slower.  Disabling  garbage  collection entirely will make some test
	      suites complete faster (contrast --force-gc, below),  at	the  cost  of  increasing
	      (possibly  greatly)  memory consumption. This option also makes tests slightly more
	      deterministic, which might help debugging in extreme circumstances.

       -e, --rterrors
	      Print tracebacks to standard output as soon as they occur

       --force-gc
	      Run gc.collect() before and after each test case.  This  can  be	used  to  isolate
	      errors  that  occur  when objects get collected.	This option would be the default,
	      except it makes tests run about ten times slower.

       -h, --help
	      Print a usage message to standard output, then exit.

       --help-reporters
	      Print a list of valid reporters to standard output, then	exit.  Reporters  can  be
	      selected with the --reporter option described below.

       --help-reactors
	      Print  a	list  of  possible reactors to standard output, then exit. Not all listed
	      reactors are available on every platform. Reactors can be selected with the --reac-
	      tor option described below.

       -l, --logfile logfile
	      Direct  the  log	to  a different file. The default file is `test.log'.  logfile is
	      relative to _trial_temp.

       -n, --dry-run
	      Go through all the tests and make them pass without running.

       -N, --no-recurse
	      By default, trial recurses through packages to find every module inside every  sub-
	      package.	Unless, that is, you specify this option.

       --nopm Don't  automatically  jump  into	debugger  for post-mortem analysis of exceptions.
	      Only usable in conjunction with --debug.

       --profile
	      Run tests under the Python profiler.

       -r, --reactor reactor
	      Choose which reactor to use.  See --help-reactors for a list.

       --recursionlimit
	      Set Python's recursion limit. See sys.setrecursionlimit()

       --reporter
	      Select the reporter to use for trial's output.  Use the --help-reporters option  to
	      see a list of valid reporters.

       --spew Print  an  insanely  verbose  log of everything that happens. Useful when debugging
	      freezes or locks in complex code.

       --tbformat format
	      Format to display tracebacks with. Acceptable values  are  `default',  `brief'  and
	      `verbose'. `brief' produces tracebacks that play nicely with Emacs' GUD.

       --temp-directory directory
	      WARNING:	Do  not use this options unless you know what you are doing.  By default,
	      trial creates a directory called _trial_temp under the current  working  directory.
	      When  trial  runs,  it  first deletes this directory, then creates it, then changes
	      into the directory to run the tests. The log file and any coverage files are stored
	      here.  Use  this	option	if  you  wish to have trial run in a directory other than
	      _trial_temp. Be warned, trial will delete the directory before re-creating it.

       --testmodule filename
	      Ask trial to look into filename and run any tests specified using  the  Emacs-style
	      buffer variable `test-case-name'.

       --unclean-warnings
	      As of Twisted 8.0, trial will report an error if the reactor is left unclean at the
	      end of the test. This option is provided to assist in migrating from Twisted 2.5 to
	      Twisted 8.0 and later. Enabling this option will turn the errors into warnings.

       -u, --until-failure
	      Keep  looping  the  tests  until one of them raises an error or a failure.  This is
	      particularly useful for reproducing intermittent failures.

       --version
	      Prints the Twisted version number and exit.

       --without-module modulenames
	      Simulate the lack of the specified comma-separated list of modules. This	makes  it
	      look  like  the  modules	are not present in the system, causing tests to check the
	      behavior for that configuration.

       -z, --random [seed]
	      Run the tests in random order using the specified seed.

SEE ALSO
       The  latest  version  of  the  trial  documentation  can  be  found  at	http://twistedma-
       trix.com/documents/current/core/howto/testing.html

AUTHOR
       Written by Jonathan M. Lange

REPORTING BUGS
       To report a bug, visit http://twistedmatrix.com/trac/newticket

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2003-2011 Twisted Matrix Laboratories
       This  is  free software; see the source for copying conditions.	There is NO warranty; not
       even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

					     Oct 2007					 TRIAL(1)
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