SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1) systemd-analyze SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)
systemd-analyze - Analyze system boot-up performance
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical-chain [UNIT...]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot [> file.svg]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [PATTERN...] [> file.dot]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] set-log-level [LEVEL]
systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up performance statistics and
retrieve other state and tracing information from the system and service manager.
systemd-analyze time prints the time spent in the kernel before userspace has been
reached, the time spent in the initial RAM disk (initrd) before normal system userspace
has been reached, and the time normal system userspace took to initialize. Note that these
measurements simply measure the time passed up to the point where all system services have
been spawned, but not necessarily until they fully finished initialization or the disk is
systemd-analyze blame prints a list of all running units, ordered by the time they took to
initialize. This information may be used to optimize boot-up times. Note that the output
might be misleading as the initialization of one service might be slow simply because it
waits for the initialization of another service to complete.
systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT...] prints a tree of the time-critical chain of
units (for each of the specified UNITs or for the default target otherwise). The time
after the unit is active or started is printed after the "@" character. The time the unit
takes to start is printed after the "+" character. Note that the output might be
misleading as the initialization of one service might depend on socket activation and
because of the parallel execution of units.
systemd-analyze plot prints an SVG graphic detailing which system services have been
started at what time, highlighting the time they spent on initialization.
systemd-analyze dot generates textual dependency graph description in dot format for
further processing with the GraphViz dot(1) tool. Use a command line like systemd-analyze
dot | dot -Tsvg > systemd.svg to generate a graphical dependency tree. Unless --order or
--require is passed, the generated graph will show both ordering and requirement
dependencies. Optional pattern globbing style specifications (e.g. *.target) may be given
at the end. A unit dependency is included in the graph if any of these patterns match
either the origin or destination node.
systemd-analyze dump outputs a (usually very long) human-readable serialization of the
complete server state. Its format is subject to change without notice and should not be
parsed by applications.
systemd-analyze set-log-level LEVEL changes the current log level of the systemd daemon to
LEVEL (accepts the same values as --log-level= described in systemd(1)).
If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.
The following options are understood:
Prints a short help text and exits.
Shows performance data of user sessions instead of the system manager.
When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), selects which dependencies
are shown in the dependency graph. If --order is passed, only dependencies of type
After= or Before= are shown. If --require is passed, only dependencies of type
Requires=, RequiresOverridable=, Requisite=, RequisiteOverridable=, Wants= and
Conflicts= are shown. If neither is passed, this shows dependencies of all these
When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), this selects which
relationships are shown in the dependency graph. They both require glob(7) patterns as
arguments, which are matched against left-hand and right-hand, respectively, nodes of
a relationship. Each of these can be used more than once, which means a unit name must
match one of the given values.
When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see above), also show units,
which finished timespan earlier, than the latest unit in the same level. The unit of
timespan is seconds unless specified with a different unit, e.g. "50ms".
Do not pipe output into a pager.
On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.
This plots all dependencies of any unit whose name starts with "avahi-daemon.":
$ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg > avahi.svg
$ eog avahi.svg
This plots the dependencies between all known target units:
systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' | dot -Tsvg > targets.svg
$ eog targets.svg
Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER. Setting this to an empty
string or the value "cat" is equivalent to passing --no-pager.
systemd 208 SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)