MYSQL_UPGRADE(1) MySQL Database System MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)
mysql_upgrade - check tables for MySQL upgrade
mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current
version of MySQL Server. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can
take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.
mysql_upgrade should be executed each time you upgrade MySQL. It supersedes the older
mysql_fix_privilege_tables script, which should no longer be used.
If a table is found to have a possible incompatibility, mysql_upgrade performs a table
check. If any problems are found, a table repair is attempted. If the table cannot be
repaired, see Section 2.4.4, "Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes" for manual table
On Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, you must run mysql_upgrade with
administrator privileges. You can do this by running a Command Prompt as Administrator
and running the command. Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute
You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an
upgrade. See Section 6.2, "Database Backup Methods".
Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before you upgrade your
MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See Section 2.4.1, "Upgrading MySQL", for
instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your
installation and how to handle them.
To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running, and then invoke it like this:
shell> mysql_upgrade [options]
After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any changes made to
the system tables take effect.
mysql_upgrade executes the following commands to check and repair tables and to upgrade
the system tables:
mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --auto-repair
mysql < fix_priv_tables
mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --fix-db-names --fix-table-names
Notes about the preceding commands:
o Because mysql_upgrade invokes mysqlcheck with the --all-databases option, it processes
all tables in all databases, which might take a long time to complete. Each table is
locked and therefore unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed. Check
and repair operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large tables.
o For details about what checks the --check-upgrade option entails, see the description
of the FOR UPGRADE option of the CHECK TABLE statement (see Section 188.8.131.52, "CHECK
o fix_priv_tables represents a script generated internally by mysql_upgrade that
contains SQL statements to upgrade the tables in the mysql database.
o Prior to MySQL 5.1.31, mysql_upgrade does not run the second mysqlcheck command, which
is necessary to re-encode database or table names that contain nonalphanumeric
characters. (They still appear after the upgrade with the #mysql50# prefix described
in Section 8.2.3, "Mapping of Identifiers to File Names".) If you have such database
or table names, execute the second mysqlcheck command manually after executing
All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL version number. This
ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can
tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table again.
mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file named mysql_upgrade_info in
the data directory. This is used to quickly check whether all tables have been checked for
this release so that table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the
check regardless, use the --force option.
If you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the server and client
RPMs. mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM but requires the client RPM because the
latter includes mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.6.1, "Installing MySQL from RPM Packages on
In MySQL 5.1.7, mysql_upgrade was added as a shell script and worked only for Unix
systems. As of MySQL 5.1.10, mysql_upgrade is an executable binary and is available on all
mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line
or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] option file groups. Other options are passed to
mysqlcheck. For example, it might be necessary to specify the --password[=password]
option. mysql_upgrade also supports the options for processing option files described at
Section 184.108.40.206.1, "Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling".
Display a short help message and exit.
The path to the MySQL installation directory. This option is accepted for backward
compatibility but ignored.
The path to the data directory. This option is accepted for backward compatibility but
Print some debugging information when the program exits. This option was added in
o --debug-info, -T
Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program
exits. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.21.
Ignore the mysql_upgrade_info file and force execution of mysqlcheck even if
mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the current version of MySQL.
o --tmpdir=path, -t path
The path name of the directory to use for creating temporary files. This option was
added in MySQL 5.1.25.
o --user=user_name, -u user_name
The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server. The default user name is
Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.
Cause binary logging to be enabled while mysql_upgrade runs. This is the default
behavior; to disable binary logging during the upgrade, use the inverse of this option
(that is, start the program with --skip-write-binlog).
This option was introduced in MySQL 5.1.40.
Copyright 2007-2008 MySQL AB, 2008-2010 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it only under
the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation;
version 2 of the License.
This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with the program;
if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor,
Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which may already be
installed locally and which is also available online at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. (http://www.mysql.com/).
MySQL 5.1 04/06/2010 MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)