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MAILX(1)				  User Commands 				 MAILX(1)

NAME
       mailx - send and receive Internet mail

SYNOPSIS
       mailx [-BDdEFintv~] [-s subject] [-a attachment ] [-c cc-addr] [-b bcc-addr] [-r from-
	      addr] [-h hops] [-A account] [-S variable[=value]] to-addr . . .
       mailx [-BDdeEHiInNRv~] [-T name] [-A account] [-S variable[=value]] -f [name]
       mailx [-BDdeEinNRv~] [-A account] [-S variable[=value]] [-u user]

DESCRIPTION
       Mailx is an intelligent mail processing system, which has a command syntax reminiscent  of
       ed(1)  with  lines replaced by messages.  It is based on Berkeley Mail 8.1, is intended to
       provide the functionality of the POSIX mailx command,  and  offers  extensions  for  MIME,
       IMAP,  POP3, SMTP, and S/MIME.  Mailx provides enhanced features for interactive use, such
       as caching and disconnected operation for IMAP, message threading, scoring, and filtering.
       It is also usable as a mail batch language, both for sending and receiving mail.

       The following options are accepted:

       -A name
	      Executes	an account command (see below) for name after the startup files have been
	      read.

       -a file
	      Attach the given file to the message.

       -B     Make standard input and standard output line-buffered.

       -b address
	      Send blind carbon copies to list.  List should be a comma-separated list of names.

       -c address
	      Send carbon copies to list of users.

       -D     Start in disconnected mode; see  the  description  for  the  disconnected  variable
	      option.

       -d     Enables  debugging  messages  and disables the actual delivery of messages.  Unlike
	      -v, this option is intended for mailx development only.

       -e     Just check if mail is present in the system mailbox.  If yes, return an exit status
	      of zero, else, a non-zero value.

       -E     If an outgoing message does not contain any text in its first or only message part,
	      do not send it but discard it silently, effectively setting the skipemptybody vari-
	      able  at program startup.  This is useful for sending messages from scripts started
	      by cron(8).

       -f [file]
	      Read in the contents of the user's mbox (or the  specified  file)  for  processing;
	      when  mailx  is  quit,  it writes undeleted messages back to this file.  The string
	      file is handled as described for the folder command below.

       -F     Save the message to send in a file named after the local part of the first  recipi-
	      ent's address.

       -H     Print header summaries for all messages and exit.

       -h hops
	      Invoke  sendmail with the specified hop count.  This option has no effect when SMTP
	      is used for sending mail.

       -i     Ignore tty interrupt signals.  This is particularly  useful  when  using	mailx  on
	      noisy phone lines.

       -I     Shows  the `Newsgroup:' or `Article-Id:' fields in the header summary.  Only appli-
	      cable in combination with -f.

       -n     Inhibits reading /etc/mail.rc upon startup.  This option should  be  activated  for
	      mailx  scripts  that  are invoked on more than one machine, because the contents of
	      that file may differ between them.

       -N     Inhibits the initial display of message headers when reading mail or editing a mail
	      folder.

       -q file
	      Start  the  message  with the contents of the specified file.  May be given in send
	      mode only.

       -r address
	      Sets the From address. Overrides any from  variable  specified  in  environment  or
	      startup  files.	Tilde escapes are disabled.  The -r address options are passed to
	      the mail transfer agent unless SMTP is used.  This option exists for  compatibility
	      only; it is recommended to set the from variable directly instead.

       -R     Opens any folders read-only.

       -s subject
	      Specify  subject on command line (only the first argument after the -s flag is used
	      as a subject; be careful to quote subjects containing spaces).

       -S variable[=value]
	      Sets the internal option variable and, in case of a string option, assigns value to
	      it.

       -T name
	      Writes  the  `Message-Id:'  and `Article-Id:' header fields of each message read in
	      the file name.  Implies -I.  Compressed files are  handled  as  described  for  the
	      folder command below.

       -t     The  message  to be sent is expected to contain a message header with `To:', `Cc:',
	      or `Bcc:' fields giving its recipients.  Recipients specified on the  command  line
	      are ignored.

       -u user
	      Reads the mailbox of the given user name.

       -v     Verbose mode.  The details of delivery are displayed on the user's terminal.

       -V     Print mailx's version and exit.

       -~     Enable tilde escapes even if not in interactive mode.

   Sending mail
       To send a message to one or more people, mailx can be invoked with arguments which are the
       names of people to whom the mail will be sent.  The user is then expected to type  in  his
       message,  followed by an `control-D' at the beginning of a line.  The section below Reply-
       ing to or originating mail, describes some features of mailx available to help  when  com-
       posing letters.

   Reading mail
       In  normal  usage  mailx  is given no arguments and checks the user's mail out of the post
       office, then prints out a one line header of each message found.  The current  message  is
       initially  the first message (numbered 1) and can be printed using the print command which
       can be abbreviated `p').  The user can move among the messages much as  he  moves  between
       lines  in  ed(1),  with the commands `+' and `-' moving backwards and forwards, and simple
       numbers.

   Disposing of mail
       After examining a message the user can delete `d') the message or reply `r') to it.  Dele-
       tion  causes the mailx program to forget about the message.  This is not irreversible; the
       message can be undeleted `u') by giving its number, or the mailx session can be aborted by
       giving  the exit `x') command.  Deleted messages will, however, usually disappear never to
       be seen again.

   Specifying messages
       Commands such as print and delete can be given a list of message numbers as  arguments  to
       apply  to a number of messages at once.	Thus `delete 1 2' deletes messages 1 and 2, while
       `delete 1-5' deletes messages 1 through 5.  In sorted or threaded mode (see the	sort  and
       thread  commands), `delete 1-5' deletes the messages that are located between (and includ-
       ing) messages 1 through 5 in the sorted/threaded order, as shown in  the  header  summary.
       The following special message names exist:

       :n     All new messages.

       :o     All old messages (any not in state read or new).

       :u     All unread messages.

       :d     All deleted messages (for the undelete command).

       :r     All read messages.

       :f     All `flagged' messages.

       :a     All answered messages (cf. the markanswered variable).

       :t     All messages marked as draft.

       :k     All `killed' messages.

       :j     All messages classified as junk.

       .      The current message.

       ;      The message that was previously the current message.

       ,      The  parent message of the current message, that is the message with the Message-ID
	      given in the `In-Reply-To:' field or the last entry of the `References:'	field  of
	      the current message.

       -      The  next  previous undeleted message, or the next previous deleted message for the
	      undelete command.  In sorted/threaded mode, the next previous such message  in  the
	      sorted/threaded order.

       +      The  next  undeleted message, or the next deleted message for the undelete command.
	      In sorted/threaded mode, the next such message in the sorted/threaded order.

       ^      The first undeleted message, or the first deleted message for the undelete command.
	      In sorted/threaded mode, the first such message in the sorted/threaded order.

       $      The last message.  In sorted/threaded mode, the last message in the sorted/threaded
	      order.

       &x     In threaded mode, selects the message addressed with x, where x is any  other  mes-
	      sage specification, and all messages from the thread that begins at it.  Otherwise,
	      it is identical to x.  If x is omitted, the thread beginning with the current  mes-
	      sage is selected.

       *      All messages.

       `      All messages that were included in the message list for the previous command.

       /string
	      All messages that contain string in the subject field (case ignored).  See also the
	      searchheaders variable.  If string is empty, the string from the previous  specifi-
	      cation of that type is used again.

       address
	      All  messages  from  address.   By default, this is a case-sensitive search for the
	      complete email address.  If the allnet variable is set, only the local part of  the
	      addresses  is  evaluated for the comparison.  Otherwise if the showname variable is
	      set, a case-sensitive search for the complete real name of a sender  is  performed.
	      The  IMAP-style  (from address) expression can be used instead if substring matches
	      are desired.

       (criterion)
	      All messages that satisfy the given IMAP-style SEARCH criterion.	 This  addressing
	      mode  is	available  with  all  types  of  folders; for folders not located on IMAP
	      servers, or for servers unable to execute the SEARCH command,  mailx  will  perform
	      the  search  locally.   Strings  must  be  enclosed  by  double quotes `"' in their
	      entirety if they contain white space or parentheses; within the quotes, only  back-
	      slash  `\'  is  recognized  as  an escape character.  All string searches are case-
	      insensitive.  When the description indicates that the `envelope' representation  of
	      an address field is used, this means that the search string is checked against both
	      a list constructed as

	      ("real name" "source-route" "local-part" "domain-part")

	      for each address, and the addresses without real names from the  respective  header
	      field.  Criteria can be nested using parentheses.

       (criterion1 criterion2 ... criterionN)
	      All messages that satisfy all of the given criteria.

       (or criterion1 criterion2)
	      All  messages  that  satisfy  either criterion1 or criterion2, or both.  To connect
	      more than two criteria using `or', (or) specifications  have  to	be  nested  using
	      additional parentheses, as with `(or a (or b c))'; `(or a b c)' means ((a or b) and
	      c).  For a simple `or' operation of independent  criteria  on  the  lowest  nesting
	      level,  it is possible to achieve similar effects by using three separate criteria,
	      as with `(a) (b) (c)'.

       (not criterion)
	      All messages that do not satisfy criterion.

       (bcc string)
	      All messages that contain string in  the	`envelope'  representation  of	the  Bcc:
	      field.

       (cc string)
	      All messages that contain string in the `envelope' representation of the Cc: field.

       (from string)
	      All  messages  that  contain  string  in the `envelope' representation of the From:
	      field.

       (subject string)
	      All messages that contain string in the Subject: field.

       (to string)
	      All messages that contain string in the `envelope' representation of the To: field.

       (header name string)
	      All messages that contain string in the specified Name: field.

       (body string)
	      All messages that contain string in their body.

       (text string)
	      All messages that contain string in their header or body.

       (larger size)
	      All messages that are larger than size (in bytes).

       (smaller size)
	      All messages that are smaller than size (in bytes).

       (before date)
	      All messages that were received before date; date must be  in  the  form	d[d]-mon-
	      yyyy,  where  d[d] is the day of the month as one or two digits, mon is the name of
	      the month--one of `Jan', `Feb', `Mar', `Apr', `May', `Jun',  `Jul',  `Aug',  `Sep',
	      `Oct', `Nov', or `Dec', and yyyy is the year as four digits; e.g. "30-Aug-2004".

       (on date)
	      All messages that were received on the specified date.

       (since date)
	      All messages that were received since the specified date.

       (sentbefore date)
	      All messages that were sent on the specified date.

       (senton date)
	      All messages that were sent on the specified date.

       (sentsince date)
	      All messages that were sent since the specified date.

       ()     The  same  criterion as for the previous search.	This specification cannot be used
	      as part of another criterion.  If the previous command line contained more than one
	      independent criterion, the last of those criteria is used.

       A  practical  method  to read a set of messages is to issue a from command with the search
       criteria first to check for appropriate messages, and to read each single message then  by
       typing ``' repeatedly.

   Replying to or originating mail
       The  reply  command  can be used to set up a response to a message, sending it back to the
       person who it was from.	Text the user types in then, up to an  end-of-file,  defines  the
       contents of the message.  While the user is composing a message, mailx treats lines begin-
       ning with the character `~' specially.  For instance, typing `~m' (alone on a  line)  will
       place  a copy of the current message into the response right shifting it by a tabstop (see
       indentprefix variable, below).  Other escapes will set up subject fields, add  and  delete
       recipients to the message, attach files to it and allow the user to escape to an editor to
       revise the message or to a shell to run some commands.  (These options are  given  in  the
       summary below.)

   Ending a mail processing session
       The  user  can  end a mailx session with the quit (`q') command.  Messages which have been
       examined go to the user's mbox file unless they have been deleted in which case	they  are
       discarded.  Unexamined messages go back to the post office.  (See the -f option above).

   Personal and systemwide distribution lists
       It  is  also  possible  to create a personal distribution lists so that, for instance, the
       user can send mail to `cohorts' and have it go to a group of people.  Such  lists  can  be
       defined by placing a line like

	       alias cohorts bill ozalp jkf mark kridle@ucbcory

       in the file .mailrc in the user's home directory.  The current list of such aliases can be
       displayed with the alias command in mailx.  System wide distribution lists can be  created
       by  editing  /etc/aliases,  see	aliases(5) and sendmail(8); these are kept in a different
       syntax.	In mail the user sends, personal aliases will be expanded in mail sent to  others
       so  that  they  will  be  able  to  reply  to the recipients.  System wide aliases are not
       expanded when the mail is sent, but any reply returned to the machine will have the system
       wide alias expanded as all mail goes through sendmail.

   Recipient address specifications
       When  an  address  is  used to name a recipient (in any of To, Cc, or Bcc), names of local
       mail folders and pipes to external commands can also be specified;  the	message  text  is
       then written to them.  The rules are: Any name which starts with a `|' character specifies
       a pipe, the command string following the `|' is executed and the message is  sent  to  its
       standard  input;  any  other  name  which  contains  a  `@' character is treated as a mail
       address; any other name which starts with a `+' character specifies  a  folder  name;  any
       other  name which contains a `/' character but no `!'  or `%' character before also speci-
       fies a folder name; what remains is treated as a mail  address.	 Compressed  folders  are
       handled as described for the folder command below.

   Network mail (Internet / ARPA, UUCP, Berknet)
       See  mailaddr(7)  for  a  description of network addresses.  Mailx has a number of options
       which can be set in the .mailrc file to alter its behavior; thus `set askcc'  enables  the
       askcc feature.  (These options are summarized below).

   MIME types
       For  any  outgoing attachment, mailx tries to determine the content type.  It does this by
       reading MIME type files whose lines have the following syntax:

	       type/subtype	 extension [extension . . .]

       where type/subtype are strings describing the file contents, and extension is the part  of
       a  filename starting after the last dot.  Any line not immediately beginning with an ASCII
       alphabetical character is ignored by mailx.  If there is a match with the extension of the
       file to attach, the given type/subtype pair is used.  Otherwise, or if the filename has no
       extension, the content types text/plain or application/octet-stream are	used,  the  first
       for  text  or  international  text files, the second for any file that contains formatting
       characters other than newlines and horizontal tabulators.

   Character sets
       Mailx normally detects the character set of the terminal using the  LC_CTYPE  locale  set-
       ting.   If  the locale cannot be used appropriately, the ttycharset variable should be set
       to provide an explicit value.  When reading messages, their text is converted to the  ter-
       minal  character  set  if possible.  Unprintable characters and illegal byte sequences are
       detected and replaced by Unicode substitute characters or question marks unless the print-
       all-chars is set at initialization time.

       The character set for outgoing messages is not necessarily the same as the one used on the
       terminal.  If an outgoing text message contains characters not representable in	US-ASCII,
       the  character  set being used must be declared within its header.  Permissible values can
       be declared using the sendcharsets variable, separated by commas; mailx tries each of  the
       values  in  order  and uses the first appropriate one.  If the message contains characters
       that cannot be represented in any of the given character sets, the  message  will  not  be
       sent,  and  its	text  will be saved to the `dead.letter' file.	Messages that contain NUL
       bytes are not converted.

       Outgoing attachments are converted if they are plain text.  If the  sendcharsets  variable
       contains  more than one character set name, the ~@ tilde escape will ask for the character
       sets for individual attachments if it is invoked without arguments.

       Best results are usually achieved when mailx is run in a UTF-8 locale on a  UTF-8  capable
       terminal.   In this setup, characters from various countries can be displayed, while it is
       still possible to use more simple character sets for sending to retain maximum compatibil-
       ity with older mail clients.

   Commands
       Each  command  is  typed on a line by itself, and may take arguments following the command
       word.  The command need not be typed in its entirety - the first command which matches the
       typed  prefix  is used.	For commands which take message lists as arguments, if no message
       list is given, then the next message forward which satisfies the command's requirements is
       used.   If there are no messages forward of the current message, the search proceeds back-
       wards, and if there are no good messages at all, mailx  types  `applicable  messages'  and
       aborts the command.  If the command begins with a # sign, the line is ignored.

       The arguments to commands can be quoted, using the following methods:

       o      An  argument  can  be enclosed between paired double-quotes "" or single-quotes '';
	      any white space, shell word expansion, or backslash characters  within  the  quotes
	      are treated literally as part of the argument.  A double-quote will be treated lit-
	      erally within single-quotes and vice versa. These special properties of  the  quote
	      marks occur only when they are paired at the beginning and end of the argument.

       o      A  backslash outside of the enclosing quotes is discarded and the following charac-
	      ter is treated literally as part of the argument.

       o      An unquoted backslash at the end of a command line is discarded and the  next  line
	      continues the command.

       Filenames, where expected, are subjected to the following transformations, in sequence:

       o      If  the  filename  begins  with  an  unquoted plus sign, and the folder variable is
	      defined, the plus sign will be replaced by the value of the  folder  variable  fol-
	      lowed  by  a slash. If the folder variable is unset or is set to null, the filename
	      will be unchanged.

       o      Shell word expansions are applied to the filename.  If more than a single  pathname
	      results  from  this  expansion  and  the	command  is  expecting one file, an error
	      results.

       The following commands are provided:

       -      Print out the preceding message.	If given a numeric argument n, goes to	the  n'th
	      previous message and prints it.

       ?      Prints a brief summary of commands.

       !      Executes the shell (see sh(1) and csh(1)) command which follows.

       |      A synonym for the pipe command.

       account
	      (ac)  Creates,  selects or lists an email account.  An account is formed by a group
	      of commands, primarily of those to set variables.  With two arguments, of which the
	      second  is a `{', the first argument gives an account name, and the following lines
	      create a group of commands for that account until a line containing  a  single  `}'
	      appears.	 With  one  argument,  the  previously	created group of commands for the
	      account name is executed, and a folder command is executed for the  system  mailbox
	      or  inbox  of that account.  Without arguments, the list of accounts and their con-
	      tents are printed.  As an example,

		  account myisp {
		      set folder=imaps://mylogin@imap.myisp.example
		      set record=+Sent
		      set from="myname@myisp.example (My Name)"
		      set smtp=smtp.myisp.example
		  }

	      creates an account named `myisp' which can later be selected by specifying `account
	      myisp'.

       alias  (a)  With  no  arguments, prints out all currently-defined aliases.  With one argu-
	      ment, prints out that alias.  With more than one argument, creates a new	alias  or
	      changes an old one.

       alternates
	      (alt)  The  alternates  command  is  useful  if  the  user  has accounts on several
	      machines.  It can be used to inform mailx that the listed addresses all  belong  to
	      the  invoking user.  When he replies to messages, mailx will not send a copy of the
	      message to any of the addresses listed on the alternates list.  If  the  alternates
	      command is given with no argument, the current set of alternate names is displayed.

       answered
	      (ans)  Takes a message list and marks each message as a having been answered.  This
	      mark has no technical meaning in the mail system; it just  causes  messages  to  be
	      marked in the header summary, and makes them specially addressable.

       cache  Only applicable to cached IMAP mailboxes; takes a message list and reads the speci-
	      fied messages into the IMAP cache.

       call   Calls a macro (see the define command).

       cd     Same as chdir.

       certsave
	      Only applicable to S/MIME signed messages.  Takes a message list and  a  file  name
	      and  saves  the  certificates  contained within the message signatures to the named
	      file in both human-readable and PEM format.  The certificates can later be used  to
	      send  encrypted messages to the messages' originators by setting the smime-encrypt-
	      user@host variable.

       chdir  (ch) Changes the user's working directory to  that  specified,  if  given.   If  no
	      directory is given, then changes to the user's login directory.

       classify
	      (cl)  Takes  a  list of messages and examines their contents for characteristics of
	      junk mail using Bayesian filtering.  Messages considered to be junk are then marked
	      as such.	The junk mail database is not changed.

       collapse
	      (coll)  Only  applicable	to  threaded  mode.   Takes  a message list and makes all
	      replies to these messages invisible in header summaries, unless they are	in  state
	      `new'.

       connect
	      (conn)  If operating in disconnected mode on an IMAP mailbox, switch to online mode
	      and connect to the mail  server  while  retaining  the  mailbox  status.	 See  the
	      description of the disconnected variable for more information.

       copy   (c)  The	copy  command does the same thing that save does, except that it does not
	      mark the messages it is used on for deletion when the user quits.  Compressed files
	      and IMAP mailboxes are handled as described for the folder command.

       Copy   (C) Similar to copy, but saves the messages in a file named after the local part of
	      the sender address of the first message.

       decrypt
	      (dec) For unencrypted messages, this command is identical to copy.  Encrypted  mes-
	      sages are first decrypted, if possible, and then copied.

       Decrypt
	      (Dec)  Similar  to  decrypt, but saves the messages in a file named after the local
	      part of the sender address of the first message.

       define (def) Defines a macro.  A macro definition is a sequence of commands in the follow-
	      ing form:

		  define name {
		      command1
		      command2
		      ...
		      commandN
		  }

	      Once  defined,  a macro can be explicitly invoked using the call command, or can be
	      implicitly invoked by setting the folder-hook or folder-hook-fullname variables.

       defines
	      Prints the currently defined macros including their contents.

       delete (d) Takes a list of messages as argument and marks them all  as  deleted.   Deleted
	      messages	will not be saved in mbox, nor will they be available for most other com-
	      mands.

       discard
	      Same as ignore.

       disconnect
	      (disco) If operating in online mode on an IMAP mailbox, switch to disconnected mode
	      while  retaining the mailbox status.  See the description of the disconnected vari-
	      able for more information.  A list of messages may optionally be given as argument;
	      the  respective  messages  are  then  read  into the cache before the connection is
	      closed.  Thus `disco *' makes the entire current mailbox available for disconnected
	      use.

       dp or dt
	      Deletes  the current message and prints the next message.  If there is no next mes-
	      sage, mailx says `at EOF'.

       draft  Takes a message list and marks each message as a draft.  This mark has no technical
	      meaning in the mail system; it just causes messages to be marked in the header sum-
	      mary, and makes them specially addressable.

       echo   Echoes its arguments, resolving special names as documented for the folder command.
	      The  escape  sequences  `\a',  `\b',  `\c', `\f', `\n', `\r', `\t', `\v', `\\', and
	      `\0num' are interpreted as with the echo(1) command.

       edit   (e) Takes a list of messages and points the text editor at each one in turn.  Modi-
	      fied contents are discarded unless the writebackedited variable is set.

       else   Marks  the end of the then-part of an if statement and the beginning of the part to
	      take effect if the condition of the if statement is false.

       endif  Marks the end of an if statement.

       exit   (ex or x) Effects an immediate return to the Shell  without  modifying  the  user's
	      system mailbox, his mbox file, or his edit file in -f.

       file   (fi) The same as folder.

       flag   (fl)  Takes  a  message list and marks the messages as `flagged' for urgent/special
	      attention.  This mark has no technical meaning in the mail system; it  just  causes
	      messages to be highlighted in the header summary, and makes them specially address-
	      able.

       folders
	      With no arguments, list the names of the folders in the folder directory.  With  an
	      existing folder as an argument, lists then names of folders below the named folder;
	      e.g. the command `folders @' lists the folders on the base  level  of  the  current
	      IMAP server.  See also the imap-list-depth variable.

       folder (fold)  The  folder  command  switches to a new mail file or folder.  With no argu-
	      ments, it tells the user which file he is currently reading.   If  an  argument  is
	      given,  it will write out changes (such as deletions) the user has made in the cur-
	      rent file and read in the new file.  Some special conventions  are  recognized  for
	      the  name.   # means the previous file, % means the invoking user's system mailbox,
	      %user means user's system mailbox, & means the invoking user's mbox file, and +file
	      means  a	file  in  the  folder directory.  %:filespec expands to the same value as
	      filespec, but the file is handled as a system mailbox e. g. by the  mbox	and  save
	      commands.   If  the  name matches one of the strings defined with the shortcut com-
	      mand, it is replaced by its long form and expanded.  If the name ends with  .gz  or
	      .bz2,  it  is  treated as compressed with gzip(1) or bzip2(1), respectively.  Like-
	      wise, if name does not exist, but either name.gz or name.bz2 exists, the compressed
	      file  is used.  If name refers to a directory with the subdirectories `tmp', `new',
	      and `cur', it is treated as a folder in maildir format.  A name of the form

		     protocol://[user@]host[:port][/file]

	      is taken as an Internet mailbox specification.  The supported  protocols	are  cur-
	      rently  imap  (IMAP  v4r1),  imaps (IMAP with SSL/TLS encryption), pop3 (POP3), and
	      pop3s (POP3 with SSL/TLS encryption).  If user contains special characters, in par-
	      ticular  `/'  or `%', they must be escaped in URL notation, as `%2F' or `%25'.  The
	      optional file part applies to IMAP only; if it is omitted, the default  `INBOX'  is
	      used.   If mailx is connected to an IMAP server, a name of the form @mailbox refers
	      to the mailbox on that server.  If the `folder' variable refers to an IMAP account,
	      the special name `%' selects the `INBOX' on that account.

       Followup
	      (F)  Similar to Respond, but saves the message in a file named after the local part
	      of the first recipient's address.

       followup
	      (fo) Similar to respond, but saves the message in a file named after the local part
	      of the first recipient's address.

       followupall
	      Similar  to  followup,  but  responds to all recipients regardless of the flipr and
	      Replyall variables.

       followupsender
	      Similar to Followup, but responds to the sender only regardless of  the  flipr  and
	      Replyall variables.

       forward
	      (fwd)  Takes  a  message and the address of a recipient and forwards the message to
	      him.  The text of the original message is included in the new one, with  the  value
	      of  the  fwdheading  variable printed before.  The fwdignore and fwdretain commands
	      specify which header fields are included in the new message.  Only the  first  part
	      of a multipart message is included unless the forward-as-attachment option is set.

       Forward
	      (Fwd)  Similar  to  forward,  but saves the message in a file named after the local
	      part of the recipient's address.

       from   (f) Takes a list of messages and prints their message headers,  piped  through  the
	      pager if the output does not fit on the screen.

       fwdignore
	      Specifies  which	header	fields	are to be ignored with the forward command.  This
	      command has no effect when the forward-as-attachment option is set.

       fwdretain
	      Specifies which header  fields  are  to  be  retained  with  the	forward  command.
	      fwdretain  overrides  fwdignore.	 This  command has no effect when the forward-as-
	      attachment option is set.

       good   (go) Takes a list of messages and marks all of them as not being junk  mail.   Data
	      from these messages is then inserted into the junk mail database for future classi-
	      fication.

       headers
	      (h) Lists the current range of headers, which is an 18-message  group.   If  a  `+'
	      argument is given, then the next 18-message group is printed, and if a `-' argument
	      is given, the previous 18-message group is printed.

       help   A synonym for ?.

       hold   (ho, also preserve) Takes a message list and marks each message therein to be saved
	      in the user's system mailbox instead of in mbox.	Does not override the delete com-
	      mand.  mailx deviates from the POSIX standard with this command, as a  `next'  com-
	      mand issued after `hold' will display the following message, not the current one.

       if     Commands	in  mailx's  startup  files  can  be  executed conditionally depending on
	      whether the user is sending or receiving mail with the if command.  For example:

		      if receive
			      commands . . .
		      endif

	      An else form is also available:

		      if receive
			      commands . . .
		      else
			      commands . . .
		      endif

	      Note that the only allowed conditions are receive, send, and term (execute  command
	      if standard input is a tty).

       ignore Add  the	list  of  header  fields named to the ignored list.  Header fields in the
	      ignore list are not printed on the terminal when a message is printed.   This  com-
	      mand is very handy for suppression of certain machine-generated header fields.  The
	      Type and Print commands can be used to print a message in its  entirety,	including
	      ignored  fields.	If ignore is executed with no arguments, it lists the current set
	      of ignored fields.

       imap   Sends command strings directly to the current IMAP server.  Mailx  operates  always
	      in  IMAP selected state on the current mailbox; commands that change this will pro-
	      duce undesirable results and should be avoided.  Useful IMAP commands are:

	      create Takes the name of an IMAP mailbox as an argument and creates it.

	      getquotaroot
		     Takes the name of an IMAP mailbox as an argument and prints the quotas  that
		     apply to the mailbox.  Not all IMAP servers support this command.

	      namespace
		     Takes  no	arguments  and	prints	the Personal Namespaces, the Other User's
		     Namespaces, and the Shared Namespaces.  Each namespace type  is  printed  in
		     parentheses; if there are multiple namespaces of the same type, inner paren-
		     theses separate them.  For each namespace, a namespace prefix and a  hierar-
		     chy separator is listed.  Not all IMAP servers support this command.

       inc    Same as newmail.

       junk   (j)  Takes  a list of messages and marks all of them as junk mail.  Data from these
	      messages is then inserted into the junk mail database for future classification.

       kill   (k) Takes a list of messages and `kills' them.  Killed messages are not printed  in
	      header  summaries, and are ignored by the next command.  The kill command also sets
	      the score of the messages to negative infinity, so that subsequent  score  commands
	      will not unkill them again.  Killing is only effective for the current session on a
	      folder; when it is quit, all messages are automatically unkilled.

       list   Prints the names of all available commands.

       Mail   (M) Similar to mail, but saves the message in a file named after the local part  of
	      the first recipient's address.

       mail   (m)  Takes  as  argument login names and distribution group names and sends mail to
	      those people.

       mbox   Indicate that a list of messages be sent to mbox in the user's home directory  when
	      mailx  is  quit.	This is the default action for messages if unless the hold option
	      is set.  mailx deviates from the POSIX standard with this command, as a `next' com-
	      mand issued after `mbox' will display the following message, not the current one.

       move   (mv)  Acts  like copy, but marks the messages for deletion if they were transferred
	      successfully.

       Move   (Mv) Similar to move, but moves the messages to a file named after the  local  part
	      of the sender address of the first message.

       newmail
	      Checks  for  new	mail in the current folder without committing any changes before.
	      If new mail is present, a message is printed.  If the header variable is	set,  the
	      headers of each new message are also printed.

       next   (n) like + or CR) Goes to the next message in sequence and types it.  With an argu-
	      ment list, types the next matching message.

       New    Same as unread.

       new    Same as unread.

       online Same as connect.

       noop   If the current folder is located on an IMAP or POP3 server, a NOOP command is sent.
	      Otherwise, no operation is performed.

       Pipe   (Pi)  Like  pipe	but also pipes ignored header fields and all parts of MIME multi-
	      part/alternative messages.

       pipe   (pi) Takes a message list and a shell command and pipes the  messages  through  the
	      command.	 Without  an  argument,  the current message is piped through the command
	      given by the cmd variable.  If the  page variable is set, every message is followed
	      by a formfeed character.

       preserve
	      (pre) A synonym for hold.

       Print  (P) Like print but also prints out ignored header fields and all parts of MIME mul-
	      tipart/alternative messages.  See also print, ignore, and retain.

       print  (p) Takes a message list and types out each message on the user's terminal.  If the
	      message  is  a  MIME  multipart message, all parts with a content type of `text' or
	      `message' are shown, the other are hidden except for their headers.   Messages  are
	      decrypted and converted to the terminal character set if necessary.

       probability
	      (prob)  For  each  word  given  as argument, the contents of its junk mail database
	      entry are printed.

       quit   (q) Terminates the session, saving all undeleted, unsaved messages  in  the  user's
	      mbox  file in his login directory, preserving all messages marked with hold or pre-
	      serve or never referenced in his system mailbox, and removing  all  other  messages
	      from  his  system mailbox.  If new mail has arrived during the session, the message
	      `You have new mail' is given.  If given while editing a mailbox file  with  the  -f
	      flag,  then  the edit file is rewritten.	A return to the Shell is effected, unless
	      the rewrite of edit file fails, in which case the user can  escape  with	the  exit
	      command.

       redirect
	      (red) Same as resend.

       Redirect
	      (Red) Same as Resend.

       remove (rem) Removes the named folders.	The user is asked for confirmation in interactive
	      mode.

       rename (ren) Takes the name of an existing folder and the name  for  the  new  folder  and
	      renames  the  first  to  the second one.	Both folders must be of the same type and
	      must be located on the current server for IMAP.

       Reply  (R) Reply to originator.	Does not reply to other recipients of the  original  mes-
	      sage.

       reply  (r)  Takes  a  message  list and sends mail to the sender and all recipients of the
	      specified message.  The default message must not be deleted.

       replyall
	      Similar to reply, but responds to  all  recipients  regardless  of  the  flipr  and
	      Replyall variables.

       replysender
	      Similar  to  Reply,  but	responds  to  the sender only regardless of the flipr and
	      Replyall variables.

       Resend Like resend, but does not add any header lines.  This is not  a  way  to	hide  the
	      sender's identity, but useful for sending a message again to the same recipients.

       resend Takes  a list of messages and a user name and sends each message to the named user.
	      `Resent-From:' and related header fields are prepended to the new copy of the  mes-
	      sage.

       Respond
	      Same as Reply.

       respond
	      Same as reply.

       respondall
	      Same as replyall.

       respondsender
	      Same as replysender.

       retain Add  the	list of header fields named to the retained list.  Only the header fields
	      in the retain list are shown on the terminal when a message is printed.  All  other
	      header  fields  are suppressed.  The Type and Print commands can be used to print a
	      message in its entirety.	If retain is executed with no  arguments,  it  lists  the
	      current set of retained fields.

       Save   (S) Similar to save, but saves the messages in a file named after the local part of
	      the sender of the first message instead of taking a filename argument.

       save   (s) Takes a message list and a filename and appends each message in turn to the end
	      of  the  file.   If  no  filename is given, the mbox file is used.  The filename in
	      quotes, followed by the line count and character count is echoed on the user's ter-
	      minal.   If  editing  a system mailbox, the messages are marked for deletion.  Com-
	      pressed files and IMAP mailboxes are handled as described for the -f  command  line
	      option above.

       savediscard
	      Same as saveignore.

       saveignore
	      Saveignore  is to save what ignore is to print and type.	Header fields thus marked
	      are filtered out when saving a message by save  or  when	automatically  saving  to
	      mbox.   This  command  should  only be applied to header fields that do not contain
	      information needed to decode the message, as MIME content  fields  do.   If  saving
	      messages	on  an IMAP account, ignoring fields makes it impossible to copy the data
	      directly on the server, thus operation usually becomes much slower.

       saveretain
	      Saveretain is to save what retain is to print and type.  Header fields thus  marked
	      are  the	only  ones saved with a message when saving by save or when automatically
	      saving to mbox.  Saveretain overrides saveignore.   The  use  of	this  command  is
	      strongly discouraged since it may strip header fields that are needed to decode the
	      message correctly.

       score  (sc) Takes a message list and a floating point number and adds the  number  to  the
	      score  of  each  given  message.	 All  messages	start at score 0 when a folder is
	      opened.  When the score of a message becomes negative,  it  is  `killed'	with  the
	      effects  described  for  the  kill command; otherwise if it was negative before and
	      becomes positive, it is `unkilled'.  Scores only	refer  to  the	currently  opened
	      instance of a folder.

       set    (se)  With no arguments, prints all variable values, piped through the pager if the
	      output does not fit on the screen.  Otherwise, sets option.  Arguments are  of  the
	      form  option=value  (no space before or after =) or option.  Quotation marks may be
	      placed around any part of the assignment statement to quote blanks  or  tabs,  i.e.
	      `set  indentprefix="->"'.   If  an argument begins with no, as in `set nosave', the
	      effect is the same as invoking the unset command with the  remaining  part  of  the
	      variable (`unset save').

       seen   Takes a message list and marks all messages as having been read.

       shell  (sh) Invokes an interactive version of the shell.

       shortcut
	      Defines  a  shortcut name and its string for expansion, as described for the folder
	      command.	With no arguments, a list of defined shortcuts is printed.

       show   (Sh) Like print, but performs neither MIME decoding nor decryption so that the  raw
	      message text is shown.

       size   Takes a message list and prints out the size in characters of each message.

       sort   Create  a  sorted representation of the current folder, and change the next command
	      and the addressing modes such that they refer to	messages  in  the  sorted  order.
	      Message  numbers are the same as in regular mode.  If the header variable is set, a
	      header summary in the new order is also printed.	Possible sorting criteria are:

	      date   Sort the messages by their `Date:' field, that is	by  the  time  they  were
		     sent.

	      from   Sort messages by the value of their `From:' field, that is by the address of
		     the sender.  If the showname variable is set, the	sender's  real	name  (if
		     any) is used.

	      size   Sort the messages by their size.

	      score  Sort the messages by their score.

	      status Sort the messages by their message status (new, read, old, etc.).

	      subject
		     Sort the messages by their subject.

	      thread Create a threaded order, as with the thread command.

	      to     Sort  messages  by the value of their `To:' field, that is by the address of
		     the recipient.  If the showname variable is set, the recipient's  real  name
		     (if any) is used.

	      If no argument is given, the current sorting criterion is printed.

       source The source command reads commands from a file.

       thread (th)  Create  a threaded representation of the current folder, i.e. indent messages
	      that are replies to other messages in the header display, and change the next  com-
	      mand  and  the  addressing  modes  such that they refer to messages in the threaded
	      order.  Message numbers are the same as in unthreaded mode.  If the header variable
	      is set, a header summary in threaded order is also printed.

       top    Takes  a	message  list  and prints the top few lines of each.  The number of lines
	      printed is controlled by the variable toplines and defaults to five.

       touch  Takes a message list and marks the messages for saving in  the  mbox  file.   mailx
	      deviates	from  the  POSIX  standard  with this command, as a `next' command issued
	      after `mbox' will display the following message, not the current one.

       Type   (T) Identical to the Print command.

       type   (t) A synonym for print.

       unalias
	      Takes a list of names defined by alias commands and discards the remembered  groups
	      of users.  The group names no longer have any significance.

       unanswered
	      Takes a message list and marks each message as not having been answered.

       uncollapse
	      (unc) Only applicable to threaded mode.  Takes a message list and makes the message
	      and all replies to it visible in header summaries again.	When  a  message  becomes
	      the  current  message,  it is automatically made visible.  Also when a message with
	      collapsed replies is printed, all of these are automatically uncollapsed.

       undef  Undefines each of the named macros.  It is not an error to use a name that does not
	      belong to one of the currently defined macros.

       undelete
	      (u) Takes a message list and marks each message as not being deleted.

       undraft
	      Takes a message list and marks each message as a draft.

       unflag Takes a message list and marks each message as not being `flagged'.

       unfwdignore
	      Removes the header field names from the list of ignored fields for the forward com-
	      mand.

       unfwdretain
	      Removes the header field names from the list of retained	fields	for  the  forward
	      command.

       ungood Takes  a	message  list and undoes the effect of a good command that was previously
	      applied on exactly these messages.

       unignore
	      Removes the header field names from the list of ignored fields.

       unjunk Takes a message list and undoes the effect of a junk command  that  was  previously
	      applied on exactly these messages.

       unkill Takes  a	message list and `unkills' each message.  Also sets the score of the mes-
	      sages to 0.

       Unread Same as unread.

       unread (U) Takes a message list and marks each message as not having been read.

       unretain
	      Removes the header field names from the list of retained fields.

       unsaveignore
	      Removes the header field names from the list of ignored fields for saving.

       unsaveretain
	      Removes the header field names from the list of retained fields for saving.

       unset  Takes a list of option names and discards their remembered values; the  inverse  of
	      set.

       unshortcut
	      Deletes the shortcut names given as arguments.

       unsort Disable  sorted or threaded mode (see the sort and thread commands), return to nor-
	      mal message order and, if the header variable is set, print a header summary.

       unthread
	      (unth) Same as unsort.

       verify (verif) Takes a message list and verifies each message.  If a  message  is  not  an
	      S/MIME  signed  message,	verification  will fail for it.  The verification process
	      checks if the message was signed using a valid certificate, if the message sender's
	      email  address  matches  one  of those contained within the certificate, and if the
	      message content has been altered.

       visual (v) Takes a message list and invokes the display editor on each message.	 Modified
	      contents are discarded unless the writebackedited variable is set.

       write  (w) For conventional messages, the body without all headers is written.  The output
	      is decrypted and converted to its native format, if necessary.  If the output  file
	      exists,  the text is appended.--If a message is in MIME multipart format, its first
	      part is written to the specified file as for conventional messages, and the user is
	      asked for a filename to save each other part; if the contents of the first part are
	      not to be saved, `write /dev/null' can be used.	For  the  second  and  subsequent
	      parts, if the filename given starts with a `|' character, the part is piped through
	      the remainder of the filename interpreted as a shell command.   In  non-interactive
	      mode,  only  the	parts  of the multipart message that have a filename given in the
	      part header are written, the other are discarded.  The original  message	is  never
	      marked  for deletion in the originating mail folder.  For attachments, the contents
	      of the destination file are overwritten if the file previously existed.  No special
	      handling of compressed files is performed.

       xit    (x) A synonym for exit.

       z      Mailx  presents  message	headers in windowfuls as described under the headers com-
	      mand.  The z command scrolls to the next window of messages.   If  an  argument  is
	      given,  it  specifies the window to use.	A number prefixed by `+' or `-' indicates
	      that the window is calculated in relation to the current position.  A number  with-
	      out  a  prefix  specifies an absolute window number, and a `$' lets mailx scroll to
	      the last window of messages.

       Z      Similar to z, but scrolls to the next or previous window that contains at least one
	      new or `flagged' message.

   Tilde escapes
       Here  is a summary of the tilde escapes, which are used when composing messages to perform
       special functions.  Tilde escapes are only recognized at the beginning of lines.  The name
       `tilde  escape'	is somewhat of a misnomer since the actual escape character can be set by
       the option escape.

       ~!command
	      Execute the indicated shell command, then return to the message.

       ~.     Same effect as typing the end-of-file character.

       ~<filename
	      Identical to ~r.

       ~<!command
	      Command is executed using the shell.  Its standard output is inserted into the mes-
	      sage.

       ~@ [filename . . . ]
	      With no arguments, edit the attachment list.  First, the user can edit all existing
	      attachment data.	If an attachment's file name is left empty,  that  attachment  is
	      deleted  from the list.  When the end of the attachment list is reached, mailx will
	      ask for further attachments, until an empty file name is given.  If filename  argu-
	      ments  are  specified,  all of them are appended to the end of the attachment list.
	      Filenames which contain white space can only be specified with the first method (no
	      filename arguments).

       ~A     Inserts  the string contained in the Sign variable (same as `~i Sign').  The escape
	      sequences `\t' (tabulator) and `\n' (newline) are understood.

       ~a     Inserts the string contained in the sign variable (same as `~i sign').  The  escape
	      sequences `\t' (tabulator) and `\n' (newline) are understood.

       ~bname . . .
	      Add the given names to the list of carbon copy recipients but do not make the names
	      visible in the Cc: line (`blind' carbon copy).

       ~cname . . .
	      Add the given names to the list of carbon copy recipients.

       ~d     Read the file `dead.letter' from the user's home directory into the message.

       ~e     Invoke the text editor on the message collected so far.  After the editing  session
	      is finished, the user may continue appending text to the message.

       ~fmessages
	      Read the named messages into the message being sent.  If no messages are specified,
	      read in the current message.  Message  headers  currently  being	ignored  (by  the
	      ignore  or retain command) are not included.  For MIME multipart messages, only the
	      first printable part is included.

       ~Fmessages
	      Identical to ~f, except all message headers and all MIME parts are included.

       ~h     Edit the message header fields `To:', `Cc:', `Bcc:', and `Subject:' by typing  each
	      one  in turn and allowing the user to append text to the end or modify the field by
	      using the current terminal erase and kill characters.

       ~H     Edit the message header fields `From:', `Reply-To:', `Sender:', and `Organization:'
	      in the same manner as described for ~h.  The default values for these fields origi-
	      nate from the from, replyto, and ORGANIZATION variables.	If this tilde command has
	      been used, changing the variables has no effect on the current message anymore.

       ~ivariable
	      Insert  the value of the specified variable into the message adding a newline char-
	      acter at the end.  If the variable is unset or empty,  the  message  remains  unal-
	      tered.  The escape sequences `\t' (tabulator) and `\n' (newline) are understood.

       ~mmessages
	      Read  the  named	messages into the message being sent, indented by a tab or by the
	      value of indentprefix.  If no messages are specified,  read  the	current  message.
	      Message  headers	currently being ignored (by the ignore or retain command) are not
	      included.  For MIME multipart messages, only the first printable part is included.

       ~Mmessages
	      Identical to ~m, except all message headers and all MIME parts are included.

       ~p     Print out the message collected so far, prefaced by the message header  fields  and
	      followed	by  the  attachment list, if any.  If the message text is longer than the
	      screen size, it is piped through the pager.

       ~q     Abort the message being sent, copying the message to `dead.letter'  in  the  user's
	      home directory if save is set.

       ~rfilename
	      Read the named file into the message.

       ~sstring
	      Cause the named string to become the current subject field.

       ~tname . . .
	      Add the given names to the direct recipient list.

       ~v     Invoke  an alternate editor (defined by the VISUAL option) on the message collected
	      so far.  Usually, the alternate editor will be a screen editor.  After  the  editor
	      is quit, the user may resume appending text to the end of the message.

       ~wfilename
	      Write the message onto the named file.  If the file exists, the message is appended
	      to it.

       ~x     Same as ~q, except that the message is not saved to the `dead.letter' file.

       ~|command
	      Pipe the message through the command as a filter.  If the command gives  no  output
	      or  terminates  abnormally,  retain  the original text of the message.  The command
	      fmt(1) is often used as command to rejustify the message.

       ~:mailx-command
	      Execute the given mailx command.	Not all commands, however, are allowed.

       ~_mailx-command
	      Identical to ~:.

       ~~string
	      Insert the string of text in the message prefaced by a single  ~.   If  the  escape
	      character  has  been changed, that character must be doubled in order to send it at
	      the beginning of a line.

   Variable options
       Options are controlled via set and unset commands, see their entries for a syntax descrip-
       tion.   An option is also set if it is passed to mailx as part of the environment (this is
       not restricted to specific variables as in the  POSIX  standard).   A  value  given  in	a
       startup	file  overrides  a  value  imported  from the environment.  Options may be either
       binary, in which case it is only significant to see  whether  they  are	set  or  not;  or
       string, in which case the actual value is of interest.

   Binary options
       The binary options include the following:

       allnet Causes only the local part to be evaluated when comparing addresses.

       append Causes  messages	saved  in  mbox  to be appended to the end rather than prepended.
	      This should always be set.

       ask or asksub
	      Causes mailx to prompt for the subject of each message sent.  If the user  responds
	      with simply a newline, no subject field will be sent.

       askatend
	      Causes  the prompts for `Cc:' and `Bcc:' lists to appear after the message has been
	      edited.

       askattach
	      If set, mailx asks for files to attach at the end of each message.  Responding with
	      a newline indicates not to include an attachment.

       askcc  Causes the user to be prompted for additional carbon copy recipients (at the end of
	      each message if askatend or bsdcompat is set).  Responding with a newline indicates
	      the user's satisfaction with the current list.

       askbcc Causes  the user to be prompted for additional blind carbon copy recipients (at the
	      end of each message if askatend or bsdcompat is set).  Responding  with  a  newline
	      indicates the user's satisfaction with the current list.

       asksign
	      Causes  the  user  to be prompted if the message is to be signed at the end of each
	      message.	The smime-sign variable is ignored when this variable is set.

       autocollapse
	      Causes threads to be collapsed automatically when threaded mode is entered (see the
	      collapse command).

       autoinc
	      Same as newmail.

       autoprint
	      Causes  the  delete command to behave like dp - thus, after deleting a message, the
	      next one will be typed automatically.

       autothread
	      Causes threaded mode (see the thread command) to be entered  automatically  when	a
	      folder is opened.

       bang   Enables  the substitution of `!'	by the contents of the last command line in shell
	      escapes.

       bsdannounce
	      Causes automatic display of a header summary after executing a folder command.

       bsdcompat
	      Sets some cosmetical features to traditional BSD style; has the same affect as set-
	      ting  `askatend'	and  all  other  variables prefixed with `bsd', setting prompt to
	      `& ', and changing the default pager to more.

       bsdflags
	      Changes the letters printed in the first column of a header summary to  traditional
	      BSD style.

       bsdheadline
	      Changes the display of columns in a header summary to traditional BSD style.

       bsdmsgs
	      Changes some informational messages to traditional BSD style.

       bsdorder
	      Causes  the `Subject:' field to appear immediately after the `To:' field in message
	      headers and with the ~h tilde command.

       bsdset Changes the output format of the set command to traditional BSD style.

       chained-junk-tokens
	      Normally, the Bayesian junk mail filter bases its classifications  on  single  word
	      tokens extracted from messages.  If this option is set, adjacent words are combined
	      to pairs, which are then used as additional  tokens.   This  usually  improves  the
	      accuracy of the filter, but also increases the junk mail database five- to tenfold.

       datefield
	      The  date  in  a header summary is normally the date of the mailbox `From ' line of
	      the message.  If this variable is set, the date as  given  in  the  `Date:'  header
	      field is used, converted to local time.

       debug  Prints  debugging  messages  and	disables the actual delivery of messages.  Unlike
	      verbose, this option is intended for mailx development only.

       disconnected
	      When an IMAP mailbox is selected and this variable is set,  no  connection  to  the
	      server  is  initiated.   Instead,  data is obtained from the local cache (see imap-
	      cache).  Mailboxes that are not present in the cache and messages that have not yet
	      entirely been fetched from the server are not available; to fetch all messages in a
	      mailbox at once, the command `copy * /dev/null' can be used while still  in  online
	      mode.   Changes that are made to IMAP mailboxes in disconnected mode are queued and
	      committed later when a connection to that server is opened in  online  mode.   This
	      procedure  is  not  completely reliable since it cannot be guaranteed that the IMAP
	      unique identifiers (UIDs) on the server still match the ones in the cache  at  that
	      time.  Data is saved to `dead.letter' when this problem occurs.

       disconnected-user@host
	      The  specified account is handled as described for the disconnected variable above,
	      but other accounts are not affected.

       dot    The binary option dot causes mailx to interpret a period alone on  a  line  as  the
	      terminator of a message the user is sending.

       editheaders
	      When  a  message	is  edited  while  being  composed, its header is included in the
	      editable text.  `To:', `Cc:', `Bcc:', `Subject:', `From:', `Reply-To:',  `Sender:',
	      and  'Organization:'  fields  are  accepted  within  the	header,  other fields are
	      ignored.

       emptybox
	      If set, an empty mailbox file is not removed.  This may improve the  interoperabil-
	      ity with other mail user agents when using a common folder directory.

       emptystart
	      If the mailbox is empty, mailx normally prints `No mail for user' and exits immedi-
	      ately.  If this option is set, mailx starts even with an empty mailbox.

       flipr  Exchanges the Respond with the respond commands and vice-versa.

       forward-as-attachment
	      Original messages are normally sent as inline text with the  forward  command,  and
	      only the first part of a multipart message is included.  With this option, messages
	      are sent as MIME message/rfc822 attachments, and all of their parts  are	included.
	      The  fwdignore  and  fwdretain  options  are ignored when the forward-as-attachment
	      option is set.

       fullnames
	      When replying to a message, mailx normally  removes  the	comment  parts	of  email
	      addresses,  which  by convention contain the full names of the recipients.  If this
	      variable is set, such stripping is not performed, and comments are retained.

       header Causes the header summary to be written at startup and after commands  that  affect
	      the  number  of messages or the order of messages in the current folder; enabled by
	      default.

       hold   This option is used to hold messages in the system mailbox by default.

       ignore Causes interrupt signals from the terminal to be ignored and echoed as @'s.

       ignoreeof
	      An option related to dot is ignoreeof which makes mailx refuse to accept a control-
	      d as the end of a message.  Ignoreeof also applies to mailx command mode.

       imap-use-starttls
	      Causes  mailx  to  issue	a  STARTTLS  command  to make an unencrypted IMAP session
	      SSL/TLS encrypted.  This functionality is not supported by all servers, and is  not
	      used if the session is already encrypted by the IMAPS method.

       imap-use-starttls-user@host
	      Activates imap-use-starttls for a specific account.

       keep   This  option causes mailx to truncate the user's system mailbox instead of deleting
	      it when it is empty.  This should always be set, since it prevents malicious  users
	      from creating fake mail folders in a world-writable spool directory.

       keepsave
	      When  a  message is saved, it is usually discarded from the originating folder when
	      mailx is quit.  Setting this option causes all saved message to be retained.

       markanswered
	      When a message is replied to and this variable is set, it is marked as having  been
	      answered.   This	mark  has no technical meaning in the mail system; it just causes
	      messages to be marked in the header summary, and makes them specially addressable.

       metoo  Usually, when a group is expanded that contains the sender, the sender  is  removed
	      from  the  expansion.   Setting this option causes the sender to be included in the
	      group.

       newmail
	      Checks for new mail in the current folder each time the  prompt  is  printed.   For
	      IMAP mailboxes, the server is then polled for new mail, which may result in delayed
	      operation if the connection to the server is slow.  A maildir folder  must  be  re-
	      scanned to determine if new mail has arrived.

	      If this variable is set to the special value nopoll, an IMAP server is not actively
	      asked for new mail, but new mail may still be detected and announced with any other
	      IMAP command that is sent to the server.	A maildir folder is not scanned then.

	      In  any  case, the IMAP server may send notifications about messages that have been
	      deleted on the server by another process or client.  In this case, `Expunged n mes-
	      sages'  is  printed  regardless  of  this  variable,  and  message numbers may have
	      changed.

       noheader
	      Setting the option noheader is the same as giving the -N flag on the command line.

       outfolder
	      Causes the filename given in the record variable and the sender-based filenames for
	      the Copy and Save commands to be interpreted relative to the directory given in the
	      folder variable rather than to the current directory unless it is an absolute path-
	      name.

       page   If  set, each message the pipe command prints out is followed by a formfeed charac-
	      ter.

       piperaw
	      Send messages to the pipe command without performing MIME and character set conver-
	      sions.

       pop3-use-apop
	      If  this	variable is set, the APOP authentication method is used when a connection
	      to a POP3 server is initiated.   The  advantage  of  this  method  over  the  usual
	      USER/PASS authentication is that the password is not sent over the network in clear
	      text.  The connection fails if the server does not support the APOP command.

       pop3-use-apop-user@host
	      Enables pop3-use-apop for a specific account.

       pop3-use-starttls
	      Causes mailx to issue a STLS command to make an unencrypted  POP3  session  SSL/TLS
	      encrypted.   This functionality is not supported by all servers, and is not used if
	      the session is already encrypted by the POP3S method.

       pop3-use-starttls-user@host
	      Activates pop3-use-starttls for a specific account.

       print-all-chars
	      This option causes all characters to be considered printable.  It is only effective
	      if given in a startup file.  With this option set, some character sequences in mes-
	      sages may put the user's terminal in an undefined state  when  printed;  it  should
	      only be used as a last resort if no working system locale can be found.

       print-alternatives
	      When a MIME message part of type multipart/alternative is displayed and it contains
	      a subpart of type text/plain, other parts are  normally  discarded.   Setting  this
	      variable	causes	all subparts to be displayed, just as if the surrounding part was
	      of type multipart/mixed.

       quiet  Suppresses the printing of the version when first invoked.

       record-resent
	      If both this variable and the record variable are set, the resend and  Resend  com-
	      mands save messages to the record folder as it is normally only done for newly com-
	      posed messages.

       reply-in-same-charset
	      If this variable is set, mailx first tries to use the same  character  set  of  the
	      original	message  for replies.  If this fails, the sendcharsets variable is evalu-
	      ated as usual.

       Replyall
	      Reverses the sense of reply and Reply commands.

       save   When the user aborts a message with two RUBOUT (interrupt characters) mailx  copies
	      the partial letter to the file `dead.letter' in the home directory.  This option is
	      set by default.

       searchheaders
	      If this option is set, then a message-list specifier in the form `/x:y' will expand
	      to  all  messages containing the substring `y' in the header field `x'.  The string
	      search is case insensitive.

       sendwait
	      When sending a message, wait until the mail transfer agent exits	before	accepting
	      further  commands.   If the mail transfer agent returns a non-zero exit status, the
	      exit status of mailx will also be non-zero.

       showlast
	      Setting this option causes mailx to start at the last message instead of the  first
	      one when opening a mail folder.

       showname
	      Causes  mailx  to  use  the  sender's real name instead of the plain address in the
	      header field summary and in message specifications.

       showto Causes the recipient of the message to be shown in the header summary if	the  mes-
	      sage was sent by the user.

       skipemptybody
	      If an outgoing message does not contain any text in its first or only message part,
	      do not send it but discard it silently (see also the -E option).

       smime-force-encryption
	      Causes mailx to refuse sending unencrypted messages.

       smime-sign
	      If this variable is set, outgoing messages are S/MIME signed with the  user's  pri-
	      vate  key.   Signing a message enables a recipient to verify that the sender used a
	      valid certificate, that the email addresses in the certificate match those  in  the
	      message  header,	and  that  the message content has not been altered.  It does not
	      change the message text, and people will be able to read the message as usual.

       smime-no-default-ca
	      Do not load the default CA locations when verifying S/MIME signed  messages.   Only
	      applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smtp-use-starttls
	      Causes mailx to issue a STARTTLS command to make an SMTP session SSL/TLS encrypted.
	      Not all servers support this command; because of common implementation defects,  it
	      cannot be automatically determined whether a server supports it or not.

       ssl-no-default-ca
	      Do  not  load the default CA locations to verify SSL/TLS server certificates.  Only
	      applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-v2-allow
	      Accept SSLv2 connections.  These are normally not  allowed  because  this  protocol
	      version is insecure.

       stealthmua
	      Inhibits	the  generation of the `Message-Id:' and `User-Agent:' header fields that
	      include obvious references to mailx.  There are two pitfalls associated with  this:
	      First, the message id of outgoing messages is not known anymore.	Second, an expert
	      may still use the remaining information in the header to track down the originating
	      mail user agent.

       verbose
	      Setting  the  option  verbose is the same as using the -v flag on the command line.
	      When mailx runs in verbose mode, details of the actual message delivery and  proto-
	      col conversations for IMAP, POP3, and SMTP, as well as of other internal processes,
	      are displayed on the user's terminal, This is sometimes useful to  debug	problems.
	      Mailx  prints  all  data	that  is sent to remote servers in clear texts, including
	      passwords, so care should be taken that no unauthorized option can view the  screen
	      if this option is enabled.

       writebackedited
	      If  this	variable  is set, messages modified using the edit or visual commands are
	      written back to the current folder when it is quit.   This  is  only  possible  for
	      writable folders in mbox format.	Setting this variable also disables MIME decoding
	      and decryption for the editing commands.

   String Options
       The string options include the following:

       attrlist
	      A sequence of characters to print in the `attribute' column of  a  header  summary,
	      each  for one type of messages in the following order: new, unread but old, new but
	      read, read and old, saved, preserved, mboxed,  flagged,  answered,  draft,  killed,
	      start  of  a  collapsed  thread,	collapsed,  classified	as  junk.  The default is
	      `NUROSPMFATK+-J', or `NU	*HMFATK+-J' if bsdflags or the SYSV3 environment variable
	      are set.

       autobcc
	      Specifies  a  list of recipients to which a blind carbon copy of each outgoing mes-
	      sage will be sent automatically.

       autocc Specifies a list of recipients to which a carbon copy of each outgoing message will
	      be sent automatically.

       autosort
	      Causes  sorted  mode  (see  the  sort command) to be entered automatically with the
	      value of this option as sorting method when a folder is opened.

       cmd    The default value for the pipe command.

       crt    The valued option crt is used as a threshold to determine how long a  message  must
	      be before PAGER is used to read it.  If crt is set without a value, then the height
	      of the terminal screen stored in the system is used to compute the  threshold  (see
	      stty(1)).

       DEAD   The  name  of  the  file	to  use  for  saving  aborted messages.  This defaults to
	      `dead.letter' in the user's home directory.

       EDITOR Pathname of the text editor to use in the edit  command  and  ~e	escape.   If  not
	      defined, then a default editor is used.

       encoding
	      The  default  MIME  encoding  to	use  in outgoing text messages and message parts.
	      Valid values are 8bit or quoted-printable.  The default is 8bit.	In case the  mail
	      transfer	system	is  not ESMTP compliant, quoted-printable should be used instead.
	      If there is no need to encode a message, 7bit transfer mode is used, without regard
	      to the value of this variable.  Binary data is always encoded in base64 mode.

       escape If  defined,  the  first character of this option gives the character to use in the
	      place of ~ to denote escapes.

       folder The name of the directory to use for storing folders of messages.  All folder names
	      that  begin  with  `+'  refer to files below that directory.  If the directory name
	      begins with a `/', mailx considers it to be an absolute  pathname;  otherwise,  the
	      folder directory is found relative to the user's home directory.

	      The directory name may also refer to an IMAP account; any names that begin with `+'
	      then refer to IMAP mailboxes on that account.  An IMAP folder is normally given  in
	      the form

		  imaps://mylogin@imap.myisp.example

	      In  this	case, the `+' and `@' prefixes for folder names have the same effect (see
	      the folder command).

	      Some IMAP servers do not accept the creation of mailboxes in  the  hierarchy  base;
	      they  require that they are created as subfolders of `INBOX'.  With such servers, a
	      folder name of the form

		  imaps://mylogin@imap.myisp.example/INBOX.

	      should be used (the last character is the server's  hierarchy  delimiter).   Folder
	      names  prefixed by `+' will then refer to folders below `INBOX', while folder names
	      prefixed by `@' refer to folders below the hierarchy base.  See the imap	namespace
	      command for a method to detect the appropriate prefix and delimiter.

       folder-hook
	      When  a  folder  is opened and this variable is set, the macro corresponding to the
	      value of this variable is executed.  The	macro  is  also  invoked  when	new  mail
	      arrives,	but message lists for commands executed from the macro only include newly
	      arrived messages then.

       folder-hook-fullname
	      When a folder named fullname is opened, the macro corresponding  to  the	value  of
	      this  variable is executed.  Unlike other folder specifications, the fully expanded
	      name of a folder, without metacharacters, is used to avoid ambiguities.  The  macro
	      specified  with  folder-hook  is	not  executed if this variable is effective for a
	      folder (unless it is explicitly invoked within the called macro).

       from   The address (or a list of addresses) to put into the `From:' field of  the  message
	      header.	If  replying to a message, these addresses are handled as if they were in
	      the alternates list.  If the machine's hostname is not valid at the  Internet  (for
	      example  at  a  dialup machine), either this variable or hostname have to be set to
	      get correct Message-ID header fields.  If from contains more than one address,  the
	      sender variable must also be set.

       fwdheading
	      The  string  to print before the text of a message with the forward command (unless
	      the forward-as-attachment variable is set).  Defaults to ``--------  Original  Mes-
	      sage --------'' if unset.  If it is set to the empty string, no heading is printed.

       headline
	      A  format  string  to use for the header summary, similar to printf formats.  A `%'
	      character introduces a format specifier.	It may be followed by a number indicating
	      the  field width.  If the field is a number, the width may be negative, which indi-
	      cates that it is to be left-aligned.  Valid format specifiers are:

		  %a	Message attributes.
		  %c	The score of the message.
		  %d	The date when the message was received.
		  %e	The indenting level in threaded mode.
		  %f	The address of the message sender.
		  %i	The message thread structure.
		  %l	The number of lines of the message.
		  %m	Message number.
		  %o	The number of octets (bytes) in the message.
		  %s	Message subject (if any).
		  %S	Message subject (if any) in double quotes.
		  %t	The position in threaded/sorted order.
		  %>	A `>' for the current message, otherwise ` '.
		  %<	A `<' for the current message, otherwise ` '.
		  %%	A `%' character.

	      The	  default	  is	     `%>%a%m %18f %16d %4l/%-5o %i%s',	       or
	      `%>%a%m %20f  %16d %3l/%-5o %i%S' if bsdcompat is set.

       hostname
	      Use  this  string  as  hostname when expanding local addresses instead of the value
	      obtained from uname(2) and getaddrinfo(3).

       imap-auth
	      Sets the IMAP authentication method.  Valid values are `login' for the usual  pass-
	      word-based  authentication  (the	default),  `cram-md5',	which is a password-based
	      authentication that does not send the password over the network in clear text,  and
	      `gssapi' for GSSAPI-based authentication.

       imap-auth-user@host
	      Sets the IMAP authentication method for a specific account.

       imap-cache
	      Enables  caching	of  IMAP  mailboxes.   The value of this variable must point to a
	      directory that is either existent or can be created by mailx.  All contents of  the
	      cache can be deleted by mailx at any time; it is not safe to make assumptions about
	      them.

       imap-keepalive
	      IMAP servers may close the connection after a period of  inactivity;  the  standard
	      requires	this  to be at least 30 minutes, but practical experience may vary.  Set-
	      ting this variable to a numeric value greater than 0 causes a NOOP  command  to  be
	      sent each value seconds if no other operation is performed.

       imap-list-depth
	      When  retrieving	the  list of folders on an IMAP server, the folders command stops
	      after it has reached a certain depth to avoid possible infinite loops.   The  value
	      of  this variable sets the maximum depth allowed.  The default is 2.  If the folder
	      separator on the current IMAP server is a slash `/', this variable has  no  effect,
	      and the folders command does not descend to subfolders.

       indentprefix
	      String  used by the `~m' and `~M' tilde escapes and by the quote option for indent-
	      ing messages, in place of the normal tab character (^I).	 Be  sure  to  quote  the
	      value if it contains spaces or tabs.

       junkdb The  location of the junk mail database.	The string is treated like a folder name,
	      as described for the folder command.

	      The files in the junk mail database are normally stored in compress(1)  format  for
	      saving  space.   If processing time is considered more important, uncompress(1) can
	      be used to store them in plain form.  Mailx will then work using	the  uncompressed
	      files.

       LISTER Pathname	of  the  directory lister to use in the folders command when operating on
	      local mailboxes.	Default is /bin/ls.

       MAIL   Is used as the user's mailbox, if set.  Otherwise, a  system-dependent  default  is
	      used.  Can be a protocol:// string (see the folder command for more information).

       MAILX_HEAD
	      A  string  to  put at the beginning of each new message.	The escape sequences `\t'
	      (tabulator) and `\n' (newline) are understood.

       MAILX_TAIL
	      A string to put at the end of each new message.  The escape sequences `\t' (tabula-
	      tor) and `\n' (newline) are understood.

       maximum-unencoded-line-length
	      Messages	that  contain lines longer than the value of this variable are encoded in
	      quoted-printable even if they contain only ASCII characters.  The maximum effective
	      value  is  950.	If set to 0, all ASCII text messages are encoded in quoted-print-
	      able.  S/MIME signed messages are always encoded in quoted-printable regardless  of
	      the value of this variable.

       MBOX   The  name of the mbox file.  It can be the name of a folder.  The default is `mbox'
	      in the user's home directory.

       NAIL_EXTRA_RC
	      The name of an optional startup file to be read after ~/.mailrc.	This variable  is
	      ignored  if it is imported from the environment; it has an effect only if it is set
	      in /etc/mail.rc or ~/.mailrc to  allow  bypassing  the  configuration  with  e.  g.
	      `MAILRC=/dev/null'.   Use  this  file for commands that are not understood by other
	      mailx implementations.

       newfolders
	      If this variable has the value maildir, newly created  local  folders  will  be  in
	      maildir format.

       nss-config-dir
	      A  directory  that contains the files certN.db to retrieve certificates, keyN.db to
	      retrieve private keys, and secmod.db, where N is a digit.  These are usually  taken
	      from  Mozilla  installations,  so  an  appropriate value might be `~/.mozilla/fire-
	      fox/default.clm'.  Mailx opens these files read-only  and  does  not  modify  them.
	      However, if the files are modified by Mozilla while mailx is running, it will print
	      a `Bad database' message.  It may be necessary to create copies of these files that
	      are  exclusively used by mailx then.  Only applicable if S/MIME and SSL/TLS support
	      is built using Network Security Services (NSS).

       ORGANIZATION
	      The value to put into the `Organization:' field of the message header.

       PAGER  Pathname of the program to use in the more command or when  crt  variable  is  set.
	      The  default paginator pg(1) or, in BSD compatibility mode, more(1) is used if this
	      option is not defined.

       password-user@host
	      Set the password for user when connecting to host.  If no such variable is  defined
	      for  a  host,  the user will be asked for a password on standard input.  Specifying
	      passwords in a startup file is generally a security risk, the file should be  read-
	      able by the invoking user only.

       pipe-content/subcontent
	      When  a  MIME message part of content/subcontent type is displayed or it is replied
	      to, its text is filtered through the value of this variable interpreted as a  shell
	      command.	 Special  care must be taken when using such commands as mail viruses may
	      be distributed by this method; if messages of type application/x-sh  were  filtered
	      through  the  shell,  for  example, a message sender could easily execute arbitrary
	      code on the system mailx is running on.

       pop3-keepalive
	      POP3 servers may close the connection after a period of  inactivity;  the  standard
	      requires	this  to be at least 10 minutes, but practical experience may vary.  Set-
	      ting this variable to a numeric value greater than 0 causes a NOOP  command  to  be
	      sent each value seconds if no other operation is performed.

       prompt The string printed when a command is accepted.  Defaults to `? ', or to `& ' if the
	      bsdcompat variable is set.

       quote  If set, mailx starts a replying message with the original message prefixed  by  the
	      value of the variable indentprefix.  Normally, a heading consisting of `Fromheader-
	      field wrote:' is printed before the quotation.  If the string noheading is assigned
	      to the quote variable, this heading is omitted.  If the string headers is assigned,
	      the headers selected by the ignore/retain commands are printed  above  the  message
	      body,  thus quote acts like an automatic ~m command then.  If the string allheaders
	      is assigned, all headers are printed above the message body, and all MIME parts are
	      included, thus quote acts like an automatic ~M command then.

       record If  defined, gives the pathname of the folder used to record all outgoing mail.  If
	      not defined, then outgoing mail is not so saved.	When saving to this folder fails,
	      the message is not sent but saved to the `dead.letter' file instead.

       replyto
	      A  list  of  addresses to put into the `Reply-To:' field of the message header.  If
	      replying to a message, such addresses are handled as if they were in the alternates
	      list.

       screen When  mailx initially prints the message headers, it determines the number to print
	      by looking at the speed of the terminal.	The faster  the  terminal,  the  more  it
	      prints.	This  option  overrides  this  calculation and specifies how many message
	      headers are printed.  This number is also used for scrolling with the z command.

       sendcharsets
	      A comma-separated list of character set names that can be used  in  Internet  mail.
	      When  a  message that contains characters not representable in US-ASCII is prepared
	      for sending, mailx tries to convert its text to each of the given character sets in
	      order and uses the first appropriate one.  The default is `utf-8'.

	      Character sets assigned to this variable should be ordered in ascending complexity.
	      That is, the list should start with e.g.	`iso-8859-1' for compatibility with older
	      mail clients, might contain some other language-specific character sets, and should
	      end with `utf-8' to handle messages that combine texts in multiple languages.

       sender An address that is put into the `Sender:' field of outgoing messages.   This  field
	      needs  not normally be present.  It is, however, required if the `From:' field con-
	      tains more than one address.  It can also be used to indicate that  a  message  was
	      sent  on behalf of somebody other; in this case, `From:' should contain the address
	      of the person that took responsibility for the message, and `Sender:'  should  con-
	      tain  the address of the person that actually sent the message.  The sender address
	      is handled as if it were in the alternates list.

       sendmail
	      To use an alternate mail delivery system, set this option to the full  pathname  of
	      the program to use.  This should be used with care.

       SHELL  Pathname	of  the shell to use in the ! command and the ~! escape.  A default shell
	      is used if this option is not defined.

       Sign   A string for use with the ~A command.

       sign   A string for use with the ~a command.

       signature
	      Must correspond to the name of a readable file if set.  The  file's  content
	      is  then	appended  to each singlepart message and to the first part of each
	      multipart message.  Be warned that there is no possibility to edit the  sig-
	      nature for an individual message.

       smime-ca-dir
	      Specifies a directory with CA certificates for verification of S/MIME signed
	      messages.  The format is the same as described in  SSL_CTX_load_verify_loca-
	      tions(3).  Only applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-ca-file
	      Specifies a file with CA certificates for verification of S/MIME signed mes-
	      sages.  The format is the same  as  described  in  SSL_CTX_load_verify_loca-
	      tions(3).  Only applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-cipher-user@host
	      Specifies  a  cipher  to	use  when generating S/MIME encrypted messages for
	      user@host.  Valid ciphers are rc2-40 (RC2 with 40 bits), rc2-64 (RC2 with 64
	      bits), des (DES, 56 bits) and des-ede3 (3DES, 112/168 bits).  The default is
	      3DES.  It is not recommended to use the other ciphers unless  a  recipient's
	      client  is actually unable to handle 3DES since they are comparatively weak;
	      but even so, the recipient should upgrade his software in preference.

       smime-crl-file
	      Specifies a file that contains a CRL in PEM format  to  use  when  verifying
	      S/MIME messages.	Only applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-crl-dir
	      Specifies  a  directory  that  contains files with CRLs in PEM format to use
	      when verifying S/MIME messages.  Only applicable if S/MIME support is  built
	      using OpenSSL.

       smime-encrypt-user@host
	      If this variable is set, messages to user@host are encrypted before sending.
	      If S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL, the value of the variable must	be
	      set  to  the  name  of a file that contains a certificate in PEM format.	If
	      S/MIME support is built using NSS, the value of this  variable  is  ignored,
	      but  if  multiple  certificates for user@host are available, the smime-nick-
	      name-user@host variable should be set.   Otherwise  a  certificate  for  the
	      recipient  is automatically retrieved from the certificate database, if pos-
	      sible.

	      If a message is sent to multiple recipients, each of them for whom a  corre-
	      sponding	variable  is  set  will receive an individually encrypted message;
	      other recipients will continue to receive the message in plain  text  unless
	      the  smime-force-encryption  variable  is  set.	It  is recommended to sign
	      encrypted messages, i.e. to also set the smime-sign variable.

       smime-nickname-user@host
	      Specifies the nickname of a certificate to be used when encrypting  messages
	      for user@host .  Only applicable if S/MIME support is built using NSS.

       smime-sign-cert
	      Points  to a file in PEM format that contains the user's private key as well
	      as his certificate.  Both are used with S/MIME for  signing  and	decrypting
	      messages.  Only applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-sign-cert-user@host
	      Overrides smime-sign-cert for the specific addresses.  When signing messages
	      and the value of the from variable is set to user@host, the specific file is
	      used.   When  decrypting	messages, their recipient fields (To: and Cc:) are
	      searched for addresses for which such a variable is set.	Mailx always  uses
	      the  first address that matches, so if the same message is sent to more than
	      one of the user's addresses  using  different  encryption  keys,	decryption
	      might fail.  Only applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-sign-nickname
	      Specifies  that  the  named  certificate	be used for signing mail.  If this
	      variable is not set, but a single  certificate  matching	the  current  from
	      address  is  found  in  the  database, that one is used automatically.  Only
	      applicable if S/MIME support is built using NSS.

       smime-sign-nickname-user@host
	      Overrides smime-sign-nickname for a specific address.   Only  applicable	if
	      S/MIME support is built using NSS.

       smtp   Normally,  mailx	invokes sendmail(8) directly to transfer messages.  If the
	      smtp variable is set, a SMTP connection to the server specified by the value
	      of this variable is used instead.  If the SMTP server does not use the stan-
	      dard port, a value of server:port can be given, with port as a name or as  a
	      number.

	      There  are  two  possible  methods  to  get SSL/TLS encrypted SMTP sessions:
	      First, the STARTTLS command can be used to encrypt a session  after  it  has
	      been  initiated,	but  before  any  user-related	data  has  been  sent; see
	      smtp-use-starttls above.	Second, some  servers  accept  sessions  that  are
	      encrypted  from  their  beginning  on.  This mode is configured by assigning
	      smtps://server[:port] to the smtp variable.

	      The SMTP transfer is executed in a child process; unless either the sendwait
	      or  the  verbose	variable  is set, this process runs asynchronously.  If it
	      receives a TERM signal, it will abort and save the message to the `dead.let-
	      ter' file.

       smtp-auth
	      Sets  the  SMTP  authentication  method.	If set to `login', or if unset and
	      smtp-auth-user is set, AUTH LOGIN is used.  If set to `cram-md5', AUTH CRAM-
	      MD5  is  used;  if  set  to `plain', AUTH PLAIN is used.	Otherwise, no SMTP
	      authentication is performed.

       smtp-auth-user@host
	      Overrides smtp-auth for specific values of sender  addresses,  depending	on
	      the from variable.

       smtp-auth-password
	      Sets  the  global password for SMTP AUTH.  Both user and password have to be
	      given for AUTH LOGIN and AUTH CRAM-MD5.

       smtp-auth-password-user@host
	      Overrides  smtp-auth-password  for  specific  values  of	sender	addresses,
	      depending on the from variable.

       smtp-auth-user
	      Sets  the global user name for SMTP AUTH.  Both user and password have to be
	      given for AUTH LOGIN and AUTH CRAM-MD5.

	      If this variable is set but neither smtp-auth-password or a  matching  smtp-
	      auth-password-user@host  can  be	found, mailx will as for a password on the
	      user's terminal.

       smtp-auth-user-user@host
	      Overrides smtp-auth-user for specific values of sender addresses,  depending
	      on the from variable.

       ssl-ca-dir
	      Specifies  a  directory  with  CA  certificates  for verification of SSL/TLS
	      server certificates.  See SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3) for more informa-
	      tion.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-ca-file
	      Specifies  a  file  with	CA certificates for verification of SSL/TLS server
	      certificates.  See SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3)  for	more  information.
	      Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-cert
	      Sets  the  file  name  for  a  SSL/TLS  client  certificate required by some
	      servers.	Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-cert-user@host
	      Sets an account-specific file name for a SSL/TLS client certificate required
	      by some servers.	Overrides ssl-cert for the specified account.  Only appli-
	      cable if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-cipher-list
	      Specifies a list of ciphers for SSL/TLS  connections.   See  ciphers(1)  for
	      more  information.   Only  applicable  if  SSL/TLS  support  is  built using
	      OpenSSL.

       ssl-crl-file
	      Specifies a file that contains a CRL in PEM format  to  use  when  verifying
	      SSL/TLS  server  certificates.   Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is built
	      using OpenSSL.

       ssl-crl-dir
	      Specifies a directory that contains files with CRLs in  PEM  format  to  use
	      when verifying SSL/TLS server certificates.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS sup-
	      port is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-key
	      Sets the file name for the private key of a SSL/TLS client certificate.	If
	      unset, the name of the certificate file is used.	The file is expected to be
	      in PEM format.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-key-user@host
	      Sets an account-specific file name for the private key of a  SSL/TLS  client
	      certificate.   Overrides ssl-key for the specified account.  Only applicable
	      if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-method
	      Selects a SSL/TLS protocol version; valid values	are  `ssl2',  `ssl3',  and
	      `tls1'.  If unset, the method is selected automatically, if possible.

       ssl-method-user@host
	      Overrides ssl-method for a specific account.

       ssl-rand-egd
	      Gives the pathname to an entropy daemon socket, see RAND_egd(3).

       ssl-rand-file
	      Gives  the  pathname to a file with entropy data, see RAND_load_file(3).	If
	      the file is a regular file writable by the invoking user, new data is  writ-
	      ten  to  it after it has been loaded.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is
	      built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-verify
	      Sets the action to be performed if an error  occurs  during  SSL/TLS  server
	      certificate  validation.	 Valid values are `strict' (fail and close connec-
	      tion immediately), `ask' (ask whether to continue on standard input), `warn'
	      (print  a  warning and continue), `ignore' (do not perform validation).  The
	      default is `ask'.

       ssl-verify-user@host
	      Overrides ssl-verify for a specific account.

       toplines
	      If defined, gives the number of lines of a message to be	printed  out  with
	      the top command; normally, the first five lines are printed.

       ttycharset
	      The  character  set of the terminal mailx operates on.  There is normally no
	      need to set this variable since mailx can determine  this  automatically	by
	      looking  at  the	LC_CTYPE  locale  setting;  if this succeeds, the value is
	      assigned at startup and will be displayed by the	set  command.	Note  that
	      this  is	not  necessarily a character set name that can be used in Internet
	      messages.

       VISUAL Pathname of the text editor to use in the visual command and ~v escape.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       Besides the  variables  described  above,  mailx  uses  the  following  environment
       strings:

       HOME   The user's home directory.

       LANG, LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES
	      See locale(7).

       MAILRC Is used as startup file instead of ~/.mailrc if set.  When mailx scripts are
	      invoked on behalf of other users, this variable should be set to `/dev/null'
	      to avoid side-effects from reading their configuration files.

       NAILRC If this variable is set and MAILRC is not set, it is read as startup file.

       SYSV3  Changes the letters printed in the first column of a header summary.

       TMPDIR Used as directory for temporary files instead of /tmp, if set.

FILES
       ~/.mailrc
	      File giving initial commands.

       /etc/mail.rc
	      System wide initialization file.

       ~/.mime.types
	      Personal MIME types.

       /etc/mime.types
	      System wide MIME types.

EXAMPLES
   Getting started
       The  mailx  command has two distinct usages, according to whether one wants to send
       or receive mail.  Sending mail is simple: to send a message to a user  whose  email
       address is, say, <bill@host.example>, use the shell command:

	   $ mailx bill@host.example

       then  type  your message.  Mailx will prompt you for a message subject first; after
       that, lines typed by you form the body of the message.  When you reach the  end	of
       the  message,  type an EOT (control-d) at the beginning of a line, which will cause
       mailx to echo `EOT' and return you to the shell.

       If, while you are composing the message you decide that you do not wish to send	it
       after  all,  you can abort the letter with a RUBOUT.  Typing a single RUBOUT causes
       mailx to print `(Interrupt -- one more to kill letter)'.  Typing  a  second  RUBOUT
       causes  mailx  to  save	your partial letter on the file `dead.letter' in your home
       directory and abort the letter.	Once you have sent mail to someone,  there  is	no
       way to undo the act, so be careful.

       If  you	want  to send the same message to several other people, you can list their
       email addresses on the command line.  Thus,

	   $ mailx sam@workstation.example bob@server.example
	   Subject: Fees
	   Tuition fees are due next Friday.  Don't forget!
	   <Control-d>
	   EOT
	   $

       will send the reminder to <sam@workstation.example>.  and <bob@server.example>.

       To read your mail, simply type

	   $ mailx

       Mailx will respond by typing its version number and date and then listing the  mes-
       sages  you  have  waiting.  Then it will type a prompt and await your command.  The
       messages are assigned numbers starting with 1--you refer to the messages with these
       numbers.   Mailx  keeps	track  of which messages are new (have been sent since you
       last read your mail) and read (have been read by you).  New messages have an N next
       to  them  in the header listing and old, but unread messages have a U next to them.
       Mailx keeps track of new/old and read/unread messages by  putting  a  header  field
       called Status into your messages.

       To  look  at  a specific message, use the type command, which may be abbreviated to
       simply t .  For example, if you had the following messages:

	   O 1 drfoo@myhost.example Wed Sep  1 19:52  18/631 "Fees"
	   O 2 sam@friends.example  Thu Sep  2 00:08  30/895

       you could examine the first message by giving the command:

	   type 1

       which might cause mailx to respond with, for example:

	   Message  1:
	   From drfoo@myhost.example Wed Sep  1 19:52:25 2004
	   Subject: Fees
	   Status: R

	   Tuition fees are due next Wednesday.  Don't forget!

       Many mailx commands that operate on messages take a message number as  an  argument
       like the type command.  For these commands, there is a notion of a current message.
       When you enter the mailx program, the current message is initially  the	first  (or
       the  first  recent)  one.  Thus, you can often omit the message number and use, for
       example,

	   t

       to type the current message.  As a further shorthand, you can  type  a  message	by
       simply giving its message number.  Hence,

	   1

       would type the first message.

       Frequently,  it	is useful to read the messages in your mailbox in order, one after
       another.  You can read the next message in mailx by simply typing a newline.  As  a
       special	case,  you  can  type a newline as your first command to mailx to type the
       first message.

       If, after typing a message, you wish to immediately send a reply,  you  can  do	so
       with  the  reply  command.   This  command, like type, takes a message number as an
       argument.  mailx then begins a message addressed to the user who sent you the  mes-
       sage.   You may then type in your letter in reply, followed by a <control-d> at the
       beginning of a line, as before.

       Note that mailx copies the subject header from the original message.  This is  use-
       ful  in	that correspondence about a particular matter will tend to retain the same
       subject heading, making it easy to recognize.  If there are other header fields	in
       the message, like `Cc:', the information found will also be used.

       Sometimes  you will receive a message that has been sent to several people and wish
       to reply only to the person who sent it.  Reply with a capital R replies to a  mes-
       sage, but sends a copy to the sender only.

       If  you	wish,  while reading your mail, to send a message to someone, but not as a
       reply to one of your messages, you can send the message directly with the mail com-
       mand,  which  takes  as	arguments the names of the recipients you wish to send to.
       For example, to send a message to <frank@machine.example>, you would do:

	   mail frank@machine.example

       To delete a message from the mail folder, you can use the delete command.  In addi-
       tion to not saving deleted messages, mailx will not let you type them, either.  The
       effect is to make the message disappear altogether, along with its number.

       Many features of mailx can be tailored to your liking with the  set  command.   The
       set  command has two forms, depending on whether you are setting a binary option or
       a valued option.  Binary options are either on or  off.	 For  example,	the  askcc
       option  informs	mailx that each time you send a message, you want it to prompt you
       for a `Cc:' header, to be included in the message.  To set the  askcc  option,  you
       would type

	   set askcc

       Valued  options	are values which mailx uses to adapt to your tastes.  For example,
       the record option tells mailx where to save messages sent by you, and is  specified
       by

	   set record=Sent

       for example.  Note that no spaces are allowed in set record=Sent .

       Mailx  includes	a  simple  facility for maintaining groups of messages together in
       folders.  To use the folder facility, you must tell mailx where you  wish  to  keep
       your folders.  Each folder of messages will be a single file.  For convenience, all
       of your folders are kept in a single directory of your  choosing.   To  tell  mailx
       where your folder directory is, put a line of the form

	   set folder=letters

       in  your .mailrc file.  If, as in the example above, your folder directory does not
       begin with a `/', mailx will assume that your  folder  directory  is  to  be  found
       starting from your home directory.

       Anywhere  a  file  name	is expected, you can use a folder name, preceded with `+'.
       For example, to put a message into a folder with the save command, you can use:

	   save +classwork

       to save the current message in the classwork folder.  If the classwork folder  does
       not  yet  exist,  it  will be created.  Note that messages which are saved with the
       save command are automatically removed from your system mailbox.

       In order to make a copy of a message in a folder without causing that message to be
       removed	from  your system mailbox, use the copy command, which is identical in all
       other respects to the save command.

       The folder command can be used to direct mailx  to  the	contents  of  a  different
       folder.	For example,

	   folder +classwork

       directs	mailx  to  read the contents of the classwork folder.  All of the commands
       that you can use on your system mailbox are also applicable to  folders,  including
       type,  delete,  and  reply.  To inquire which folder you are currently editing, use
       simply:

	   folder

       To list your current set of folders, use the folders command.

       Finally, the help command is available to print out a brief  summary  of  the  most
       important mailx commands.

       While  typing  in  a message to be sent to others, it is often useful to be able to
       invoke the text editor on the partial message, print the message, execute  a  shell
       command,  or  do  some other auxiliary function.  Mailx provides these capabilities
       through tilde escapes , which consist of a tilde (~) at the beginning  of  a  line,
       followed  by  a single character which indicates the function to be performed.  For
       example, to print the text of the message so far, use:

	   ~p

       which will print a line of dashes, the recipients of your message, and the text	of
       the  message  so far.  A list of the most important tilde escapes is available with
       `~?'.

   IMAP or POP3 client setup
       First you need the following data from your ISP: the host name of the IMAP or  POP3
       server,	user  name  and  password for this server, and a notice whether the server
       uses SSL/TLS encryption.  Assuming the host name is `server.myisp.example' and your
       user  name  for	that  server is `mylogin', you can refer to this account using the
       folder command or -f command line option with

	   imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example

       (This string is not necessarily the same as your Internet mail address.)   You  can
       replace	`imaps://'  with  `imap://'  if  the server does not support SSL/TLS.  (If
       SSL/TLS support is built using NSS, the nss-config-dir variable must be set  before
       a  connection  can  be  initiated,  see above).	Use `pop3s://' or `pop3://' if the
       server does not offer IMAP.  You should use IMAP if you can, though; first  because
       it  requires  fewer network operations than POP3 to get the contents of the mailbox
       and is thus faster; and second because message attributes  are  maintained  by  the
       IMAP  server, so you can easily distinguish new and old messages each time you con-
       nect.  Even if the server does not accept IMAPS or POP3S connections, it is  possi-
       ble  that it supports the STARTTLS method to make a session SSL/TLS encrypted after
       the initial connection has been performed, but before authentication  begins.   The
       only reliable method to see if this works is to try it; enter one of

	   set imap-use-starttls
	   set pop3-use-starttls

       before you initiate the connection.

       As  you	probably  want messages to be deleted from this account after saving them,
       prefix it with `%:'.  The shortcut command can be used to avoid	typing	that  many
       characters every time you want to connect:

	   shortcut myisp %:imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example

       You  might want to put this string into a startup file.	As the shortcut command is
       specific to this implementation of mailx and will confuse other implementations, it
       should not be used in ~/.mailrc, instead, put

	   set NAIL_EXTRA_RC=~/.nailrc

       in  ~/.mailrc  and  create  a file ~/.nailrc containing the shortcut command above.
       You can then access your remote mailbox by invoking `mailx -f myisp' on the command
       line, or by executing `fi myisp' within mailx.

       If  you	want  to use more than one IMAP mailbox on a server, or if you want to use
       the IMAP server for mail storage too, the account command (which is also mailx-spe-
       cific) is more appropriate than the shortcut command.  You can put the following in
       ~/.nailrc:

	   account myisp {
	       set folder=imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example
	       set record=+Sent MBOX=+mbox outfolder
	   }

       and can then access incoming mail for this account by invoking `mailx -A myisp'	on
       the  command  line, or by executing `ac myisp' within mailx.  After that, a command
       like `copy 1 +otherfolder' will refer to otherfolder on the IMAP server.   In  par-
       ticular,  `fi  &'  will	change	to  the mbox folder, and `fi +Sent' will show your
       recorded sent mail, with both folders located on the IMAP server.

       Mailx will ask you for a password string each time you connect to a remote account.
       If  you	can  reasonably  trust the security of your workstation, you can give this
       password in the startup file as

	   set password-mylogin@server.myisp.example="SECRET"

       You should change the permissions of this file to 0600, see chmod(1).

       Mailx supports different authentication methods for both IMAP and  POP3.   If  Ker-
       beros is used at your location, you can try to activate GSSAPI-based authentication
       by

	   set imap-auth=gssapi

       The advantage of this method is that mailx does not need to know your  password	at
       all, nor needs to send sensitive data over the network.	Otherwise, the options

	   set imap-auth=cram-md5
	   set pop3-use-apop

       for  IMAP  and  POP3, respectively, offer authentication methods that avoid to send
       the password in clear text over the  network,  which  is  especially  important	if
       SSL/TLS	cannot	be used.  If the server does not offer any of these authentication
       methods, conventional user/password based authentication must be used.  It is some-
       times  helpful to set the verbose option when authentication problems occur.  Mailx
       will display all data sent to the server in clear text  on  the	screen	with  this
       option, including passwords.  You should thus take care that no unauthorized person
       can look at your terminal when this option is set.

       If you regularly use the same workstation to access IMAP accounts, you can  greatly
       enhance	performance  by  enabling local caching of IMAP messages.  For any message
       that has been fully or partially fetched from the server, a local copy is made  and
       is  used  when  the message is accessed again, so most data is transferred over the
       network once only.  To enable the IMAP cache, select a local directory name and put

	   set imap-cache=~/localdirectory

       in the startup file.  All files within that directory can be overwritten or deleted
       by  mailx  at any time, so you should not use the directory to store other informa-
       tion.

       Once the cache contains some messages, it is not strictly necessary anymore to open
       a  connection to the IMAP server to access them.  When mailx is invoked with the -D
       option, or when the disconnected variable is set, only cached data is used for  any
       folder  you open.  Messages that have not yet been completely cached are not avail-
       able then, but all other messages can be handled as usual.  Changes  made  to  IMAP
       mailboxes  in  disconnected  mode  are committed to the IMAP server next time it is
       used in online mode.  Synchronizing the local status with the status on the  server
       is  thus  partially within your responsibility; if you forget to initiate a connec-
       tion to the server again before you leave your location, changes made on one  work-
       station are not available on others.  Also if you alter IMAP mailboxes from a work-
       station while uncommitted changes are still pending on another, the latter data may
       become  invalid.   The  same  might  also  happen because of internal server status
       changes.  You should thus carefully  evaluate  this  feature  in  your  environment
       before you rely on it.

       Many  servers will close the connection after a short period of inactivity. Use one
       of

	   set pop3-keepalive=30
	   set imap-keepalive=240

       to send a keepalive message each 30 seconds for POP3, or each 4 minutes for IMAP.

       If you encounter problems connecting to a SSL/TLS server, try the ssl-rand-egd  and
       ssl-rand-file  variables  (see the OpenSSL FAQ for more information) or specify the
       protocol version with ssl-method.  Contact your ISP if you need a  client  certifi-
       cate or if verification of the server certificate fails.  If the failed certificate
       is indeed valid, fetch its CA certificate by executing the shell command

	   $ openssl s_client </dev/null -showcerts -connect \
		  server.myisp.example:imaps 2>&1 | tee log

       (see s_client(1)) and put it into the file specified with  ssl-ca-file.	 The  data
       you  need is located at the end of the certificate chain within (and including) the
       `BEGIN CERTIFICATE' and `END CERTIFICATE' lines.  (Note	that  it  is  possible	to
       fetch  a  forged  certificate  by this method.  You can only completely rely on the
       authenticity of the CA certificate if you fetch it in a	way  that  is  trusted	by
       other means, such as by personally receiving the certificate on storage media.)

   Creating a score file or message filter
       The  scoring  commands are best separated from other configuration for clarity, and
       are mostly mailx specific.  It is thus recommended to put them in a  separate  file
       that is sourced from your NAIL_EXTRA_RC as follows:

	   source ~/.scores

       The .scores file could then look as follows:

	   define list {
	       score (subject "important discussion") +10
	       score (subject "annoying discussion") -10
	       score (from "nicefellow@goodnet") +15
	       score (from "badguy@poornet") -5
	       move (header x-spam-flag "+++++") +junk
	   }
	   set folder-hook-imap://user@host/public.list=list

       In  this scheme, you would see any mail from `nicefellow@goodnet', even if the sur-
       rounding discussion  is	annoying;  but	you  normally  would  not  see	mail  from
       `badguy@poornet',  unless  he  participates  in the important discussion.  Messages
       that are marked with five or more plus  characters  in  their  `X-Spam-Flag'  field
       (inserted by some server-side filtering software) are moved to the folder `junk' in
       the folder directory.

       Be aware that all criteria in () lead to substring matches, so you would also score
       messages  from  e.g.  `notsobadguy@poornetmakers' negative here.  It is possible to
       select addresses exactly using "address" message specifications, but  these  cannot
       be  executed  remotely  and  will thus cause all headers to be downloaded from IMAP
       servers while looking for matches.

       When searching messages on an IMAP server, best performance is usually achieved	by
       sending	as  many  criteria as possible in one large () specification, because each
       single such specification will result in a separate network operation.

   Activating the Bayesian filter
       The Bayesian junk mail filter works by examining the words contained  in  messages.
       You decide yourself what a good and what a bad message is.  Thus the resulting fil-
       ter is your very personal one; once it is correctly set up,  it	will  filter  only
       messages similar to those previously specified by you.

       To  use	the Bayesian filter, a location for the junk mail database must be defined
       first:

	   set junkdb=~/.junkdb

       The junk mail database does not contain actual words extracted from  messages,  but
       hashed  representations	of them.  A foreign person who can read the database could
       only examine the frequency of previously known words in your mail.

       If you have sufficient disk space (several 10 MB) available, it is recommended that
       you  set  the  chained-junk-tokens option.  The filter will then also consider two-
       word tokens, improving its accuracy.

       A set of good messages and junk messages must now be available; it is also possible
       to  use the incoming new messages for this purpose, although it will of course take
       some time until the filter becomes useful then.	Do not underestimate the amount of
       statistical  data needed; some hundred messages are typically necessary to get sat-
       isfactory results, and many thousand messages for best operation.  You have to pass
       the  good  messages to the good command, and the junk messages to the junk command.
       If you ever accidentally mark a good message as junk or vice-versa, call the ungood
       or unjunk command to correct this.

       Once  a	reasonable  amount  of	statistics has been collected, new messages can be
       classified automatically.  The classify command marks all messages that the  filter
       considers to be junk, but it does not perform any action on them by default.  It is
       recommended that you move these messages into a separate folder just for  the  case
       that false positives occur, or to pass them to the junk command later again to fur-
       ther improve the junk mail database.  To automatically move incoming junk  messages
       every time the inbox is opened, put lines like the following into your .scores file
       (or whatever name you gave to the file in the last example):

	   define junkfilter {
	       classify (smaller 20000) :n
	       move :j +junk
	   }
	   set folder-hook-imap://user@host/INBOX=junkfilter

       If you set the verbose option before running the classify command, mailx prints the
       words  it  uses for calculating the junk status along with their statistical proba-
       bilities.  This can help you to find out why some messages are  not  classified	as
       you would like them to be.  To see the statistical probability of a given word, use
       the probability command.

       If a junk message was not recognized as such, use the junk command to correct this.
       Also  if you encounter a false positive (a good message that was wrongly classified
       as junk), pass it to the good command.

       Since the classify command must examine the entire text of all new messages in  the
       respective  folder, this will also cause all of them to be downloaded from the IMAP
       server.	You should thus restrict the size of messages for automatic filtering.	If
       server-based  filtering	is  also  available,  you  might try if that works for you
       first.

   Reading HTML mail
       You need either the w3m or lynx utility or another command-line	web  browser  that
       can write plain text to standard output.

	   set pipe-text/html="w3m -dump -T text/html"

       or

	   set pipe-text/html="lynx -dump -force_html /dev/stdin"

       will then cause HTML message parts to be converted into a more friendly form.

   Viewing PDF attachments
       Most PDF viewers do not accept input directly from a pipe.  It is thus necessary to
       store the attachment in a temporary file, as with

	   set pipe-application/pdf="cat >/tmp/mailx$$.pdf; \
		  acroread /tmp/mailx$$.pdf; rm /tmp/mailx$$.pdf"

       Note that security defects are discovered in PDF viewers from time to time.   Auto-
       matical command execution like this can compromise your system security, in partic-
       ular if you stay not always informed about such issues.

   Signed and encrypted messages with S/MIME
       S/MIME provides two central mechanisms: message signing and message encryption.	 A
       signed message contains some data in addition to the regular text.  The data can be
       used to verify that the message was  sent  using  a  valid  certificate,  that  the
       sender's  address  in  the message header matches that in the certificate, and that
       the message text has not been altered.  Signing a message does not change its regu-
       lar  text; it can be read regardless of whether the recipient's software is able to
       handle S/MIME.  It is thus usually possible to sign all	outgoing  messages  if	so
       desired.--Encryption,  in contrast, makes the message text invisible for all people
       except those who have access to the secret decryption key.  To encrypt  a  message,
       the  specific recipient's public encryption key must be known.  It is thus not pos-
       sible to send encrypted mail to people unless their key	has  been  retrieved  from
       either  previous  communication or public key directories.  A message should always
       be signed before it is  encrypted.   Otherwise,	it  is	still  possible  that  the
       encrypted message text is altered.

       A central concept to S/MIME is that of the certification authority (CA).  A CA is a
       trusted institution that issues certificates.  For each of these  certificates,	it
       can  be	verified that it really originates from the CA, provided that the CA's own
       certificate is previously known.  A set of CA  certificates  is	usually  delivered
       with OpenSSL and installed on your system.  If you trust the source of your OpenSSL
       software installation, this offers reasonable security for S/MIME on the  Internet.
       In  general, a certificate cannot be more secure than the method its CA certificate
       has been retrieved with, though.  Thus if you download a CA  certificate  from  the
       Internet, you can only trust the messages you verify using that certificate as much
       as you trust the download process.

       The first thing you need for participating in S/MIME message exchange is your  per-
       sonal certificate, including a private key.  The certificate contains public infor-
       mation, in particular your name and your email address, and the public key that	is
       used by others to encrypt messages for you, and to verify signed messages they sup-
       posedly received from you.  The certificate is included in each signed message  you
       send.   The  private  key must be kept secret.  It is used to decrypt messages that
       were previously encrypted with your public key, and to sign messages.

       For personal use, it is recommended that you get a S/MIME certificate from  one	of
       the  major  CAs	on the Internet using your WWW browser.  (Many CAs offer such cer-
       tificates for free.)  You will usually receive a combined certificate  and  private
       key  in	PKCS#12  format  which mailx does not directly accept if S/MIME support is
       built using OpenSSL.  To convert it to PEM format, use the following shell command:

	   $ openssl pkcs12 -in cert.p12 -out cert.pem -clcerts \
	       -nodes

       If you omit the -nodes parameter, you can specifiy an additional  PEM  pass  phrase
       for  protecting the private key.  Mailx will then ask you for that pass phrase each
       time it signs or decrypts a message.  You can then use

	   set smime-sign-cert-myname@myisp.example=cert.pem

       to make this private key and certificate known to mailx.

       If S/MIME support is built using NSS, the PKCS#12  file	must  be  installed  using
       Mozilla (provided that nss-config-dir is set appropriately, see above), and no fur-
       ther action is necessary unless multiple  user  certificates  for  the  same  email
       address	are  installed.   In this case, the smime-sign-nickname variable has to be
       set appropriately.

       You can now sign outgoing messages.  Just use

	   set smime-sign

       to do so.

       From each signed message you send, the recipient can fetch your certificate and use
       it  to send encrypted mail back to you.	Accordingly if somebody sends you a signed
       message, you can do the same.  First use the verify command to check  the  validity
       of  the	certificate.   After that, retrieve the certificate and tell mailx that it
       should use it for encryption:

	   certsave filename
	   set smime-encrypt-user@host=filename

       If S/MIME support is built using NSS, the saved certificate must be installed using
       Mozilla.  The value of the smime-encrypt-user@host is ignored then, but if multiple
       certificates for the recipient are available, the smime-nickname-user@host variable
       must be set.

       You  should  carefully  consider  if  you  prefer  to  store  encrypted messages in
       decrypted form.	If you do, anybody who has access to your mail	folders  can  read
       them,  but  if  you  do not, you might be unable to read them yourself later if you
       happen to lose your private key.  The decrypt command saves messages  in  decrypted
       form, while the save, copy, and move commands leave them encrypted.

       Note  that  neither  S/MIME  signing  nor encryption applies to message subjects or
       other header fields.  Thus they may not contain sensitive information for encrypted
       messages,  and  cannot  be  trusted  even if the message content has been verified.
       When sending signed messages, it is recommended	to  repeat  any  important  header
       information in the message text.

   Using CRLs with S/MIME or SSL/TLS
       Certification authorities (CAs) issue certificate revocation lists (CRLs) on a reg-
       ular basis.  These lists contain the serial numbers of certificates that have  been
       declared  invalid  after  they  have been issued.  Such usually happens because the
       private key for the certificate has been compromised, because the owner of the cer-
       tificate  has  left the organization that is mentioned in the certificate, etc.	To
       seriously use S/MIME or SSL/TLS verification, an up-to-date  CRL  is  required  for
       each  trusted  CA.   There  is otherwise no method to distinguish between valid and
       invalidated certificates.  Mailx currently offers no mechanism to fetch CRLs, or to
       access  them  on the Internet, so you have to retrieve them by some external mecha-
       nism.

       If S/MIME and SSL/TLS support are built using OpenSSL, mailx accepts  CRLs  in  PEM
       format only; CRLs in DER format must be converted, e.g. with the shell command

	   $ openssl crl -inform DER -in crl.der -out crl.pem

       To tell mailx about the CRLs, a directory that contains all CRL files (and no other
       files) must be created.	The smime-crl-dir or ssl-crl-dir variables,  respectively,
       must  then  be set to point to that directory.  After that, mailx requires a CRL to
       be present for each CA that is used to verify a certificate.

       If S/MIME and SSL/TLS support are built using NSS, CRLs can be imported in  Mozilla
       applications (provided that nss-config-dir is set appropriately).

   Sending mail from scripts
       If  you	want  to  send	mail  from scripts, you must be aware that mailx reads the
       user's configuration files by default.  So unless your script is only intended  for
       your own personal use (as e.g. a cron job), you need to circumvent this by invoking
       mailx like

	   MAILRC=/dev/null mailx -n

       You then need to create a configuration for mailx for your  script.   This  can	be
       done  by  either pointing the MAILRC variable to a custom configuration file, or by
       passing the configuration in environment variables.  Since many of  the	configura-
       tion options are not valid shell variables, the env command is useful in this situ-
       ation.  An invocation could thus look like

	   env MAILRC=/dev/null from=scriptreply@domain smtp=host \
		 smtp-auth-user=login smtp-auth-password=secret \
		 smtp-auth=login mailx -n -s "subject" \
		 -a attachment_file recipient@domain <content_file

SEE ALSO
       fmt(1), newaliases(1), openssl(1), pg(1), more(1), vacation(1), ssl(3), aliases(5),
       locale(7), mailaddr(7), sendmail(8)

NOTES
       Variables in the environment passed to mailx cannot be unset.

       The  character  set  conversion relies on the iconv(3) function.  Its functionality
       differs widely between the various system environments mailx runs on.  If the  mes-
       sage  `Cannot  convert from a to b' appears, either some characters within the mes-
       sage header or text are not appropriate for the currently selected terminal charac-
       ter  set,  or  the  needed conversion is not supported by the system.  In the first
       case, it is necessary to set an appropriate LC_CTYPE locale  (e.g.  en_US)  or  the
       ttycharset variable.  In the second case, the sendcharsets and ttycharset variables
       must be set to the same value to inhibit character set conversion.  If  iconv()	is
       not  available  at all, the value assigned to sendcharsets must match the character
       set that is used on the terminal.

       Mailx expects input text to be in Unix format, with lines separated by newline (^J,
       \n) characters only.  Non-Unix text files that use carriage return (^M, \r) charac-
       ters in addition will be treated as binary data; to send such files as text,  strip
       these characters e. g. by

	      tr -d '\015' <input | mailx . . .

       or fix the tools that generate them.

       Limitations with IMAP mailboxes are: It is not possible to edit messages, but it is
       possible to append them.  Thus to edit a message, create a local copy of  it,  edit
       it,  append  it, and delete the original.  The line count for the header display is
       only appropriate if the entire message has been downloaded from	the  server.   The
       marking	of messages as `new' is performed by the IMAP server; use of the exit com-
       mand instead of quit will not cause it to be  reset,  and  if  the  autoinc/newmail
       variables  are  unset,  messages that arrived during a session will not be in state
       `new' anymore when the folder is opened again.  Also if commands queued in  discon-
       nected  mode are committed, the IMAP server will delete the `new' flag for all mes-
       sages in the changed folder, and new messages will appear  as  unread  when  it	is
       selected  for viewing later.  The `flagged', `answered', and `draft' attributes are
       usually permanent, but some IMAP servers are known to drop them	without  notifica-
       tion.  Message numbers may change with IMAP every time before the prompt is printed
       if mailx is notified by the server that messages have been deleted  by  some  other
       client  or  process.   In  this case, `Expunged n messages' is printed, and message
       numbers may have changed.

       Limitations with POP3 mailboxes are: It is not possible to edit messages, they  can
       only  be  copied and deleted.  The line count for the header display is only appro-
       priate if the entire message has been downloaded from the server.  The status field
       of  a  message is maintained by the server between connections; some servers do not
       update it at all, and with a server that does, the `exit' command  will	not  cause
       the  message  status to be reset.  The `newmail' command and the `newmail' variable
       have no effect.	It is not possible to rename or to remove POP3 mailboxes.

       If a RUBOUT (interrupt) is typed while an IMAP or POP3 operation  is  in  progress,
       mailx  will wait until the operation can be safely aborted, and will then return to
       the command loop and print the prompt again.  When a second RUBOUT is  typed  while
       mailx  is  waiting for the operation to complete, the operation itself will be can-
       celed.  In this case, data that has not been fetched yet will have  to  be  fetched
       before  the  next command can be performed.  If the canceled operation was using an
       SSL/TLS encrypted channel, an error in the SSL transport will very  likely  result,
       and the connection is no longer usable.

       As  mailx  is a mail user agent, it provides only basic SMTP services.  If it fails
       to contact its upstream SMTP server, it will not make further attempts to  transfer
       the  message  at  a  later time, and it does not leave other information about this
       condition than an error message on the terminal and a `dead.letter' file.  This	is
       usually	not  a	problem if the SMTP server is located in the same local network as
       the computer on which mailx is run.  However, care should be  taken  when  using  a
       remote  server  of  an  ISP;  it might be better to set up a local SMTP server then
       which just acts as a proxy.

       Mailx immediately contacts the SMTP server (or /usr/lib/sendmail) even when operat-
       ing in disconnected mode.  It would not make much sense for mailx to defer outgoing
       mail since SMTP servers usually provide much more elaborated  delay  handling  than
       mailx  could  perform  as a client.  Thus the recommended setup for sending mail in
       disconnected mode is to configure a local SMTP server such that it  sends  outgoing
       mail  as  soon as an external network connection is available again, i.e. to advise
       it to do that from a network startup script.

       The junk mail filter follows the concepts developed by Paul Graham in his articles,
       ``A Plan for Spam'', August 2002, <http://www.paulgraham.com/spam.html>, and ``Bet-
       ter Bayesian Filtering'',  January  2003,  <http://www.paulgraham.com/better.html>.
       Chained	tokens	are  due  to a paper by Jonathan A. Zdziarski, ``Advanced Language
       Classification	    using	Chained       Tokens'',       February	     2004,
       <http://www.nuclearelephant.com/papers/chained.html>.

       A  mail command appeared in Version 1 AT&T Unix.  Berkeley Mail was written in 1978
       by Kurt Shoens.	This man page is derived from from The Mail Reference Manual orig-
       inally written by Kurt Shoens.  Heirloom Mailx enhancements are maintained and doc-
       umented by Gunnar Ritter.

       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std
       1003.1,	2003  Edition,	Standard  for  Information  Technology -- Operating System
       Interface (POSIX), The Open  Group  Base  Specifications  Issue	6,  Copyright  (C)
       2001-2003  by  the  Institute  of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The
       Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and  the  original
       IEEE  and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is
       the  referee  document.	The  original  Standard  can   be   obtained   online	at
       http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .   Redistribution  of  this  material is
       permitted so long as this notice remains intact.

Heirloom mailx 12.5			     10/9/10					 MAILX(1)
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