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dos2unix(1)				    2014-06-09				      dos2unix(1)

NAME
       dos2unix - DOS/Mac to Unix and vice versa text file format converter

SYNOPSIS
	   dos2unix [options] [FILE ...] [-n INFILE OUTFILE ...]
	   unix2dos [options] [FILE ...] [-n INFILE OUTFILE ...]

DESCRIPTION
       The Dos2unix package includes utilities "dos2unix" and "unix2dos" to convert plain text
       files in DOS or Mac format to Unix format and vice versa.

       In DOS/Windows text files a line break, also known as newline, is a combination of two
       characters: a Carriage Return (CR) followed by a Line Feed (LF). In Unix text files a line
       break is a single character: the Line Feed (LF). In Mac text files, prior to Mac OS X, a
       line break was single Carriage Return (CR) character. Nowadays Mac OS uses Unix style (LF)
       line breaks.

       Binary files are automatically skipped, unless conversion is forced.

       Non-regular files, such as directories and FIFOs, are automatically skipped.

       Symbolic links and their targets are by default kept untouched.	Symbolic links can
       optionally be replaced, or the output can be written to the symbolic link target.
       Symbolic links on Windows are not supported. Windows symbolic links always replaced,
       keeping the targets unchanged.

       Dos2unix was modelled after dos2unix under SunOS/Solaris and has similar conversion modes.

OPTIONS
       --  Treat all following options as file names. Use this option if you want to convert
	   files whose names start with a dash. For instance to convert a file named "-foo", you
	   can use this command:

	       dos2unix -- -foo

	   Or in new file mode:

	       dos2unix -n -- -foo out.txt

       -ascii
	   Convert only line breaks. This is the default conversion mode.

       -iso
	   Conversion between DOS and ISO-8859-1 character set. See also section CONVERSION
	   MODES.

       -1252
	   Use Windows code page 1252 (Western European).

       -437
	   Use DOS code page 437 (US). This is the default code page used for ISO conversion.

       -850
	   Use DOS code page 850 (Western European).

       -860
	   Use DOS code page 860 (Portuguese).

       -863
	   Use DOS code page 863 (French Canadian).

       -865
	   Use DOS code page 865 (Nordic).

       -7  Convert 8 bit characters to 7 bit space.

       -c, --convmode CONVMODE
	   Set conversion mode. Where CONVMODE is one of: ascii, 7bit, iso, mac with ascii being
	   the default.

       -f, --force
	   Force conversion of binary files.

       -h, --help
	   Display help and exit.

       -k, --keepdate
	   Keep the date stamp of output file same as input file.

       -L, --license
	   Display program's license.

       -l, --newline
	   Add additional newline.

	   dos2unix: Only DOS line breaks are changed to two Unix line breaks.	In Mac mode only
	   Mac line breaks are changed to two Unix line breaks.

	   unix2dos: Only Unix line breaks are changed to two DOS line breaks.	In Mac mode Unix
	   line breaks are changed to two Mac line breaks.

       -m, --add-bom
	   Write an UTF-8 Byte Order Mark in the output file. Never use this option when the
	   output encoding is other than UTF-8. See also section UNICODE.

       -n, --newfile INFILE OUTFILE ...
	   New file mode. Convert file INFILE and write output to file OUTFILE.  File names must
	   be given in pairs and wildcard names should not be used or you will lose your files.

	   The person who starts the conversion in new file (paired) mode will be the owner of
	   the converted file. The read/write permissions of the new file will be the permissions
	   of the original file minus the umask(1) of the person who runs the conversion.

       -o, --oldfile FILE ...
	   Old file mode. Convert file FILE and overwrite output to it. The program defaults to
	   run in this mode. Wildcard names may be used.

	   In old file (in-place) mode the converted file gets the same owner, group, and
	   read/write permissions as the original file. Also when the file is converted by
	   another user who has write permissions on the file (e.g. user root).  The conversion
	   will be aborted when it is not possible to preserve the original values.  Change of
	   owner could mean that the original owner is not able to read the file any more. Change
	   of group could be a security risk, the file could be made readable for persons for
	   whom it is not intended.  Preservation of owner, group, and read/write permissions is
	   only supported on Unix.

       -q, --quiet
	   Quiet mode. Suppress all warnings and messages. The return value is zero.  Except when
	   wrong command-line options are used.

       -s, --safe
	   Skip binary files (default).

       -F, --follow-symlink
	   Follow symbolic links and convert the targets.

       -R, --replace-symlink
	   Replace symbolic links with converted files (original target files remain unchanged).

       -S, --skip-symlink
	   Keep symbolic links and targets unchanged (default).

       -V, --version
	   Display version information and exit.

MAC MODE
       In normal mode line breaks are converted from DOS to Unix and vice versa.  Mac line breaks
       are not converted.

       In Mac mode line breaks are converted from Mac to Unix and vice versa. DOS line breaks are
       not changed.

       To run in Mac mode use the command-line option "-c mac" or use the commands "mac2unix" or
       "unix2mac".

CONVERSION MODES
       Conversion modes ascii, 7bit, and iso are similar to those of dos2unix/unix2dos under
       SunOS/Solaris.

       ascii
	   In mode "ascii" only line breaks are converted. This is the default conversion mode.

	   Although the name of this mode is ASCII, which is a 7 bit standard, the actual mode is
	   8 bit. Use always this mode when converting Unicode UTF-8 files.

       7bit
	   In this mode all 8 bit non-ASCII characters (with values from 128 to 255) are
	   converted to a 7 bit space.

       iso Characters are converted between a DOS character set (code page) and ISO character set
	   ISO-8859-1 (Latin-1) on Unix. DOS characters without ISO-8859-1 equivalent, for which
	   conversion is not possible, are converted to a dot. The same counts for ISO-8859-1
	   characters without DOS counterpart.

	   When only option "-iso" is used dos2unix will try to determine the active code page.
	   When this is not possible dos2unix will use default code page CP437, which is mainly
	   used in the USA.  To force a specific code page use options "-437" (US), "-850"
	   (Western European), "-860" (Portuguese), "-863" (French Canadian), or "-865" (Nordic).
	   Windows code page CP1252 (Western European) is also supported with option "-1252". For
	   other code pages use dos2unix in combination with iconv(1).	Iconv can convert between
	   a long list of character encodings.

	   Never use ISO converion on Unicode text files. It will corrupt UTF-8 encoded files.

	   Some examples:

	   Convert from DOS default code page to Unix Latin-1

	       dos2unix -iso -n in.txt out.txt

	   Convert from DOS CP850 to Unix Latin-1

	       dos2unix -850 -n in.txt out.txt

	   Convert from Windows CP1252 to Unix Latin-1

	       dos2unix -1252 -n in.txt out.txt

	   Convert from Windows CP1252 to Unix UTF-8 (Unicode)

	       iconv -f CP1252 -t UTF-8 in.txt | dos2unix > out.txt

	   Convert from Unix Latin-1 to DOS default code page.

	       unix2dos -iso -n in.txt out.txt

	   Convert from Unix Latin-1 to DOS CP850

	       unix2dos -850 -n in.txt out.txt

	   Convert from Unix Latin-1 to Windows CP1252

	       unix2dos -1252 -n in.txt out.txt

	   Convert from Unix UTF-8 (Unicode) to Windows CP1252

	       unix2dos < in.txt | iconv -f UTF-8 -t CP1252 > out.txt

	   See also <http://czyborra.com/charsets/codepages.html> and
	   <http://czyborra.com/charsets/iso8859.html>.

UNICODE
   Encodings
       There exist different Unicode encodings. On Unix and Linux Unicode files are typically
       encoded in UTF-8 encoding. On Windows Unicode text files can be encoded in UTF-8, UTF-16,
       or UTF-16 big endian, but are mostly encoded in UTF-16 format.

   Conversion
       Unicode text files can have DOS, Unix or Mac line breaks, like regular text files.

       All versions of dos2unix and unix2dos can convert UTF-8 encoded files, because UTF-8 was
       designed for backward compatiblity with ASCII.

       Dos2unix and unix2dos with Unicode UTF-16 support, can read little and big endian UTF-16
       encoded text files. To see if dos2unix was built with UTF-16 support type "dos2unix -V".

       The Windows versions of dos2unix and unix2dos convert UTF-16 encoded files always to UTF-8
       encoded files. Unix versions of dos2unix/unix2dos convert UTF-16 encoded files to the
       locale character encoding when it is set to UTF-8.  Use the locale(1) command to find out
       what the locale character encoding is.

       Because UTF-8 formatted text files are well supported on both Windows and Unix, dos2unix
       and unix2dos have no option to write UTF-16 files. All UTF-16 characters can be encoded in
       UTF-8. Conversion from UTF-16 to UTF-8 is without loss. UTF-16 files will be skipped on
       Unix when the locale character encoding is not UTF-8, to prevent accidental loss of text.
       When an UTF-16 to UTF-8 conversion error occurs, for instance when the UTF-16 input file
       contains an error, the file will be skipped.

       ISO and 7-bit mode conversion do not work on UTF-16 files.

   Byte Order Mark
       On Windows Unicode text files typically have a Byte Order Mark (BOM), because many Windows
       programs (including Notepad) add BOMs by default. See also
       <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byte_order_mark>.

       On Unix Unicode files typically don't have a BOM. It is assumed that text files are
       encoded in the locale character encoding.

       Dos2unix can only detect if a file is in UTF-16 format if the file has a BOM.  When an
       UTF-16 file doesn't have a BOM, dos2unix will see the file as a binary file.

       Use dos2unix in combination with iconv(1) to convert an UTF-16 file without BOM.

       Dos2unix never writes a BOM in the output file, unless you use option "-m".

       Unix2dos writes a BOM in the output file when the input file has a BOM, or when option
       "-m" is used.

   Unicode examples
       Convert from Windows UTF-16 (with BOM) to Unix UTF-8

	   dos2unix -n in.txt out.txt

       Convert from Windows UTF-16 (without BOM) to Unix UTF-8

	   iconv -f UTF-16 -t UTF-8 in.txt | dos2unix > out.txt

       Convert from Unix UTF-8 to Windows UTF-8 with BOM

	   unix2dos -m -n in.txt out.txt

       Convert from Unix UTF-8 to Windows UTF-16

	   unix2dos < in.txt | iconv -f UTF-8 -t UTF-16 > out.txt

EXAMPLES
       Read input from 'stdin' and write output to 'stdout'.

	   dos2unix
	   dos2unix -l -c mac

       Convert and replace a.txt. Convert and replace b.txt.

	   dos2unix a.txt b.txt
	   dos2unix -o a.txt b.txt

       Convert and replace a.txt in ascii conversion mode.

	   dos2unix a.txt

       Convert and replace a.txt in ascii conversion mode.  Convert and replace b.txt in 7bit
       conversion mode.

	   dos2unix a.txt -c 7bit b.txt
	   dos2unix -c ascii a.txt -c 7bit b.txt
	   dos2unix -ascii a.txt -7 b.txt

       Convert a.txt from Mac to Unix format.

	   dos2unix -c mac a.txt
	   mac2unix a.txt

       Convert a.txt from Unix to Mac format.

	   unix2dos -c mac a.txt
	   unix2mac a.txt

       Convert and replace a.txt while keeping original date stamp.

	   dos2unix -k a.txt
	   dos2unix -k -o a.txt

       Convert a.txt and write to e.txt.

	   dos2unix -n a.txt e.txt

       Convert a.txt and write to e.txt, keep date stamp of e.txt same as a.txt.

	   dos2unix -k -n a.txt e.txt

       Convert and replace a.txt. Convert b.txt and write to e.txt.

	   dos2unix a.txt -n b.txt e.txt
	   dos2unix -o a.txt -n b.txt e.txt

       Convert c.txt and write to e.txt. Convert and replace a.txt.  Convert and replace b.txt.
       Convert d.txt and write to f.txt.

	   dos2unix -n c.txt e.txt -o a.txt b.txt -n d.txt f.txt

RECURSIVE CONVERSION
       Use dos2unix in combination with the find(1) and xargs(1) commands to recursively convert
       text files in a directory tree structure. For instance to convert all .txt files in the
       directory tree under the current directory type:

	   find . -name *.txt |xargs dos2unix

LOCALIZATION
       LANG
	   The primary language is selected with the environment variable LANG. The LANG variable
	   consists out of several parts. The first part is in small letters the language code.
	   The second is optional and is the country code in capital letters, preceded with an
	   underscore. There is also an optional third part: character encoding, preceded with a
	   dot. A few examples for POSIX standard type shells:

	       export LANG=nl		    Dutch
	       export LANG=nl_NL	    Dutch, The Netherlands
	       export LANG=nl_BE	    Dutch, Belgium
	       export LANG=es_ES	    Spanish, Spain
	       export LANG=es_MX	    Spanish, Mexico
	       export LANG=en_US.iso88591   English, USA, Latin-1 encoding
	       export LANG=en_GB.UTF-8	    English, UK, UTF-8 encoding

	   For a complete list of language and country codes see the gettext manual:
	   <http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/manual/gettext.html#Language-Codes>

	   On Unix systems you can use to command locale(1) to get locale specific information.

       LANGUAGE
	   With the LANGUAGE environment variable you can specify a priority list of languages,
	   separated by colons. Dos2unix gives preference to LANGUAGE over LANG.  For instance,
	   first Dutch and then German: "LANGUAGE=nl:de". You have to first enable localization,
	   by setting LANG (or LC_ALL) to a value other than "C", before you can use a language
	   priority list through the LANGUAGE variable. See also the gettext manual:
	   <http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/manual/gettext.html#The-LANGUAGE-variable>

	   If you select a language which is not available you will get the standard English
	   messages.

       DOS2UNIX_LOCALEDIR
	   With the environment variable DOS2UNIX_LOCALEDIR the LOCALEDIR set during compilation
	   can be overruled. LOCALEDIR is used to find the language files. The GNU default value
	   is "/usr/local/share/locale".  Option --version will display the LOCALEDIR that is
	   used.

	   Example (POSIX shell):

	       export DOS2UNIX_LOCALEDIR=$HOME/share/locale

RETURN VALUE
       On success, zero is returned.  When a system error occurs the last system error will be
       returned. For other errors 1 is returned.

       The return value is always zero in quiet mode, except when wrong command-line options are
       used.

STANDARDS
       <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Text_file>

       <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carriage_return>

       <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newline>

       <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unicode>

AUTHORS
       Benjamin Lin - <blin@socs.uts.edu.au> Bernd Johannes Wuebben (mac2unix mode) -
       <wuebben@kde.org>, Christian Wurll (add extra newline) - <wurll@ira.uka.de>, Erwin
       Waterlander - <waterlan@xs4all.nl> (Maintainer)

       Project page: <http://waterlan.home.xs4all.nl/dos2unix.html>

       SourceForge page: <http://sourceforge.net/projects/dos2unix/>

       Freecode: <http://freecode.com/projects/dos2unix>

SEE ALSO
       file(1) find(1) iconv(1) locale(1) xargs(1)

dos2unix				    2012-09-15				      dos2unix(1)
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