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LaTeX2HTML(1)			     Debian GNU/Linux manual			    LaTeX2HTML(1)

NAME
       latex2html - translate LaTeX files to HTML (HyperText Markup Language)

SYNOPSIS
       latex2html [options] [target [target ...]]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page explains the LaTeX2HTML utility, which is a Perl program that translates
       LaTeX document into HTML format. For each source file given as an argument the  translator
       will create a directory containing the corresponding HTML files. For details and examples,
       please consult the online html documentation, a copy  of  which	should	be  available  in
       /usr/share/doc/latex2html/manual.ps.gz or /usr/share/doc/latex2html/html/

CAVEAT
       This  documetation  has	been derived from the TeX manual, and may not be uptodate. Please
       refer to the online manual for authoritative documentation.

Options controlling Titles, File-Names and Sectioning
       -t <top-page-title>
	      Same as setting: $TITLE = <top-page-title> ; Name the document using this title.

       -short_extn
	      Same as setting: $SHORTEXTN = 1; Use a filename prefix of  .htm  for  the  produced
	      HTML  files.  This is particularly useful for creating pages to be stored on CD-ROM
	      or other media, to be used with operating systems that require a 3-character exten-
	      sion.

       -long_titles <num>
	      Same  as	setting: $LONG_TITLES = <num>; Instead of the standard names: node1.html,
	      node2.html,... the filenames for each HTML page  are  constructed  from  the  first
	      <num>  words  of the section heading for that page, separated by the `_' character.
	      Commas and common short words (a an to by of and for the)  are  omitted  from  both
	      title and word-count.  Warning: Use this switch with great caution. Currently there
	      are no checks for uniqueness of names or overall length. Very long names can easily
	      result from using this feature.

       -custom_titles
	      Same  as	setting:  $CUSTOM_TITLES  = 1; Instead of the standard names: node1.html,
	      node2.html, ... the filenames for each HTML page are constructed using a Perl  sub-
	      routine  named  custom_title_hook . The user may define his/her own version of this
	      subroutine, within a .latex2html-init file say, to override the default (which uses
	      the  standard  names). This subroutine takes the section-heading as a parameter and
	      must return the required name, or the empty string (default).

       -dir <output-directory>
	      Same as setting: $DESTDIR = <output-directory> ; Redirect the output to the  speci-
	      fied  directory.	 The default behaviour is to create (or reuse) a directory having
	      the same name as the prefix of the document being processed.

       -no_subdir
	      Same as setting: $NO_SUBDIR = 1; Place the generated HTML files  into  the  current
	      directory. This overrides any $DESTDIR setting.

       -prefix <filename-prefix>
	      Same  as	setting:  $PREFIX  =  <filename-prefix>  ;  The <filename-prefix> will be
	      prepended to all .gif, .pl and .html files produced, except for the top-level .html
	      file;  it  may include a (relative) directory path. This will enable multiple prod-
	      ucts of LaTeX2HTML to peacefully coexist in the same  directory.	However,  do  not
	      attempt  to simultaneously run multiple instances of LaTeX2HTML using the same out-
	      put directory, else various temporary files will overwrite each other.

       -auto_prefix
	      Same as setting: $AUTO_PREFIX = 1;  Constructs  the  prefix  as  `<title>-'  to  be
	      prepended  to  all  the files produced, where <title> is the name of the LaTeX file
	      being processed.	(Note the `-' in this prefix.)	This overrides any  $PREFIX  set-
	      ting.

       -no_auto_link
	      Same  as setting: $NO_AUTO_LINK = 1; If $NO_AUTO_LINK is empty and variables $LINK-
	      POINT  and  $LINKNAME  are  defined  appropriately  (as  is  the	default  in   the
	      latex2html.config  file), then a hard link to the main HTML page is produced, using
	      the name supplied in $LINKNAME.  Typically this is index.html; on  many  systems	a
	      file  of	this  name will be used, if it exists, when a browser tries to view a URL
	      which points to a directory. On other systems a different value for  $LINKNAME  may
	      be  appropriate.	Typically  $LINKPOINT  has value $FILE.html, but this may also be
	      changed to match whichever HTML page is to become the target of the automatic link.
	      Use  of  the -no_auto_link switch cancels this automatic linking facility, when not
	      required for a particular document.

       -split <num>
	      Same as setting: $MAX_SPLIT_DEPTH = <num>; (default is 8) Stop  splitting  sections
	      into separate files at this depth. Specifying -split 0 will put the entire document
	      into a single HTML file. See below for the different levels of sectioning. Also see
	      the next item for how to set a ``relative'' depth for splitting.

       -split +<num>
	      Same  as	setting:  $MAX_SPLIT_DEPTH = -<num>; (default is 8) The level at which to
	      stop splitting sections is calculated ``relative to'' the shallowest level of  sec-
	      tioning  that  occurs  within  the  document. For example, if the document contains
	      \section commands, but no \part or \chapter commands, then  -split  +1  will  cause
	      splitting at each \section but not at any deeper level; whereas -split +2 or -split
	      +3 also split down to \subsection and \subsubsection commands respectively.  Speci-
	      fying -split +0 puts the entire document into a single HTML file.

       -link <num>
	      Same  as	setting:  $MAX_LINK_DEPTH  =  <num>; (default is 4) For each node, create
	      links to child nodes down to this much deeper  than  the	node's	sectioning-level.
	      Specifying  -link  0 will show no links to child nodes from that page, -link 1 will
	      show only the immediate descendents, etc.  A value at least as big as that  of  the
	      -split  <num>  depth will produce a mini table-of-contents (when not empty) on each
	      page, for the tree structure rooted at that node.  When the page has a  sectioning-
	      level less than the -split depth, so that the a mini table-of-contents has links to
	      other HTML pages, this table is located at the bottom of the  page,  unless  placed
	      elsewhere using the \tableofchildlinks command.  On pages having a sectioning-level
	      just less than the -split depth the mini table-of-contents contains links  to  sub-
	      sections	etc. occurring on the same HTML page. Now the table is located at the top
	      of this page, unless placed elsewhere using the \tableofchildlinks command.

       -toc_depth <num>
	      Same as setting: $TOC_DEPTH = <num>; (default is 4) Sectioning levels down to <num>
	      are to be included within the Table-of-Contents tree.

       -toc_stars
	      Same  as	setting:  $TOC_STARS = 1; Sections created using the starred-form of sec-
	      tioning commands are included within the Table-of-Contents. As with LaTeX, normally
	      such sections are not listed.

       -show_section_numbers
	      Same  as	setting: $SHOW_SECTION_NUMBERS = 1; Show section numbers. By default sec-
	      tion numbers are not shown, so as to encourage the use of  particular  sections  as
	      stand-alone  documents.	In  order  to be shown, section titles must be unique and
	      must not contain inlined graphics.

       -unsegment
	      Same as setting: $UNSEGMENT = 1; Treat a segmented document (see the section  about
	      document	segmentation)  like it were not segmented. This will cause the translator
	      to concatenate all segments and process them as a whole. You might find this useful
	      to  check  a  segmented document for consistency.  For all documents the sectioning
	      levels referred to above are:
	       0  document
	       1  part
	       2  chapter
	       3  section
	       4  subsection
	       5  subsubsection
	       6  paragraph
	       7  subparagraph
	       8  subsubparagraph

       These levels apply even when the document contains no sectioning for the shallower levels;
       e.g.  no  \part or \chapter commands is most common, especially when using LaTeX's article
       document-class.

Options controlling Extensions and Special Features
       The switches described here govern the type of HTML code that can be generated, and how to
       choose  between the available options when there are alternative strategies for implement-
       ing portions of LaTeX code.

       -html_version (2.0|3.0|3.2)[,(math|i18n|table)]*
	      Same as setting: $HTML_VERSION = ...  ; This specifies both  the	HTML  version  to
	      generate,  and  any  extra  (non-standard) HTML features that may be required.  The
	      version number corresponds to a published DTD for an HTML  standard  (although  3.0
	      was  never  accepted  and subsequently withdrawn). A corresponding Perl file in the
	      versions/ subdirectory is loaded; these files are named `html<num>.pl'.	Following
	      the  version number, a comma-separated list of extensions can be given. Each corre-
	      sponds to a file `<name>.pl' also located in the versions/ subdirectory. When  such
	      a file is loaded the resulting HTML code can no longer be expected to validate with
	      the specified DTD. An exception is math when the	-no_math  switch  is  also  used,
	      which  should  still validate.  Currently, versions 2.0, 3.2 and 4.0 are available.
	      (and also 2.1, 2.2, 3.0 and 3.1, for hoistorical	reasons).  The	extensions  i18n,
	      tables,  math  correspond  roughly to what used to be called versions `2.1', `2.2',
	      `3.1' respectively, in releases of LaTeX2HTML up to 1996. Now these extensions  can
	      be loaded with any of `2.0', `3.2' or `4.0' as the specified standard.  The default
	      version is usually set to be `3.2', within latex2html.config.

       -no_tex_defs
	      Same as setting: $TEXDEFS = 0; (default is 1) When $TEXDEFS is  set  (default)  the
	      file  texdefs.perl  will	be  read. This provides code to allow common TEX commands
	      like \def, \newbox, \newdimen and others, to be recognised, especially  within  the
	      document	preamble.  In  the  case of \def, the definition may even be fully inter-
	      preted, but this requires the pattern-matching  to  be  not  too	complicated.   If
	      $TEXDEFS is `0' or empty, then texdefs.perl will not be loaded; the translator will
	      make no attempt to interpret any raw TEX commands.  This	feature  is  intended  to
	      enable  sophisticated authors the ability to insert arbitrary TEX commands in envi-
	      ronments that are destined to be processed by LaTeX anyway; e.g. figures, theorems,
	      pictures,  etc.	However this should rarely be needed, as now there is better sup-
	      port for these types of environment. There are now other methods to  specify  which
	      chunks  of  code	are  to be passed to LaTeX for explicit image-generation; see the
	      discussion of the makeimage environment.

       -external_file <filename>
	      Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_FILE = <filename> ; Specifies the  prefix  of	the  .aux
	      file  that  this document should read.  The .aux extension will be appended to this
	      prefix to get the complete filename, with directory  path  if  needed.   This  file
	      could  contain necessary information regarding citations, figure, table and section
	      numbers from LaTeX and perhaps other information also. Use of this switch is  vital
	      for  document  segments,	processed separately and linked to appear as if generated
	      from a single LaTeX document.

       -font_size <size>
	      Same as setting: $FONT_SIZE = <size> ; This option provides better control over the
	      font  size of environments made into images using LaTeX.	<size> must be one of the
	      font sizes that LaTeX recognizes; i.e. `10pt',  `11pt',  `12pt',	etc.  Default  is
	      `10pt',  or whatever option may have been specified on the \documentclass or \docu-
	      mentstyle line.  Whatever size is selected, it will be magnified by  the	installa-
	      tion  variables  $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR, $FIGURE_SCALE_FACTOR and $DISP_SCALE_FACTOR as
	      appropriate.  Note: This switch provides no control over the size of  text  on  the
	      HTML  pages. Such control is subject entirely to the user's choices of settings for
	      the browser windows.

       -scalable_fonts
	      Same as setting: $SCALABLE_FONTS = 1; This is used when  scalable  fonts,  such  as
	      PostScript  versions  of the TEX fonts, are available for image-generation.  It has
	      the effect of setting $PK_GENERATION to `1', and $DVIPS_MODE to be empty,  overrid-
	      ing any previous settings for these variables.

       -no_math
	      Same  as	setting:  $NO_SIMPLE_MATH = 1; Ordinarily simple mathematical expressions
	      are set using the ordinary text font, but italiced. When part of the expression can
	      not  be represented this way, an image is made of the whole formula. This is called
	      ``simple math''. When $NO_SIMPLE_MATH is set, then all  mathematics  is  made  into
	      images, whether simple or not.  However, if the math extension is loaded, using the
	      -html_version switch described earlier, then specifying -no_math produces  a  quite
	      different  effect.  Now  it  is the special <MATH> tags and entities which are can-
	      celled. In their place a sophisticated scheme for parsing mathematical  expressions
	      is used. Images are made of those sub-parts of a formula which cannot be adequately
	      expressed using (italiced) text characters and <SUB> and <SUP> tags. See	the  sub-
	      section on mathematics for more details.

       -local_icons
	      Same as setting: $LOCAL_ICONS = 1; A copy of each of the icons actually used within
	      the document is placed in the directory along with the  HTML  files  and	generated
	      images.  This  allows  the  whole  document to be fully self-contained, within this
	      directory; otherwise the icons must be retrieved from a  (perhaps  remote)  server.
	      The icons are normally copied from a subdirectory of the

	      $LATEX2HTMLDIR,
	       set  within latex2html.config. An alternative set of icons can be used by specify-
	      ing a (relative) directory path  in  $ALTERNATIVE_ICONS  to  where  the  customised
	      images can be found.

       -init_file <file>
	      Load the specified initialisation file. This Perl file will be loaded after loading
	      $HOME/.latex2html-init, or .latex2html-init in the local directory, if either  file
	      exists. It is read at the time the switch is processed, so the contents of the file
	      may change any of the values of any of the variables that  were  previously  estab-
	      lished,  as  well  as any default options. More than one initialisation file can be
	      read in this way.  [change_begin]98.1

       -no_fork
	      Same as setting: $NOFORK = 1; When set this disables a feature in the early part of
	      the  processing  whereby some memory-intensive operations are performed by `forked'
	      child processes. Some single-task operating systems, such as DOS,  do  not  support
	      this  feature.  Having  $NOFORK set then ensures that unnecessary file-handles that
	      are needed with the forked  processes,  are  not	consumed  unnecessarily,  perhaps
	      resulting in a fatal Perl error.

       -iso_language <type>
	      This  enables  you to specify a different language type than 'EN' to be used in the
	      DTD entries of the HTML document, e.g. 'EN.US'.  [change_end] 98.1

       -short_index
	      Same as setting: $SHORT_INDEX = 1; Creates shorter Index listings,  using  codified
	      links; this is fully compatible with the makeidx package.

       -no_footnode
	      Same as setting: $NO_FOOTNODE = 1; Suppresses use of a separate file for footnotes;
	      instead these are placed at the bottom of  the  HTML  pages  where  the  references
	      occur.  When this option is used, it is frequently desirable to change the style of
	      the marker used to indicate the presence of a footnote. This is done as  in  LaTeX,
	      using code such as follows.  \renewcommand{\thefootnote}{\arabic{footnote}} All the
	      styles \arabic, \alph, \roman, \Alph and \Roman are available.  [change_begin]98.1

       -numbered_footnotes
	      Same as setting: $NUMBERED_FOOTNOTES = 1; If this is set you will get  every  foot-
	      note applied with a subsequent number, to ease readability.  [change_end] 98.1

       -address <author-address>
	      Same  as	setting:  $ADDRESS = <author-address> ; Sign each page with this address.
	      See latex2html.config for an example using Perl code to automatically  include  the
	      date.   A  user-defined Perl subroutine called &custom_address can be used instead,
	      if defined; it takes the value of $ADDRESS as a parameter, which	may  be  used  or
	      ignored  as  desired.  At  the  time when this subroutine will be called, variables
	      named $depth, $title, $file hold the sectioning-level, title and	filename  of  the
	      HTML  page  being produced; $FILE holds the name of the filename for the title-page
	      of the whole document.

       -info <string>
	      Same as setting: $INFO = <string> ; Generate a new section ``About this  document''
	      containing  information about the document being translated. The default is to gen-
	      erate such a section with information on the original document, the date, the  user
	      and  the	translator.  An  empty string (or the value `0') disables the creation of
	      this extra section.  If a non-empty string is given, it will be placed as the  con-
	      tents of the ``About this document'' page instead of the default information.

Switches controlling Image Generation
       These  switches affect whether images are created at all, whether old images are reused on
       subsequent runs or new ones created afresh, and whether	anti-aliasing  effects	are  used
       within the images themselves.

       -ascii_mode
	      Same  as setting: $ASCII_MODE = $EXTERNAL_IMAGES = 1; Use only ASCII characters and
	      do not include any images in the final output. With -ascii_mode the output  of  the
	      translator can be used on character-based browsers, such as lynx, which do not sup-
	      port inlined images (via the <IMG> tag).

       -nolatex
	      Same as setting: $NOLATEX = 1; Disable the mechanism for passing	unknown  environ-
	      ments  to  LaTeX	for  processing.  This	can be thought of as ``draft mode'' which
	      allows faster translation of the basic document structure and text,  without  fancy
	      figures,	equations  or tables.  (This option has been superseded by the -no_images
	      option, see below.)

       -external_images
	      Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_IMAGES = 1; Instead of including  any	generated  images
	      inside the document, leave them outside the document and provide hypertext links to
	      them.

       -ps_images
	      Same as setting: $PS_IMAGES = $EXTERNAL_IMAGES = 1; Use  links  to  external  Post-
	      Script files rather than inlined images in the chosen graphics format.

       -discard
	      Same  as	setting:  $DISCARD_PS  =  1; The temporary PostScript files are discarded
	      immediately after they have been used to create the image in the	desired  graphics
	      format.

       -no_images
	      Same  as setting: $NO_IMAGES = 1; Do not attempt to produce any inlined images. The
	      missing images can be generated ``off-line''  by	restarting  LaTeX2HTML	with  the
	      option -images_only .

       -images_only
	      Same as setting: $IMAGES_ONLY = 1; Try to convert any inlined images that were left
	      over from previous runs of LaTeX2HTML.

       -reuse <reuse_option>
	      Same as setting: $REUSE = <reuse_option>; This switch specifies the extent to which
	      image  files are to be shared or recycled.  There are three valid options: [*] 0 Do
	      not ever share or recycle image files.  This choice  also  invokes  an  interactive
	      session prompting the user about what to do about a pre-existing HTML directory, if
	      it exists.  [*] 1 Recycle image files from a previous run if  they  are  available,
	      but  do not share identical images that must be created in this run.  [*] 2 Recycle
	      image files from a previous run and share identical images from this run.  This  is
	      the default.  A later section provides additional information about image-reuse.

       -no_reuse
	      Same as setting: $REUSE = 0; Do not share or recycle images generated during previ-
	      ous translations.  This is equivalent to -reuse 0 . (This will enable  the  initial
	      interactive  session during which the user is asked whether to reuse the old direc-
	      tory, delete its contents or quit.)

       -antialias
	      Same as setting: $ANTI_ALIAS = 1; (Default is 0.)  Generated images of figure envi-
	      ronments	and  external PostScript files should use anti-aliasing. By default anti-
	      aliasing is not used with these images, since this may interfere with the  contents
	      of the images themselves.

       -antialias_text
	      Same as setting: $ANTI_ALIAS_TEXT = 1; (Default is 1.)  Generated images of typeset
	      material such as text, mathematical formulas, tables and the content  of	makeimage
	      environments,  should  use  anti-aliasing  effects.  The default is normally to use
	      anti-aliasing for text, since the resulting images are much clearer on-screen. How-
	      ever the default may have been changed locally.

       -no_antialias
	      Same as setting: $ANTI_ALIAS = 0; (Default is 0.)  Generated images of figure envi-
	      ronments and external PostScript files should not use  anti-aliasing  with  images,
	      though the local default may have been changed to use it.

       -no_antialias_text
	      Same as setting: $ANTI_ALIAS_TEXT = 0; (Default is 1.)  Generated images of typeset
	      material should not use anti-aliasing effects. Although on-screen  images  of  text
	      are  definitely  improved using anti-aliasing, printed images can be badly blurred,
	      even at 300dpi. Higher resolution printers do a much better job with the	resulting
	      grey-scale images.  [change_begin]98.1

       -white Same  as	setting:  $WHITE_BACKGROUND  = 1; (Default is 1.)  Ensures that images of
	      figure environments have a white background.  Otherwise  transparency  effects  may
	      not work correctly.

       -no_white
	      Same  as	setting: $WHITE_BACKGROUND = ''; (Default is 1.)  Cancels the requirement
	      that figure environments have a white background.

       -ldump Same as setting: $LATEX_DUMP = 1; (Default is 0.)  Use this if you want to speed up
	      image processing during the 2nd and subsequent runs of LaTeX2HTML on the same docu-
	      ment. The translator now produces a LaTeX format-dump of the preamble to images.tex
	      which  is used on subsequent runs. This significantly reduces the startup time when
	      LaTeX reads the images.tex file for image-generation.  This process  actually  con-
	      sumes additional time on the first run, since LaTeX is called twice -- once to cre-
	      ate the format-dump, then again to load and use it.  The	pay-off  comes	with  the
	      faster loading on subsequent runs. Approximately 1 Meg of disk space is consumed by
	      the dump file.  [change_end] 98.1

Switches controlling Navigation Panels
       The following switches govern whether to include one or more  navigation  panels  on  each
       HTML page, also which buttons to include within such a panel.

       -no_navigation
	      Same  as	setting: $NO_NAVIGATION = 1; Disable the mechanism for putting navigation
	      links in each page.  This overrides any  settings  of  the  $TOP_NAVIGATION,  $BOT-
	      TOM_NAVIGATION and $AUTO_NAVIGATION variables.

       -top_navigation
	      Same as setting: $TOP_NAVIGATION = 1; Put navigation links at the top of each page.

       -bottom_navigation
	      Same as setting: $BOTTOM_NAVIGATION = 1; Put navigation links at the bottom of each
	      page as well as the top.

       -auto_navigation
	      Same as setting: $AUTO_NAVIGATION = 1; Put navigation links  at  the  top  of  each
	      page.  Also  put	one at the bottom of the page, if the page exceeds $WORDS_IN_PAGE
	      number of words (default = 450).

       -next_page_in_navigation
	      Same as setting: $NEXT_PAGE_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to the next logical  page
	      in the navigation panel.

       -previous_page_in_navigation
	      Same as setting: $PREVIOUS_PAGE_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to the previous logi-
	      cal page in the navigation panel.

       -contents_in_navigation
	      Same as setting: $CONTENTS_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to  the	table-of-contents
	      in the navigation panel if there is one.

       -index_in_navigation
	      Same as setting: $INDEX_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to the index-page in the nav-
	      igation panel if there is an index.

Switches for Linking to other documents
       When processing a single stand-alone document, the  switches  described	in  this  section
       should  not  be	needed	at  all,  since  the  automatically  generated navigation panels,
       described on the previous page should generate all the required navigation links.  However
       if  a  document	is  to be regarded as part of a much larger document, then links from its
       first and final pages, to locations in other parts of the larger (virtual) document,  need
       to  be provided explicitly for some of the buttons in the navigation panel.  The following
       switches allow for such links to other documents, by providing the title and URL for navi-
       gation  panel hyperlinks. In particular, the ``Document Segmentation'' feature necessarily
       makes great use of these switches. It is usual for the text and targets of  these  naviga-
       tion  hyperlinks  to  be  recorded in a Makefile, to avoid tedious typing of long command-
       lines having many switches.

       -up_url <URL>
	      Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_UP_LINK = <URL> ; Specifies a universal resource locator
	      (URL) to associate with the ``UP'' button in the navigation panel(s).

       -up_title <string>
	      Same  as setting: $EXTERNAL_UP_TITLE = <string> ; Specifies a title associated with
	      this URL.

       -prev_url <URL>
	      Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_PREV_LINK = <URL> ; Specifies a URL  to  associate  with
	      the ``PREVIOUS'' button in the navigation panel(s).

       -prev_title <string>
	      Same  as	setting:  $EXTERNAL_PREV_TITLE	= <string> ; Specifies a title associated
	      with this URL.

       -down_url <URL>
	      Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_DOWN_LINK = <URL> ; Specifies a  URL  for  the  ``NEXT''
	      button in the navigation panel(s).

       -down_title <string>
	      Same  as	setting:  $EXTERNAL_DOWN_TITLE	= <string> ; Specifies a title associated
	      with this URL.

       -contents <URL>
	      Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_CONTENTS = <URL> ; Specifies a URL for the  ``CONTENTS''
	      button, for document segments that would not otherwise have one.

       -index <URL>
	      Same  as	setting: $EXTERNAL_INDEX = <URL> ; Specifies a URL for the ``INDEX'' but-
	      ton, for document segments that otherwise would not have an index.

       -biblio <URL>
	      Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_BIBLIO = <URL> ; Specifies the URL for the  bibliography
	      page to be used, when not explicitly part of the document itself.  Warning: On some
	      systems it is difficult to give text-strings <string> containing space  characters,
	      on  the command-line or via a Makefile. One way to overcome this is to use the cor-
	      responding variable. Another way is to replace the spaces with underscores (_).

Switches for Help and Tracing
       The first two of the following switches are self-explanatory. When problems arise in  pro-
       cessing	a document, the switches -debug and -verbosity will each cause LaTeX2HTML to gen-
       erate more output to the screen. These extra messages should help to locate the	cause  of
       the problem.

       -tmp <path>
	      Define a temporary directory to use for image generation. If <path> is 0, the stan-
	      dard temporary directory /tmp is used.

       -h(elp)
	      Print out the list of all command-line options.

       -v     Print the current version of LaTeX2HTML.

       -debug Same as setting: $DEBUG = 1; Run in debug-mode, displaying messages and/or diagnos-
	      tic  information	about  files read, and utilities called by LaTeX2HTML.	Shows any
	      messages produced by these calls.  More extensive diagnostics, from the Perl debug-
	      ger,  can  be  obtained  by  appending  the  string  `-w-'  to  the 1st line of the
	      latex2html (and other) Perl script(s).

       -verbosity <num>
	      Same as setting: $VERBOSITY = <num>; Display messages revealing certain aspects  of
	      the  processing  performed  by  LaTeX2HTML on the provided input file(s). The <num>
	      parameter can be an integer in the range 0 to 8. Each higher value adds to the mes-
	      sages produced.

       0.     No special tracing; as for versions of LaTeX2HTML prior to V97.1.

       1.     (This is the default.) Show section-headings and the corresponding HTML file names,
	      and indicators that major stages in the processing have been completed.

       2.     Print environment names and identifier numbers, and new theorem-types.  Show  warn-
	      ings  as	they  occur, and indicators for more stages of processing. Print names of
	      files for storing auxiliary data arrays.

       3.     Print command names as they are encountered and processed; also  any  unknown  com-
	      mands  encountered  while pre-processing. Show names of new commands, environments,
	      theorems, counters and counter-dependencies, for each document partition.

       4.     Indicate command-substitution the pre-process of math-environments. Print the  con-
	      tents  of  unknown  environments	for  processing  in  LaTeX, both before and after
	      reverting to LaTeX source. Show all operations affecting the  values  of	counters.
	      Also show links, labels and sectioning keys, at the stages of processing.

       5.     Detail  the processing in the document preamble. Show substitutions of new environ-
	      ments. Show the contents of all recognised environments, both before and after pro-
	      cessing.	Show  the  cached/encoded  information	for  the image keys, allowing two
	      images to be tested for equality.

       6.     Show replacements of new commands, accents and wrapped commands.

       7.     Trace the processing of commands in math mode; both before and after.

       8.     Trace the processing of all commands, both  before  and  after.	The  command-line
	      option sets an initial value only. During processing the value of $VERBOSITY can be
	      set dynamically using the \htmltracing{...} command, whose argument is the  desired
	      value,  or  by  using  the  more general \HTMLset command as follows: \HTMLset{VER-
	      BOSITY}{<num>}.

Other Configuration Variables, without switches
       The configuration variables described here do not warrant having a command-line switch  to
       assign  values. Either they represent aspects of LaTeX2HTML that are specific to the local
       site, or they govern properties that should apply to all documents, rather than	something
       that typically would change for the different documents within a particular sub-directory.
       Normally these variables have their value set within the latex2html.config  file.  In  the
       following  listing  the	defaults  are  shown, as the lines of Perl code used to establish
       these values. If a different value is required, then these can be assigned  from  a  local
       .latex2html-init  initialisation  file, without affecting the defaults for other users, or
       documents processed from other directories.

       $dd    holds the string to be used in file-names to delimit directories; it is set  inter-
	      nally  to  `/',  unless  the  variable  has  already  been  given  a  value  within
	      latex2html.config .  Note: This value cannot be set within a .latex2html-init  ini-
	      tialisation file, since its value needs to be known in order to find such a file.

       $LATEX2HTMLDIR
	      Read  by the install-test script from latex2html.config, its value is inserted into
	      the latex2html Perl script as part of the installation process.

       $LATEX2HTMLSTYLES = $LATEX2HTMLDIR/styles ;
	      Read from the latex2html.config file by  install-test,  its  value  is  checked  to
	      locate the styles/ directory.

       $LATEX2HTMLVERSIONS = $LATEX2HTMLDIR/versions ;
	      The  value  of  this variable should be set within latex2html.config to specify the
	      directory path where the version and extension files can be found.

       $ALTERNATIVE_ICONS = '';
	      This may contain the (relative) directory path to a set of customised icons  to  be
	      used in conjunction with the -local_icons switch.

       $TEXEXPAND = $LATEX2HTMLDIR/texexpand ;
	      Read  by	the install-test Perl script from latex2html.config, its value is used to
	      locate the texexpand Perl script.

       $PSTOIMG = $LATEX2HTMLDIR/pstoimg ;
	      Read by the install-test Perl script from latex2html.config, its value is  used  to
	      locate the pstoimg Perl script.

       $IMAGE_TYPE = '<image-type>';
	      Set in latex2html.config, the currently supported <image-type>s are: gif and png.

       $DVIPS = 'dvips';
	      Read  from  latex2html.config  by  install-test, its value is checked to locate the
	      dvips program or script.	There could be several reasons to change the value  here:
	      o  add  a  switch  -P<printer> to load a specific configuration-file; e.g. to use a
	      specific set of PostScript fonts, for improved image-generation.	o  to  prepend	a
	      path  to a different version of dvips than normally available as the system default
	      (e.g. the printing requirements are different).  o to append debugging switches, in
	      case  of	poor quality images; one can see which paths are being searched for fonts
	      and other resources.  o to prepend commands for setting path variables  that  dvips
	      may  need  in order to locate fonts or other resources.  If automatic generation of
	      fonts is required, using Metafont, the following configuration variables are impor-
	      tant.

	      $PK_GENERATION = 1;
		     This variable must be set, to initiate font-generation; otherwise fonts will
		     be scaled from existing resources on the local system.  In  particular  this
		     variable  must  not  be  set, if one wishes to use PostScript fonts or other
		     scalable font resources (see the -scalable_fonts switch).

	      $DVIPS_MODE = 'toshiba';
		     The mode given here must be available in the modes.mf file, located with the
		     Metafont resource files, perhaps in the misc/ subdirectory.

	      $METAFONT_DPI = 180;
		     The  required  resolution,  in  dots-per-inch, should be listed specifically
		     within the MakeTeXPK script, called by dvips to  invoke  Metafont	with  the
		     correct parameters for the required fonts.

       $LATEX = 'latex';
	      Read  from  latex2html.config  by  install-test, its value is checked to locate the
	      latex program or script.	If LaTeX is having  trouble  finding  style-files  and/or
	      packages,  then  the  default  command  can be prepended with other commands to set
	      environment variables intended  to  resolve  these  difficulties;  e.g.	$LATEX	=
	      'setenv  TEXINPUTS <path to search> ; latex' .  There are several variables to help
	      control exactly which files are read by LaTeX2HTML and  by  LaTeX  when  processing
	      images:

	      $TEXINPUTS
		     This is normally set from the environment variable of the same name. If dif-
		     ficulties occur so that styles and packages are not being found, then  extra
		     paths can be specified here, to resolve these difficulties.

	      $DONT_INCLUDE
		     This  provides  a	list  of filenames and extensions to not include, even if
		     requested	to  do	so  by	an  \input   or   \include   command.	 (Consult
		     latex2html.config for the default list.)

	      $DO_INCLUDE = '';
		     List of exceptions within the $DONT_INCLUDE list. These files are to be read
		     if requested by an \input or \include command.

       $ICONSERVER = '<URL>';
	      This is used to specify a URL to find the standard icons, as used for  the  naviga-
	      tion buttons.  Names for the specific images size, as well as size information, can
	      be found in latex2html.config. The icons themselves can be replaced  by  customised
	      versions,  provided  this  information is correctly updated and the location of the
	      customised images specified as the value of  $ICONSERVER.   When	the  -local_icons
	      switch is used, so that a copy of the icons is placed with the HTML files and other
	      generated images, the value of $ICONSERVER is not  needed  within  the  HTML  files
	      themselves.  However  it	is  needed to find the original icons to be copied to the
	      local directory.

       $NAV_BORDER = <num>;
	      The value given here results in a border, measured in points, around each icon.	A
	      value of `0' is common, to maintain strict alignment of inactive and active buttons
	      in the control panels.

       $LINKNAME = '"index.$EXTN"';
	      This is used when the $NO_AUTO_LINK variable is empty, to allow a URL to the  work-
	      ing directory to be sufficient to reach the main page of the completed document. It
	      specifies the name of the HTML file which  will  be  automatically  linked  to  the
	      directory  name.	 The  value  of $EXTN is .html unless $SHORTEXTN is set, in which
	      case it is .htm .

       $LINKPOINT = '"$FILE$EXTN"';
	      This specifies the name of the HTML file to be duplicated, or symbolically  linked,
	      with  the  name specified in $LINKNAME.  At the appropriate time the value of $FILE
	      is the document name, which usually coincides with the name of the  working  direc-
	      tory.

       $CHARSET = 'iso_8859_1';
	      This specifies the character set used within the HTML pages produced by LaTeX2HTML.
	      If no value is set in a configuration or initialisation  file,  the  default  value
	      will  be assumed. The lowercase form $charset is also recognised, but this is over-
	      ridden by the uppercase form.

       $ACCENT_IMAGES = 'large';
	      Accented characters that are not part of the ISO-Latin fonts can	be  generated  by
	      making  an  image  using LaTeX.  This variable contains a (comma-separated) list of
	      LaTeX commands for setting the style to be used when these images are made. If  the
	      value  of  this  variable  is empty then the accent is simply ignored, using an un-
	      accented font character (not an image) instead.  Within the color.perl package, the
	      following  variables  are used to identify the names of files containing specifica-
	      tions for named colors. Files having these names are provided, in the  $LATEX2HTML-
	      STYLES  directory,  but  they  could be moved elsewhere, or replaced by alternative
	      files having different names.  In such a case the values of these variables  should
	      be altered accordingly.
	       $RGBCOLORFILE = 'rgb.txt';
	       $CRAYOLAFILE = 'crayola.txt'; The following variables may well be altered from the
	      system defaults, but this is best done using a local  .latex2html-init  initialisa-
	      tion  file,  for	overall consistency of style within documents located at the same
	      site, or sites in close proximity.

       $default_language = 'english';
	      This establishes which language code is to be placed within the <!DOCTYPE ... > tag
	      that  may appear at the beginning of the HTML pages produced. Loading a package for
	      an alternative language can be expected to change the value of this variable.   See
	      also the $TITLES_LANGUAGE variable, described next.

       $TITLES_LANGUAGE = 'english';
	      This variable is used to specify the actual strings used for standard document sec-
	      tions, such as ``Contents'', ``References'', ``Table of Contents'',  etc.   Support
	      for French and German titles is available in corresponding packages. Loading such a
	      package  will  normally  alter  the  value  of  this  variable,  as  well  as   the
	      $default_language variable described above.

       $WORDS_IN_NAVIGATION_PANEL_TITLES = 4;
	      Specifies  how many words to use from section titles, within the textual hyperlinks
	      which accompany the navigation buttons.

       $WORDS_IN_PAGE = 450;
	      Specifies the minimum page length required before a navigation panel is  placed  at
	      the bottom of a page, when the $AUTO_NAVIGATION variable is set.

       $CHILDLINE = <BR><HR>;
	      This  gives  the HTML code to be placed between the child-links table and the ordi-
	      nary contents of the page on which it occurs.

       $NETSCAPE_HTML = 0;
	      When set, this variable specifies that HTML code may be present which does not con-
	      form  to	any official standard. This restricts the contents of any <!DOCTYPE ... >
	      tag which may be placed at the beginning of the HTML pages produced.

       $BODYTEXT = '';
	      The value of this variable is used within the <BODY ... > tag;  e.g.  to	set  text
	      and/or  background  colors.  It's value is overridden by the \bodytext command, and
	      can be added-to or parts changed using the \htmlbody command or \color  and  \page-
	      color from the color package.

       $INTERLACE = 1;
	      When  set,  interlaced images should be produced.  This requires graphics utilities
	      to be available to perform the interlacing operation.

       $TRANSPARENT_FIGURES = 1;
	      When set, the background of images should be  made  transparent;	otherwise  it  is
	      white.   This  requires  graphics  utilities  to be available which can specify the
	      color to be made transparent.

       $FIGURE_SCALE_FACTOR = 1.6;
	      Scale factor applied to all images of figure and	other  environments,  when  being
	      made  into an image.  Note that this does not apply to recognised mathematics envi-
	      ronments, which instead use the contents of $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR and $DISP_SCALE_FAC-
	      TOR to specify scaling.

       $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR = 1.6;
	      Scale  factor  applied  to  all images of mathematics, both inline and displayed. A
	      value of 1.4 is a good alternative, with anti-aliased images.

       $DISP_SCALE_FACTOR = 1;
	      Extra scale factor applied to images of displayed  math  environments.   When  set,
	      this  value  multiplies  $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR  to  give the total scaling. A value of
	      `1.2' is a good choice to accompany $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR = 1.4;.

       $EXTRA_IMAGE_SCALE
	      This may hold an extra scale factor that can be applied to  all  generated  images.
	      When  set, it specifies that a scaling of $EXTRA_IMAGE_SCALE be applied when images
	      are created, but to have their height and width recorded	as  the  un-scaled  size.
	      This  is	to  coax  browsers  into  scaling  the (usually larger) images to fit the
	      desired size; when printed a better quality can be obtained. Values  of  `1.5'  and
	      `2' give good print quality at 600dpi.

       $PAPERSIZE = 'a5';
	      Specifies  the  size  of	a page for typesetting figures or displayed math, when an
	      image is to be generated.  This affects the lengths of lines of text within images.
	      Since images of text or mathematics should use larger sizes than when printed, else
	      clarity is lost at screen resolutions,  then  a  smaller	paper-size  is	generally
	      advisable.   This   is   especially   so	 if   both   the  $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR  and
	      $DISP_SCALE_FACTOR scaling factors are being used,  else	some  images  may  become
	      excessively large, including a lot of blank space.

       $LINE_WIDTH = 500;
	      Formerly	specified  the	width of an image, when the contents were to be right- or
	      center-justified. (No longer used.)

       The following variables are used to access the utilities required during image-generation.
       File  and  program  locations on the local system are established by the configure-pstoimg
       Perl script and stored within $LATEX2HTMLDIR/local.pm as Perl code, to be read by  pstoimg
       when required.  After running the configure-pstoimg Perl script it should not be necessary
       to alter the values obtained. Those shown below are what happens on the	author's  system;
       they are for illustration only and do not represent default values.

	$GS_LIB = '/usr/local/share/ghostscript/4.02';
	$PNMCAT = '/usr/local/bin/pnmcat';
	$PPMQUANT = '/usr/local/bin/ppmquant';
	$PNMFLIP = '/usr/local/bin/pnmflip';
	$PPMTOGIF = '/usr/local/bin/ppmtogif';
	$HOWTO_TRANSPARENT_GIF = 'netpbm';
	$GS_DEVICE = 'pnmraw';
	$GS = '/usr/local/bin/gs';
	$PNMFILE = '/usr/local/bin/pnmfile';
	$HOWTO_INTERLACE_GIF = 'netpbm';
	$PBMMAKE = '/usr/local/bin/pbmmake';
	$PNMCROP = '/usr/local/bin/pnmcrop';
	$TMP = '/usr/var/tmp'; The following variables are no longer needed, having been replaced
       by the more specific information obtained using the Perl script configure-pstoimg.
	$USENETPBM = 1;
	$PBMPLUSDIR = '/usr/local/bin';

SEE ALSO
       latex(1)

AUTHOR
       Nikos Drakos,  Computer Based Learning Unit, University of Leeds  <nikos@cbl.leeds.ac.uk>.
       Several	people have contributed suggestions, ideas, solutions, support and encouragement.
       The current maintainer is Ross Moore.  This manual page was written  by	Manoj  Srivastava
       <srivasta@debian.org>,  for  the Debian GNU/Linux system, based on the LaTeX documentation
       accompanying the program.

Debian					   March 1 2000 			    LaTeX2HTML(1)
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