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GIT-LOG(1)				    Git Manual				       GIT-LOG(1)

NAME
       git-log - Show commit logs

SYNOPSIS
       git log [<options>] [<revision range>] [[--] <path>...]

DESCRIPTION
       Shows the commit logs.

       The command takes options applicable to the git rev-list command to control what is shown
       and how, and options applicable to the git diff-* commands to control how the changes each
       commit introduces are shown.

OPTIONS
       --follow
	   Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames (works only for a single file).

       --no-decorate, --decorate[=short|full|no]
	   Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown. If short is specified, the ref
	   name prefixes refs/heads/, refs/tags/ and refs/remotes/ will not be printed. If full
	   is specified, the full ref name (including prefix) will be printed. The default option
	   is short.

       --source
	   Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each commit was reached.

       --use-mailmap
	   Use mailmap file to map author and committer names and email to canonical real names
	   and email addresses. See git-shortlog(1).

       --full-diff
	   Without this flag, "git log -p <path>..." shows commits that touch the specified
	   paths, and diffs about the same specified paths. With this, the full diff is shown for
	   commits that touch the specified paths; this means that "<path>..." limits only
	   commits, and doesn't limit diff for those commits.

	   Note that this affects all diff-based output types, e.g. those produced by --stat etc.

       --log-size
	   Before the log message print out its size in bytes. Intended mainly for porcelain
	   tools consumption. If Git is unable to produce a valid value size is set to zero. Note
	   that only message is considered, if also a diff is shown its size is not included.

       <revision range>
	   Show only commits in the specified revision range. When no <revision range> is
	   specified, it defaults to HEAD (i.e. the whole history leading to the current commit).
	   origin..HEAD specifies all the commits reachable from the current commit (i.e.  HEAD),
	   but not from origin. For a complete list of ways to spell <revision range>, see the
	   "Specifying Ranges" section of gitrevisions(7).

       [--] <path>...
	   Show only commits that are enough to explain how the files that match the specified
	   paths came to be. See "History Simplification" below for details and other
	   simplification modes.

	   Paths may need to be prefixed with "-- " to separate them from options or the revision
	   range, when confusion arises.

   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the special notations
       explained in the description, additional commit limiting may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g. --since=<date1> limits to
       commits newer than <date1>, and using it with --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits
       whose log message has a line that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise noted.

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting options, such as
       --reverse.

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
	   Limit the number of commits to output.

       --skip=<number>
	   Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
	   Show commits more recent than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
	   Show commits older than a specific date.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
	   Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines that match the
	   specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one --author=<pattern>, commits
	   whose author matches any of the given patterns are chosen (similarly for multiple
	   --committer=<pattern>).

       --grep-reflog=<pattern>
	   Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that match the specified pattern
	   (regular expression). With more than one --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog message
	   matches any of the given patterns are chosen. It is an error to use this option unless
	   --walk-reflogs is in use.

       --grep=<pattern>
	   Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the specified pattern
	   (regular expression). With more than one --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message
	   matches any of the given patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

	   When --show-notes is in effect, the message from the notes as if it is part of the log
	   message.

       --all-match
	   Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep, instead of ones that
	   match at least one.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
	   Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.

       --basic-regexp
	   Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions; this is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
	   Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions instead of the
	   default basic regular expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
	   Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret pattern as a
	   regular expression).

       --perl-regexp
	   Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regexp. Requires libpcre to be
	   compiled in.

       --remove-empty
	   Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

       --merges
	   Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as --min-parents=2.

       --no-merges
	   Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is exactly the same as
	   --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents, --no-max-parents
	   Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many commits. In particular,
	   --max-parents=1 is the same as --no-merges, --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.
	   --max-parents=0 gives all root commits and --min-parents=3 all octopus merges.

	   --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to no limit) again.
	   Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit has 0 or more parents) and
	   --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no upper limit).

       --first-parent
	   Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This option can give a
	   better overview when viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch, because
	   merges into a topic branch tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from
	   time to time, and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits brought in
	   to your history by such a merge.

       --not
	   Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all following revision
	   specifiers, up to the next --not.

       --all
	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/ are listed on the command line as <commit>.

       --branches[=<pattern>]
	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the command line as <commit>.
	   If <pattern> is given, limit branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern
	   lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

       --tags[=<pattern>]
	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command line as <commit>. If
	   <pattern> is given, limit tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?,
	   *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

       --remotes[=<pattern>]
	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the command line as <commit>.
	   If <pattern> is given, limit remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell
	   glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

       --glob=<glob-pattern>
	   Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern> are listed on the
	   command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is automatically prepended if missing. If
	   pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

       --ignore-missing
	   Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the bad input was not
	   given.

       --bisect
	   Pretend as if the bad bisection ref refs/bisect/bad was listed and as if it was
	   followed by --not and the good bisection refs refs/bisect/good-* on the command line.

       --stdin
	   In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them from the standard
	   input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to
	   limit the result.

       --cherry-mark
	   Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with = rather than omitting
	   them, and inequivalent ones with +.

       --cherry-pick
	   Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit on the "other side"
	   when the set of commits are limited with symmetric difference.

	   For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to list all commits on
	   only one side of them is with --left-right (see the example below in the description
	   of the --left-right option). It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked from
	   the other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked from branch A). With
	   this option, such pairs of commits are excluded from the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
	   List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric range, i.e. only those which
	   would be marked < resp.  > by --left-right.

	   For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits from B which are in
	   A or are patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In other words, this lists the + commits
	   from git cherry A B. More precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the
	   exact list.

       --cherry
	   A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful to limit the output to
	   the commits on our side and mark those that have been applied to the other side of a
	   forked history with git log --cherry upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry
	   upstream mybranch.

       -g, --walk-reflogs
	   Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries from the most recent
	   one to older ones. When this option is used you cannot specify commits to exclude
	   (that is, ^commit, commit1..commit2, nor commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

	   With --pretty format other than oneline (for obvious reasons), this causes the output
	   to have two extra lines of information taken from the reflog. By default, commit@{Nth}
	   notation is used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as commit@{now},
	   output also uses commit@{timestamp} notation instead. Under --pretty=oneline, the
	   commit message is prefixed with this information on the same line. This option cannot
	   be combined with --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

       --merge
	   After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a conflict and don't exist on
	   all heads to merge.

       --boundary
	   Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually not shown.

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the commits
       modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of History Simplification, one part
       is selecting the commits and the other is how to do it, as there are various strategies to
       simplify the history.

       The following options select the commits to be shown:

       <paths>
	   Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

       --simplify-by-decoration
	   Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

       The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

       Default mode
	   Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final state of the tree.
	   Simplest because it prunes some side branches if the end result is the same (i.e.
	   merging branches with the same content)

       --full-history
	   Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

       --dense
	   Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a meaningful history.

       --sparse
	   All commits in the simplified history are shown.

       --simplify-merges
	   Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges from the resulting
	   history, as there are no selected commits contributing to this merge.

       --ancestry-path
	   When given a range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2 or commit2 ^commit1),
	   only display commits that exist directly on the ancestry chain between the commit1 and
	   commit2, i.e. commits that are both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that modify foo !TREESAME,
       and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for foo, they look different and equal,
       respectively.)

       In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to illustrate the
       differences between simplification settings. We assume that you are filtering for a file
       foo in this commit graph:

		     .-A---M---N---O---P
		    /	  /   /   /   /
		   I	 B   C	 D   E
		    \	/   /	/   /
		     `-------------'

       The horizontal line of history A---P is taken to be the first parent of each merge. The
       commits are:

       o   I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents "asdf", and a file quux
	   exists with contents "quux". Initial commits are compared to an empty tree, so I is
	   !TREESAME.

       o   In A, foo contains just "foo".

       o   B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and hence TREESAME to all
	   parents.

       o   C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to "foobar", so it is not TREESAME
	   to any parent.

       o   D sets foo to "baz". Its merge O combines the strings from N and D to "foobarbaz";
	   i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       o   E changes quux to "xyzzy", and its merge P combines the strings to "quux xyzzy".
	   Despite appearing interesting, P is TREESAME to all parents.

       rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding commits based on whether
       --full-history and/or parent rewriting (via --parents or --children) are used. The
       following settings are available.

       Default mode
	   Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent (though this can be
	   changed, see --sparse below). If the commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one
	   parent, follow only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME parents, follow
	   only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all parents.

	   This results in:

			 .-A---N---O
			/     /   /
		       I---------D

	   Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is available, removed B
	   from consideration entirely.  C was considered via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits
	   are compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

	   Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does not affect the
	   commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
	   This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all parents of a merge,
	   even if it is TREESAME to one of them. Even if more than one side of the merge has
	   commits that are included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In the
	   example, we get

		       I  A  B	N  D  O

	   P and M were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent.  E, C and B were all
	   walked, but only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not appear.

	   Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk about the
	   parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show them disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
	   Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME (though this can be changed,
	   see --sparse below).

	   Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten: Along each
	   parent, prune away commits that are not included themselves. This results in

			 .-A---M---N---O---P
			/     /   /   /   /
		       I     B	 /   D	 /
			\   /	/   /	/
			 `-------------'

	   Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E was pruned away because
	   it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was rewritten to contain E's parent I. The
	   same happened for C and N. Note also that P was included despite being TREESAME.

       In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME affects inclusion:

       --dense
	   Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent.

       --sparse
	   All commits that are walked are included.

	   Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies merges: if one of the parents
	   is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other sides of the merge are never
	   walked.

       --simplify-merges
	   First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history with parent rewriting
	   does (see above).

	   Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the final history according to
	   the following rules:

	   o   Set C' to C.

	   o   Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'. In the process, drop
	       parents that are ancestors of other parents, and remove duplicates.

	   o   If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit (has zero or >1
	       parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains. Otherwise, it is replaced
	       with its only parent.

	   The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to --full-history with parent
	   rewriting. The example turns into:

			 .-A---M---N---O
			/     /       /
		       I     B	     D
			\   /	    /
			 `---------'

	   Note the major differences in N and P over --full-history:

	   o   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor of the other parent M.
	       Still, N remained because it is !TREESAME.

	   o   P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was then removed completely, because
	       it had one parent and is TREESAME.

       Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:

       --ancestry-path
	   Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry chain between the "from"
	   and "to" commits in the given commit range. I.e. only display commits that are
	   ancestor of the "to" commit, and descendants of the "from" commit.

	   As an example use case, consider the following commit history:

			   D---E-------F
			  /	\	\
			 B---C---G---H---I---J
			/		      \
		       A-------K---------------L--M

	   A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M, but excludes the
	   ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful to see what happened to the history
	   leading to M since D, in the sense that "what does M have that did not exist in D".
	   The result in this example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D itself, of
	   course).

	   When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with the bug introduced by
	   D and need fixing, however, we might want to view only the subset of D..M that are
	   actually descendants of D, i.e. excluding C and K. This is exactly what the
	   --ancestry-path option does. Applied to the D..M range, it results in:

			       E-------F
				\	\
				 G---H---I---J
					      \
					       L--M

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big picture of the
       topology of the history, by omitting commits that are not referenced by tags. Commits are
       marked as !TREESAME (in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
       above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of the paths
       given on the command line. All other commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be
       simplified away).

   Commit Ordering
       By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

       --date-order
	   Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise show commits in
	   the commit timestamp order.

       --topo-order
	   Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and avoid showing commits on
	   multiple lines of history intermixed.

	   For example, in a commit history like this:

		   ---1----2----4----7
		       \	      \
			3----5----6----8---

	   where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, git rev-list and friends with
	   --date-order show the commits in the timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.

	   With --topo-order, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5 3 1); some older
	   commits are shown before newer ones in order to avoid showing the commits from two
	   parallel development track mixed together.

       --reverse
	   Output the commits in reverse order. Cannot be combined with --walk-reflogs.

   Object Traversal
       These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.

       --objects
	   Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed commits.  --objects foo
	   ^bar thus means "send me all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
	   object bar, but not foo".

       --objects-edge
	   Similar to --objects, but also print the IDs of excluded commits prefixed with a "-"
	   character. This is used by git-pack-objects(1) to build "thin" pack, which records
	   objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these excluded commits to
	   reduce network traffic.

       --unpacked
	   Only useful with --objects; print the object IDs that are not in packs.

       --no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]
	   Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors. This has no effect
	   if a range is specified. If the argument "unsorted" is given, the commits are show in
	   the order they were given on the command line. Otherwise (if "sorted" or no argument
	   was given), the commits are show in reverse chronological order by commit time.

       --do-walk
	   Overrides a previous --no-walk.

   Commit Formatting
       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
	   Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format, where <format> can be
	   one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller, email, raw and format:<string>. See the
	   "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for each format. When omitted,
	   the format defaults to medium.

	   Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository configuration (see
	   git-config(1)).

       --abbrev-commit
	   Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name, show only a
	   partial prefix. Non default number of digits can be specified with "--abbrev=<n>"
	   (which also modifies diff output, if it is displayed).

	   This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for people using
	   80-column terminals.

       --no-abbrev-commit
	   Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates --abbrev-commit and
	   those options which imply it such as "--oneline". It also overrides the
	   log.abbrevCommit variable.

       --oneline
	   This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used together.

       --encoding[=<encoding>]
	   The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in their encoding
	   header; this option can be used to tell the command to re-code the commit log message
	   in the encoding preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to
	   UTF-8.

       --notes[=<ref>]
	   Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the commit, when showing the commit
	   log message. This is the default for git log, git show and git whatchanged commands
	   when there is no --pretty, --format nor --oneline option given on the command line.

	   By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the core.notesRef and
	   notes.displayRef variables (or corresponding environment overrides). See git-config(1)
	   for more details.

	   With an optional <ref> argument, show this notes ref instead of the default notes
	   ref(s). The ref is taken to be in refs/notes/ if it is not qualified.

	   Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes are being displayed.
	   Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo
	   --notes" will show both notes from "refs/notes/foo" and from the default notes ref(s).

       --no-notes
	   Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes option, by resetting the list of
	   notes refs from which notes are shown. Options are parsed in the order given on the
	   command line, so e.g. "--notes --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show
	   notes from "refs/notes/bar".

       --show-notes[=<ref>], --[no-]standard-notes
	   These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes options instead.

       --show-signature
	   Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the signature to gpg --verify
	   and show the output.

       --relative-date
	   Synonym for --date=relative.

       --date=(relative|local|default|iso|rfc|short|raw)
	   Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such as when using
	   "--pretty".	log.date config variable sets a default value for log command's --date
	   option.

	   --date=relative shows dates relative to the current time, e.g. "2 hours ago".

	   --date=local shows timestamps in user's local timezone.

	   --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.

	   --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822 format, often found in
	   E-mail messages.

	   --date=short shows only date but not time, in YYYY-MM-DD format.

	   --date=raw shows the date in the internal raw Git format %s %z format.

	   --date=default shows timestamps in the original timezone (either committer's or
	   author's).

       --parents
	   Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent..."). Also enables
	   parent rewriting, see History Simplification below.

       --children
	   Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child..."). Also enables
	   parent rewriting, see History Simplification below.

       --left-right
	   Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from. Commits from the left
	   side are prefixed with < and those from the right with >. If combined with --boundary,
	   those commits are prefixed with -.

	   For example, if you have this topology:

			    y---b---b  branch B
			   / \ /
			  /   .
			 /   / \
			o---x---a---a  branch A

	   you would get an output like this:

		       $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

		       >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
		       >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
		       <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
		       <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
		       -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
		       -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

       --graph
	   Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history on the left hand side
	   of the output. This may cause extra lines to be printed in between commits, in order
	   for the graph history to be drawn properly.

	   This enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification below.

	   This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the --date-order option may also
	   be specified.

   Diff Formatting
       Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output. Some of them are
       specific to git-rev-list(1), however other diff options may be given. See git-diff-
       files(1) for more options.

       -c
	   With this option, diff output for a merge commit shows the differences from each of
	   the parents to the merge result simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff
	   between a parent and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files which
	   were modified from all parents.

       --cc
	   This flag implies the -c option and further compresses the patch output by omitting
	   uninteresting hunks whose contents in the parents have only two variants and the merge
	   result picks one of them without modification.

       -m
	   This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like regular commits; for each
	   merge parent, a separate log entry and diff is generated. An exception is that only
	   diff against the first parent is shown when --first-parent option is given; in that
	   case, the output represents the changes the merge brought into the then-current
	   branch.

       -r
	   Show recursive diffs.

       -t
	   Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies -r.

       -s
	   Suppress diff output.

PRETTY FORMATS
       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline, email or raw, an
       additional line is inserted before the Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and
       the sha1s of ancestral commits are printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed
       commits may not necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have limited
       your view of history: for example, if you are only interested in changes related to a
       certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional formats by setting a
       pretty.<name> config option to either another format name, or a format: string, as
       described below (see git-config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

       o   oneline

	       <sha1> <title line>

	   This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       o   short

	       commit <sha1>
	       Author: <author>

	       <title line>

       o   medium

	       commit <sha1>
	       Author: <author>
	       Date:   <author date>

	       <title line>

	       <full commit message>

       o   full

	       commit <sha1>
	       Author: <author>
	       Commit: <committer>

	       <title line>

	       <full commit message>

       o   fuller

	       commit <sha1>
	       Author:	   <author>
	       AuthorDate: <author date>
	       Commit:	   <committer>
	       CommitDate: <committer date>

	       <title line>

	       <full commit message>

       o   email

	       From <sha1> <date>
	       From: <author>
	       Date: <author date>
	       Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

	       <full commit message>

       o   raw

	   The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the commit object.
	   Notably, the SHA-1s are displayed in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or
	   --no-abbrev are used, and parents information show the true parent commits, without
	   taking grafts nor history simplification into account.

       o   format:<string>

	   The format:<string> format allows you to specify which information you want to show.
	   It works a little bit like printf format, with the notable exception that you get a
	   newline with %n instead of \n.

	   E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n" would show
	   something like this:

	       The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
	       The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

	   The placeholders are:

	   o   %H: commit hash

	   o   %h: abbreviated commit hash

	   o   %T: tree hash

	   o   %t: abbreviated tree hash

	   o   %P: parent hashes

	   o   %p: abbreviated parent hashes

	   o   %an: author name

	   o   %aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

	   o   %ae: author email

	   o   %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

	   o   %ad: author date (format respects --date= option)

	   o   %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

	   o   %ar: author date, relative

	   o   %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

	   o   %ai: author date, ISO 8601 format

	   o   %cn: committer name

	   o   %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

	   o   %ce: committer email

	   o   %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

	   o   %cd: committer date

	   o   %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

	   o   %cr: committer date, relative

	   o   %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

	   o   %ci: committer date, ISO 8601 format

	   o   %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

	   o   %e: encoding

	   o   %s: subject

	   o   %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

	   o   %b: body

	   o   %B: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

	   o   %N: commit notes

	   o   %GG: raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

	   o   %G?: show "G" for a Good signature, "B" for a Bad signature, "U" for a good,
	       untrusted signature and "N" for no signature

	   o   %GS: show the name of the signer for a signed commit

	   o   %GK: show the key used to sign a signed commit

	   o   %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1}

	   o   %gd: shortened reflog selector, e.g., stash@{1}

	   o   %gn: reflog identity name

	   o   %gN: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-
	       blame(1))

	   o   %ge: reflog identity email

	   o   %gE: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-
	       blame(1))

	   o   %gs: reflog subject

	   o   %Cred: switch color to red

	   o   %Cgreen: switch color to green

	   o   %Cblue: switch color to blue

	   o   %Creset: reset color

	   o   %C(...): color specification, as described in color.branch.* config option; adding
	       auto, at the beginning will emit color only when colors are enabled for log output
	       (by color.diff, color.ui, or --color, and respecting the auto settings of the
	       former if we are going to a terminal).  auto alone (i.e.  %C(auto)) will turn on
	       auto coloring on the next placeholders until the color is switched again.

	   o   %m: left, right or boundary mark

	   o   %n: newline

	   o   %%: a raw %

	   o   %x00: print a byte from a hex code

	   o   %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]]): switch line wrapping, like the -w option of git-
	       shortlog(1).

	   o   %<(<N>[,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc]): make the next placeholder take at least N columns,
	       padding spaces on the right if necessary. Optionally truncate at the beginning
	       (ltrunc), the middle (mtrunc) or the end (trunc) if the output is longer than N
	       columns. Note that truncating only works correctly with N >= 2.

	   o   %<|(<N>): make the next placeholder take at least until Nth columns, padding
	       spaces on the right if necessary

	   o   %>(<N>), %>|(<N>): similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but padding spaces
	       on the left

	   o   %>>(<N>), %>>|(<N>): similar to %>(<N>), %>|(<N>) respectively, except that if the
	       next placeholder takes more spaces than given and there are spaces on its left,
	       use those spaces

	   o   %><(<N>), %><|(<N>): similar to % <(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but padding both
	       sides (i.e. the text is centered)

	   Note
	   Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision traversal engine.
	   For example, the %g* reflog options will insert an empty string unless we are
	   traversing reflog entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d placeholder will use the
	   "short" decoration format if --decorate was not already provided on the command line.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is inserted immediately
       before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, line-feeds that immediately precede
       the expansion are deleted if and only if the placeholder expands to an empty string.

       If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is inserted immediately before
       the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       o   tformat:

	   The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it provides "terminator"
	   semantics instead of "separator" semantics. In other words, each commit has the
	   message terminator character (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator
	   placed between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line format will
	   be properly terminated with a new line, just as the "oneline" format does. For
	   example:

	       $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
		 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
	       4da45be
	       7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

	       $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
		 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
	       4da45be
	       7134973

	   In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is interpreted as if it has
	   tformat: in front of it. For example, these two are equivalent:

	       $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
	       $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

COMMON DIFF OPTIONS
       -p, -u, --patch
	   Generate patch (see section on generating patches).

       -U<n>, --unified=<n>
	   Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the usual three. Implies -p.

       --raw
	   Generate the raw format.

       --patch-with-raw
	   Synonym for -p --raw.

       --minimal
	   Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is produced.

       --patience
	   Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

       --histogram
	   Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.

       --diff-algorithm={patience|minimal|histogram|myers}
	   Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:

	   default, myers
	       The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the default.

	   minimal
	       Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is produced.

	   patience
	       Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.

	   histogram
	       This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support low-occurrence common
	       elements".

	   For instance, if you configured diff.algorithm variable to a non-default value and
	   want to use the default one, then you have to use --diff-algorithm=default option.

       --stat[=<width>[,<name-width>[,<count>]]]
	   Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary will be used for the
	   filename part, and the rest for the graph part. Maximum width defaults to terminal
	   width, or 80 columns if not connected to a terminal, and can be overridden by <width>.
	   The width of the filename part can be limited by giving another width <name-width>
	   after a comma. The width of the graph part can be limited by using
	   --stat-graph-width=<width> (affects all commands generating a stat graph) or by
	   setting diff.statGraphWidth=<width> (does not affect git format-patch). By giving a
	   third parameter <count>, you can limit the output to the first <count> lines, followed
	   by ...  if there are more.

	   These parameters can also be set individually with --stat-width=<width>,
	   --stat-name-width=<name-width> and --stat-count=<count>.

       --numstat
	   Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted lines in decimal notation and
	   pathname without abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. For binary files,
	   outputs two - instead of saying 0 0.

       --shortstat
	   Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total number of modified
	   files, as well as number of added and deleted lines.

       --dirstat[=<param1,param2,...>]
	   Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each sub-directory. The
	   behavior of --dirstat can be customized by passing it a comma separated list of
	   parameters. The defaults are controlled by the diff.dirstat configuration variable
	   (see git-config(1)). The following parameters are available:

	   changes
	       Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have been removed from the
	       source, or added to the destination. This ignores the amount of pure code
	       movements within a file. In other words, rearranging lines in a file is not
	       counted as much as other changes. This is the default behavior when no parameter
	       is given.

	   lines
	       Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular line-based diff analysis, and
	       summing the removed/added line counts. (For binary files, count 64-byte chunks
	       instead, since binary files have no natural concept of lines). This is a more
	       expensive --dirstat behavior than the changes behavior, but it does count
	       rearranged lines within a file as much as other changes. The resulting output is
	       consistent with what you get from the other --*stat options.

	   files
	       Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files changed. Each changed
	       file counts equally in the dirstat analysis. This is the computationally cheapest
	       --dirstat behavior, since it does not have to look at the file contents at all.

	   cumulative
	       Count changes in a child directory for the parent directory as well. Note that
	       when using cumulative, the sum of the percentages reported may exceed 100%. The
	       default (non-cumulative) behavior can be specified with the noncumulative
	       parameter.

	   <limit>
	       An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3% by default). Directories
	       contributing less than this percentage of the changes are not shown in the output.

	   Example: The following will count changed files, while ignoring directories with less
	   than 10% of the total amount of changed files, and accumulating child directory counts
	   in the parent directories: --dirstat=files,10,cumulative.

       --summary
	   Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as creations, renames
	   and mode changes.

       --patch-with-stat
	   Synonym for -p --stat.

       -z
	   Separate the commits with NULs instead of with new newlines.

	   Also, when --raw or --numstat has been given, do not munge pathnames and use NULs as
	   output field terminators.

	   Without this option, each pathname output will have TAB, LF, double quotes, and
	   backslash characters replaced with \t, \n, \", and \\, respectively, and the pathname
	   will be enclosed in double quotes if any of those replacements occurred.

       --name-only
	   Show only names of changed files.

       --name-status
	   Show only names and status of changed files. See the description of the --diff-filter
	   option on what the status letters mean.

       --submodule[=<format>]
	   Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When --submodule or --submodule=log
	   is given, the log format is used. This format lists the commits in the range like git-
	   submodule(1)summary does. Omitting the --submodule option or specifying
	   --submodule=short, uses the short format. This format just shows the names of the
	   commits at the beginning and end of the range. Can be tweaked via the diff.submodule
	   configuration variable.

       --color[=<when>]
	   Show colored diff.  --color (i.e. without =<when>) is the same as --color=always.
	   <when> can be one of always, never, or auto.

       --no-color
	   Turn off colored diff. It is the same as --color=never.

       --word-diff[=<mode>]
	   Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed words. By default, words are
	   delimited by whitespace; see --word-diff-regex below. The <mode> defaults to plain,
	   and must be one of:

	   color
	       Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies --color.

	   plain
	       Show words as [-removed-] and {+added+}. Makes no attempts to escape the
	       delimiters if they appear in the input, so the output may be ambiguous.

	   porcelain
	       Use a special line-based format intended for script consumption.
	       Added/removed/unchanged runs are printed in the usual unified diff format,
	       starting with a +/-/` ` character at the beginning of the line and extending to
	       the end of the line. Newlines in the input are represented by a tilde ~ on a line
	       of its own.

	   none
	       Disable word diff again.

	   Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is used to highlight the changed
	   parts in all modes if enabled.

       --word-diff-regex=<regex>
	   Use <regex> to decide what a word is, instead of considering runs of non-whitespace to
	   be a word. Also implies --word-diff unless it was already enabled.

	   Every non-overlapping match of the <regex> is considered a word. Anything between
	   these matches is considered whitespace and ignored(!) for the purposes of finding
	   differences. You may want to append |[^[:space:]] to your regular expression to make
	   sure that it matches all non-whitespace characters. A match that contains a newline is
	   silently truncated(!) at the newline.

	   The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration option, see
	   gitattributes(1) or git-config(1). Giving it explicitly overrides any diff driver or
	   configuration setting. Diff drivers override configuration settings.

       --color-words[=<regex>]
	   Equivalent to --word-diff=color plus (if a regex was specified)
	   --word-diff-regex=<regex>.

       --no-renames
	   Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration file gives the default to do
	   so.

       --check
	   Warn if changes introduce whitespace errors. What are considered whitespace errors is
	   controlled by core.whitespace configuration. By default, trailing whitespaces
	   (including lines that solely consist of whitespaces) and a space character that is
	   immediately followed by a tab character inside the initial indent of the line are
	   considered whitespace errors. Exits with non-zero status if problems are found. Not
	   compatible with --exit-code.

       --full-index
	   Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full pre- and post-image blob
	   object names on the "index" line when generating patch format output.

       --binary
	   In addition to --full-index, output a binary diff that can be applied with git-apply.

       --abbrev[=<n>]
	   Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object name in diff-raw format output
	   and diff-tree header lines, show only a partial prefix. This is independent of the
	   --full-index option above, which controls the diff-patch output format. Non default
	   number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.

       -B[<n>][/<m>], --break-rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]
	   Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create. This serves two
	   purposes:

	   It affects the way a change that amounts to a total rewrite of a file not as a series
	   of deletion and insertion mixed together with a very few lines that happen to match
	   textually as the context, but as a single deletion of everything old followed by a
	   single insertion of everything new, and the number m controls this aspect of the -B
	   option (defaults to 60%).  -B/70% specifies that less than 30% of the original should
	   remain in the result for Git to consider it a total rewrite (i.e. otherwise the
	   resulting patch will be a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with context
	   lines).

	   When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also considered as the source of a
	   rename (usually -M only considers a file that disappeared as the source of a rename),
	   and the number n controls this aspect of the -B option (defaults to 50%).  -B20%
	   specifies that a change with addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of the
	   file's size are eligible for being picked up as a possible source of a rename to
	   another file.

       -M[<n>], --find-renames[=<n>]
	   If generating diffs, detect and report renames for each commit. For following files
	   across renames while traversing history, see --follow. If n is specified, it is a
	   threshold on the similarity index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the
	   file's size). For example, -M90% means Git should consider a delete/add pair to be a
	   rename if more than 90% of the file hasn't changed. Without a % sign, the number is to
	   be read as a fraction, with a decimal point before it. I.e., -M5 becomes 0.5, and is
	   thus the same as -M50%. Similarly, -M05 is the same as -M5%. To limit detection to
	   exact renames, use -M100%.

       -C[<n>], --find-copies[=<n>]
	   Detect copies as well as renames. See also --find-copies-harder. If n is specified, it
	   has the same meaning as for -M<n>.

       --find-copies-harder
	   For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies only if the original file
	   of the copy was modified in the same changeset. This flag makes the command inspect
	   unmodified files as candidates for the source of copy. This is a very expensive
	   operation for large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one -C option
	   has the same effect.

       -D, --irreversible-delete
	   Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not the diff between the
	   preimage and /dev/null. The resulting patch is not meant to be applied with patch nor
	   git apply; this is solely for people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the
	   text after the change. In addition, the output obviously lack enough information to
	   apply such a patch in reverse, even manually, hence the name of the option.

	   When used together with -B, omit also the preimage in the deletion part of a
	   delete/create pair.

       -l<num>
	   The -M and -C options require O(n^2) processing time where n is the number of
	   potential rename/copy targets. This option prevents rename/copy detection from running
	   if the number of rename/copy targets exceeds the specified number.

       --diff-filter=[(A|C|D|M|R|T|U|X|B)...[*]]
	   Select only files that are Added (A), Copied (C), Deleted (D), Modified (M), Renamed
	   (R), have their type (i.e. regular file, symlink, submodule, ...) changed (T), are
	   Unmerged (U), are Unknown (X), or have had their pairing Broken (B). Any combination
	   of the filter characters (including none) can be used. When * (All-or-none) is added
	   to the combination, all paths are selected if there is any file that matches other
	   criteria in the comparison; if there is no file that matches other criteria, nothing
	   is selected.

       -S<string>
	   Look for differences that introduce or remove an instance of <string>. Note that this
	   is different than the string simply appearing in diff output; see the pickaxe entry in
	   gitdiffcore(7) for more details.

       -G<regex>
	   Look for differences whose added or removed line matches the given <regex>.

       --pickaxe-all
	   When -S or -G finds a change, show all the changes in that changeset, not just the
	   files that contain the change in <string>.

       --pickaxe-regex
	   Make the <string> not a plain string but an extended POSIX regex to match.

       -O<orderfile>
	   Output the patch in the order specified in the <orderfile>, which has one shell glob
	   pattern per line.

       -R
	   Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or on-disk file to tree
	   contents.

       --relative[=<path>]
	   When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be told to exclude changes outside
	   the directory and show pathnames relative to it with this option. When you are not in
	   a subdirectory (e.g. in a bare repository), you can name which subdirectory to make
	   the output relative to by giving a <path> as an argument.

       -a, --text
	   Treat all files as text.

       --ignore-space-at-eol
	   Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

       -b, --ignore-space-change
	   Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace at line end, and
	   considers all other sequences of one or more whitespace characters to be equivalent.

       -w, --ignore-all-space
	   Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences even if one line has
	   whitespace where the other line has none.

       --inter-hunk-context=<lines>
	   Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number of lines, thereby
	   fusing hunks that are close to each other.

       -W, --function-context
	   Show whole surrounding functions of changes.

       --ext-diff
	   Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an external diff driver with
	   gitattributes(5), you need to use this option with git-log(1) and friends.

       --no-ext-diff
	   Disallow external diff drivers.

       --textconv, --no-textconv
	   Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to be run when comparing binary
	   files. See gitattributes(5) for details. Because textconv filters are typically a
	   one-way conversion, the resulting diff is suitable for human consumption, but cannot
	   be applied. For this reason, textconv filters are enabled by default only for git-
	   diff(1) and git-log(1), but not for git-format-patch(1) or diff plumbing commands.

       --ignore-submodules[=<when>]
	   Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. <when> can be either "none",
	   "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default. Using "none" will consider the
	   submodule modified when it either contains untracked or modified files or its HEAD
	   differs from the commit recorded in the superproject and can be used to override any
	   settings of the ignore option in git-config(1) or gitmodules(5). When "untracked" is
	   used submodules are not considered dirty when they only contain untracked content (but
	   they are still scanned for modified content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the
	   work tree of submodules, only changes to the commits stored in the superproject are
	   shown (this was the behavior until 1.7.0). Using "all" hides all changes to
	   submodules.

       --src-prefix=<prefix>
	   Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

       --dst-prefix=<prefix>
	   Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

       --no-prefix
	   Do not show any source or destination prefix.

       For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also gitdiffcore(7).

GENERATING PATCHES WITH -P
       When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files" are run with a -p option, "git
       diff" without the --raw option, or "git log" with the "-p" option, they do not produce the
       output described above; instead they produce a patch file. You can customize the creation
       of such patches via the GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the GIT_DIFF_OPTS environment variables.

       What the -p option produces is slightly different from the traditional diff format:

	1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header that looks like this:

	       diff --git a/file1 b/file2

	   The a/ and b/ filenames are the same unless rename/copy is involved. Especially, even
	   for a creation or a deletion, /dev/null is not used in place of the a/ or b/
	   filenames.

	   When rename/copy is involved, file1 and file2 show the name of the source file of the
	   rename/copy and the name of the file that rename/copy produces, respectively.

	2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:

	       old mode <mode>
	       new mode <mode>
	       deleted file mode <mode>
	       new file mode <mode>
	       copy from <path>
	       copy to <path>
	       rename from <path>
	       rename to <path>
	       similarity index <number>
	       dissimilarity index <number>
	       index <hash>..<hash> <mode>

	   File modes are printed as 6-digit octal numbers including the file type and file
	   permission bits.

	   Path names in extended headers do not include the a/ and b/ prefixes.

	   The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged lines, and the dissimilarity index
	   is the percentage of changed lines. It is a rounded down integer, followed by a
	   percent sign. The similarity index value of 100% is thus reserved for two equal files,
	   while 100% dissimilarity means that no line from the old file made it into the new
	   one.

	   The index line includes the SHA-1 checksum before and after the change. The <mode> is
	   included if the file mode does not change; otherwise, separate lines indicate the old
	   and the new mode.

	3. TAB, LF, double quote and backslash characters in pathnames are represented as \t, \n,
	   \" and \\, respectively. If there is need for such substitution then the whole
	   pathname is put in double quotes.

	4. All the file1 files in the output refer to files before the commit, and all the file2
	   files refer to files after the commit. It is incorrect to apply each change to each
	   file sequentially. For example, this patch will swap a and b:

	       diff --git a/a b/b
	       rename from a
	       rename to b
	       diff --git a/b b/a
	       rename from b
	       rename to a

COMBINED DIFF FORMAT
       Any diff-generating command can take the '-c` or --cc option to produce a combined diff
       when showing a merge. This is the default format when showing merges with git-diff(1) or
       git-show(1). Note also that you can give the `-m' option to any of these commands to force
       generation of diffs with individual parents of a merge.

       A combined diff format looks like this:

	   diff --combined describe.c
	   index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
	   --- a/describe.c
	   +++ b/describe.c
	   @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
		   return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;
	     }

	   - static void describe(char *arg)
	    -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
	   ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
	     {
	    +	   unsigned char sha1[20];
	    +	   struct commit *cmit;
		   struct commit_list *list;
		   static int initialized = 0;
		   struct commit_name *n;

	    +	   if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
	    +		   usage(describe_usage);
	    +	   cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
	    +	   if (!cmit)
	    +		   usage(describe_usage);
	    +
		   if (!initialized) {
			   initialized = 1;
			   for_each_ref(get_name);

	1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like this (when -c option is
	   used):

	       diff --combined file

	   or like this (when --cc option is used):

	       diff --cc file

	2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines (this example shows a merge with
	   two parents):

	       index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
	       mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
	       new file mode <mode>
	       deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>

	   The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at least one of the <mode> is
	   different from the rest. Extended headers with information about detected contents
	   movement (renames and copying detection) are designed to work with diff of two
	   <tree-ish> and are not used by combined diff format.

	3. It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header

	       --- a/file
	       +++ b/file

	   Similar to two-line header for traditional unified diff format, /dev/null is used to
	   signal created or deleted files.

	4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from accidentally feeding it to
	   patch -p1. Combined diff format was created for review of merge commit changes, and
	   was not meant for apply. The change is similar to the change in the extended index
	   header:

	       @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@

	   There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the chunk header for combined diff
	   format.

       Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two files A and B with a single
       column that has - (minus -- appears in A but removed in B), + (plus -- missing in A but
       added to B), or " " (space -- unchanged) prefix, this format compares two or more files
       file1, file2,... with one file X, and shows how X differs from each of fileN. One column
       for each of fileN is prepended to the output line to note how X's line is different from
       it.

       A - character in the column N means that the line appears in fileN but it does not appear
       in the result. A + character in the column N means that the line appears in the result,
       and fileN does not have that line (in other words, the line was added, from the point of
       view of that parent).

       In the above example output, the function signature was changed from both files (hence two
       - removals from both file1 and file2, plus ++ to mean one line that was added does not
       appear in either file1 nor file2). Also eight other lines are the same from file1 but do
       not appear in file2 (hence prefixed with +).

       When shown by git diff-tree -c, it compares the parents of a merge commit with the merge
       result (i.e. file1..fileN are the parents). When shown by git diff-files -c, it compares
       the two unresolved merge parents with the working tree file (i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka
       "our version", file2 is stage 3 aka "their version").

EXAMPLES
       git log --no-merges
	   Show the whole commit history, but skip any merges

       git log v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi
	   Show all commits since version v2.6.12 that changed any file in the include/scsi or
	   drivers/scsi subdirectories

       git log --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk
	   Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file gitk. The "--" is necessary to
	   avoid confusion with the branch named gitk

       git log --name-status release..test
	   Show the commits that are in the "test" branch but not yet in the "release" branch,
	   along with the list of paths each commit modifies.

       git log --follow builtin-rev-list.c
	   Shows the commits that changed builtin-rev-list.c, including those commits that
	   occurred before the file was given its present name.

       git log --branches --not --remotes=origin
	   Shows all commits that are in any of local branches but not in any of remote-tracking
	   branches for origin (what you have that origin doesn't).

       git log master --not --remotes=*/master
	   Shows all commits that are in local master but not in any remote repository master
	   branches.

       git log -p -m --first-parent
	   Shows the history including change diffs, but only from the "main branch" perspective,
	   skipping commits that come from merged branches, and showing full diffs of changes
	   introduced by the merges. This makes sense only when following a strict policy of
	   merging all topic branches when staying on a single integration branch.

       git log -3
	   Limits the number of commits to show to 3.

DISCUSSION
       At the core level, Git is character encoding agnostic.

       o   The pathnames recorded in the index and in the tree objects are treated as
	   uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes. What readdir(2) returns are what are
	   recorded and compared with the data Git keeps track of, which in turn are expected to
	   be what lstat(2) and creat(2) accepts. There is no such thing as pathname encoding
	   translation.

       o   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of bytes. There is no
	   encoding translation at the core level.

       o   The commit log messages are uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes.

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in UTF-8, both the core and
       Git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8 on projects. If all participants of a
       particular project find it more convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid
       it. However, there are a few things to keep in mind.

	1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log message given to it
	   does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your project uses a
	   legacy encoding. The way to say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config
	   file, like this:

	       [i18n]
		       commitencoding = ISO-8859-1

	   Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of i18n.commitencoding
	   in its encoding header. This is to help other people who look at them later. Lack of
	   this header implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

	2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding header of a commit
	   object, and try to re-code the log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You
	   can specify the desired output encoding with i18n.logoutputencoding in .git/config
	   file, like this:

	       [i18n]
		       logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1

	   If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of i18n.commitencoding is
	   used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message when a commit is
       made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level, because re-coding to UTF-8 is not
       necessarily a reversible operation.

CONFIGURATION
       See git-config(1) for core variables and git-diff(1) for settings related to diff
       generation.

       format.pretty
	   Default for the --format option. (See "PRETTY FORMATS" above.) Defaults to "medium".

       i18n.logOutputEncoding
	   Encoding to use when displaying logs. (See "Discussion", above.) Defaults to the value
	   of i18n.commitEncoding if set, UTF-8 otherwise.

       log.date
	   Default format for human-readable dates. (Compare the --date option.) Defaults to
	   "default", which means to write dates like Sat May 8 19:35:34 2010 -0500.

       log.showroot
	   If false, git log and related commands will not treat the initial commit as a big
	   creation event. Any root commits in git log -p output would be shown without a diff
	   attached. The default is true.

       mailmap.*
	   See git-shortlog(1).

       notes.displayRef
	   Which refs, in addition to the default set by core.notesRef or GIT_NOTES_REF, to read
	   notes from when showing commit messages with the log family of commands. See git-
	   notes(1).

	   May be an unabbreviated ref name or a glob and may be specified multiple times. A
	   warning will be issued for refs that do not exist, but a glob that does not match any
	   refs is silently ignored.

	   This setting can be disabled by the --no-notes option, overridden by the
	   GIT_NOTES_DISPLAY_REF environment variable, and overridden by the --notes=<ref>
	   option.

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 1.8.3.1				    06/10/2014				       GIT-LOG(1)
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