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DIALOG(1)										DIALOG(1)

NAME
       dialog - display dialog boxes from shell scripts

SYNOPSIS
       dialog --clear
       dialog --create-rc file
       dialog --print-maxsize
       dialog common-options box-options

DESCRIPTION
       Dialog  is  a  program that will let you to present a variety of questions or display mes-
       sages using dialog boxes from a shell script.  These types of dialog boxes are implemented
       (though not all are necessarily compiled into dialog):

	      buildlist, calendar, checklist, dselect, editbox, form, fselect, gauge, infobox,
	      inputbox, inputmenu, menu, mixedform, mixedgauge, msgbox (message), passwordbox,
	      passwordform, pause, prgbox, programbox, progressbox, radiolist, rangebox, tailbox,
	      tailboxbg, textbox, timebox, treeview, and yesno (yes/no).

       You can put more than one dialog box into a script:

       o   Use the "--and-widget" token to force dialog to proceed to the next dialog unless  you
	   have pressed ESC to cancel, or

       o   Simply  add the tokens for the next dialog box, making a chain.  Dialog stops chaining
	   when the return code from a dialog is nonzero, e.g., Cancel or No (see DIAGNOSTICS).

       Some widgets, e.g., checklist, will write text to dialog's output.  Normally that  is  the
       standard  error,  but  there  are options for changing this: "--output-fd", "--stderr" and
       "--stdout".  No text is written if the Cancel button (or ESC) is pressed; dialog exits im-
       mediately in that case.

OPTIONS
       All  options  begin  with  "--" (two ASCII hyphens, for the benefit of those using systems
       with deranged locale support).

       A "--" by itself is used as an escape, i.e., the next token on  the  command-line  is  not
       treated as an option.
	      dialog --title -- --Not an option

       The  "--args"  option tells dialog to list the command-line parameters to the standard er-
       ror.  This is useful when debugging complex scripts using the "--" and "--file", since the
       command-line may be rewritten as these are expanded.

       The "--file" option tells dialog to read parameters from the file named as its value.
	      dialog --file parameterfile
       Blanks  not  within  double-quotes  are discarded (use backslashes to quote single charac-
       ters).  The result is inserted into the command-line, replacing "--file"  and  its  option
       value.	Interpretation of the command-line resumes from that point.  If parameterfile be-
       gins with "&", dialog interprets the following text as a  file  descriptor  number  rather
       than a filename.

   Common Options
       --ascii-lines
	      Rather  than  draw  graphics lines around boxes, draw ASCII "+" and "-" in the same
	      place.  See also "--no-lines".

       --aspect ratio
	      This gives you some control over the box dimensions when using auto sizing  (speci-
	      fying  0	for  height and width).  It represents width / height.	The default is 9,
	      which means 9 characters wide to every 1 line high.

       --backtitle backtitle
	      Specifies a backtitle string to be displayed on the backdrop, at	the  top  of  the
	      screen.

       --begin y x
	      Specify the position of the upper left corner of a dialog box on the screen.

       --cancel-label string
	      Override the label used for "Cancel" buttons.

       --clear
	      Clears  the widget screen, keeping only the screen_color background.  Use this when
	      you combine widgets with "--and-widget" to erase the contents of a previous  widget
	      on  the  screen, so it won't be seen under the contents of a following widget.  Un-
	      derstand this as the complement of "--keep-window".  To compare  the  effects,  use
	      these:

	      All three widgets visible, staircase effect, ordered 1,2,3:

	      dialog \
					     --begin 2 2 --yesno "" 0 0 \
		  --and-widget		     --begin 4 4 --yesno "" 0 0 \
		  --and-widget		     --begin 6 6 --yesno "" 0 0

	      Only the last widget is left visible:

	      dialog \
			       --clear	     --begin 2 2 --yesno "" 0 0 \
		  --and-widget --clear	     --begin 4 4 --yesno "" 0 0 \
		  --and-widget		     --begin 6 6 --yesno "" 0 0

	      All three widgets visible, staircase effect, ordered 3,2,1:

	      dialog \
			       --keep-window --begin 2 2 --yesno "" 0 0 \
		  --and-widget --keep-window --begin 4 4 --yesno "" 0 0 \
		  --and-widget		     --begin 6 6 --yesno "" 0 0

	      First and third widget visible, staircase effect, ordered 3,1:

	      dialog \
			       --keep-window --begin 2 2 --yesno "" 0 0 \
		  --and-widget --clear	     --begin 4 4 --yesno "" 0 0 \
		  --and-widget		     --begin 6 6 --yesno "" 0 0

	      Note,  if you want to restore original console colors and send your cursor home af-
	      ter the dialog program has exited, use the clear (1) command.

       --colors
	      Interpret embedded "\Z" sequences in the dialog text by  the  following  character,
	      which tells dialog to set colors or video attributes: 0 through 7 are the ANSI used
	      in curses: black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan and  white  respectively.
	      Bold  is set by 'b', reset by 'B'.  Reverse is set by 'r', reset by 'R'.	Underline
	      is set by 'u', reset by 'U'.  The settings are cumulative, e.g., "\Zb\Z1" makes the
	      following text bold (perhaps bright) red.  Restore normal settings with "\Zn".

       --column-separator string
	      Tell  dialog to split data for radio/checkboxes and menus on the occurrences of the
	      given string, and to align the split data into columns.

       --cr-wrap
	      Interpret embedded newlines in the dialog text as a newline on the screen.   Other-
	      wise, dialog will only wrap lines where needed to fit inside the text box.

	      Even though you can control line breaks with this, Dialog will still wrap any lines
	      that are too long for the width of the box.  Without cr-wrap, the  layout  of  your
	      text  may  be  formatted to look nice in the source code of your script without af-
	      fecting the way it will look in the dialog.

	      See also the "--no-collapse" and "--trim" options.

       --create-rc file
	      When dialog supports run-time configuration, this can be used to dump a sample con-
	      figuration file to the file specified by file.

       --date-format format
	      If  the host provides strftime, this option allows you to specify the format of the
	      date printed for the --calendar widget.  The time of day (hour, minute, second) are
	      the current local time.

       --defaultno
	      Make  the  default value of the yes/no box a No.	Likewise, make the default button
	      of widgets that provide "OK" and "Cancel" a Cancel.  If "--nocancel"  or	"--visit-
	      items"  are  given  those  options overrides this, making the default button always
	      "Yes" (internally the same as "OK").

       --default-button string
	      Set the default (preselected) button in a widget.   By  preselecting  a  button,	a
	      script  makes  it  possible for the user to simply press Enter to proceed through a
	      dialog with minimum interaction.

	      The option's value is the name of the button: ok, yes, cancel, no, help or extra.

	      Normally the first button in each widget is the default.	The first button shown is
	      determined  by  the  widget together with the "--nook" and "--nocancel options.  If
	      this option is not given, there is no default button assigned.

       --default-item string
	      Set the default item in a checklist, form or menu box.  Normally the first item  in
	      the box is the default.

       --exit-label string
	      Override the label used for "EXIT" buttons.

       --extra-button
	      Show an extra button, between "OK" and "Cancel" buttons.

       --extra-label string
	      Override the label used for "Extra" buttons.  Note: for inputmenu widgets, this de-
	      faults to "Rename".

       --help Prints the help message to the standard output and exits.  The help message is also
	      printed if no options are given, or if an unrecognized option is given.

       --help-button
	      Show  a  help-button after "OK" and "Cancel" buttons, i.e., in checklist, radiolist
	      and menu boxes.  If "--item-help" is also given, on exit the return status will  be
	      the same as for the "OK" button, and the item-help text will be written to dialog's
	      output after the token "HELP".  Otherwise, the return status will indicate that the
	      Help button was pressed, and no message printed.

       --help-label string
	      Override the label used for "Help" buttons.

       --help-status
	      If the help-button is selected, writes the checklist, radiolist or form information
	      after the item-help "HELP" information.  This can be used to reconstruct the  state
	      of a checklist after processing the help request.

       --hfile filename
	      Display the given file using a textbox when the user presses F1.

       --hline string
	      Display the given string centered at the bottom of the widget.

       --ignore
	      Ignore  options  that  dialog  does  not	recognize.   Some well-known ones such as
	      "--icon" are ignored anyway, but this is a better  choice  for  compatibility  with
	      other implementations.

       --input-fd fd
	      Read  keyboard input from the given file descriptor.  Most dialog scripts read from
	      the standard input, but the gauge widget reads a pipe (which is always standard in-
	      put).   Some  configurations  do	not work properly when dialog tries to reopen the
	      terminal.  Use this option (with appropriate juggling of file-descriptors) if  your
	      script must work in that type of environment.

       --insecure
	      Makes the password widget friendlier but less secure, by echoing asterisks for each
	      character.

       --item-help
	      Interpret the tags data for checklist, radiolist and menu  boxes	adding	a  column
	      which  is  displayed  in	the bottom line of the screen, for the currently selected
	      item.

       --keep-tite
	      When built with ncurses, dialog normally checks to see  if  it  is  running  in  an
	      xterm,  and  in  that  case tries to suppress the initialization strings that would
	      make it switch to the alternate screen.  Switching between the normal and alternate
	      screens  is  visually distracting in a script which runs dialog several times.  Use
	      this option to allow dialog to use those initialization strings.

       --keep-window
	      Normally when dialog performs several tailboxbg widgets  connected  by  "--and-wid-
	      get",  it  clears the old widget from the screen by painting over it.  Use this op-
	      tion to suppress that repainting.

	      At exit, dialog repaints all of the widgets which have been  marked  with  "--keep-
	      window",	even if they are not tailboxbg widgets.  That causes them to be repainted
	      in reverse order.  See the discussion of the "--clear" option for examples.

       --last-key
	      At exit, report the last key which the user entered.  This is the curses	key  code
	      rather  than  a  symbol or literal character.  It can be used by scripts to distin-
	      guish between two keys which are bound to the same action.

       --max-input size
	      Limit input strings to the given size.  If not specified, the limit is 2048.

       --no-cancel

       --nocancel
	      Suppress the "Cancel" button in checklist, inputbox and menu box modes.	A  script
	      can still test if the user pressed the ESC key to cancel to quit.

       --no-collapse
	      Normally	dialog	converts  tabs	to spaces and reduces multiple spaces to a single
	      space for text which is displayed in a message boxes, etc.  Use this option to dis-
	      able  that  feature.   Note that dialog will still wrap text, subject to the "--cr-
	      wrap" and "--trim" options.

       --no-items
	      Some widgets (checklist, inputmenu, radiolist, menu) display a list with	two  col-
	      umns  (a	"tag" and "item", i.e., "description").  This option tells dialog to read
	      shorter rows, omitting the "item" part of the list.  This is  occasionally  useful,
	      e.g., if the tags provide enough information.

	      See also --no-tags.  If both options are given, this one is ignored.

       --no-kill
	      Tells dialog to put the tailboxbg box in the background, printing its process id to
	      dialog's output.	SIGHUP is disabled for the background process.

       --no-label string
	      Override the label used for "No" buttons.

       --no-lines
	      Rather than draw lines around boxes, draw spaces	in  the  same  place.	See  also
	      "--ascii-lines".

       --no-mouse
	      Do not enable the mouse.

       --no-nl-expand
	      Do not convert "\n" substrings of the message/prompt text into literal newlines.

       --no-ok

       --nook Suppress	the  "OK" button in checklist, inputbox and menu box modes.  A script can
	      still test if the user pressed the "Enter" key to accept the data.

       --no-shadow
	      Suppress shadows that would be drawn to the right and bottom of each dialog box.

       --no-tags
	      Some widgets (checklist, inputmenu, radiolist, menu) display a list with	two  col-
	      umns  (a	"tag"  and  "description").  The tag is useful for scripting, but may not
	      help the user.  The --no-tags option (from Xdialog) may be  used	to  suppress  the
	      column  of  tags from the display.  Unlike the --no-items option, this does not af-
	      fect the data which is read from the script.

	      Xdialog does not display the tag column for the analogous  buildlist  and  treeview
	      widgets; dialog does the same.

	      Normally	dialog	allows	you  to quickly move to entries on the displayed list, by
	      matching a single character to the first character of the tag.  When the	--no-tags
	      option is given, dialog matches against the first character of the description.  In
	      either case, the matchable character is highlighted.

       --ok-label string
	      Override the label used for "OK" buttons.

       --output-fd fd
	      Direct output to the given file descriptor.  Most dialog scripts write to the stan-
	      dard error, but error messages may also be written there, depending on your script.

       --separator string

       --output-separatorstring
	      Specify  a string that will separate the output on dialog's output from checklists,
	      rather than a newline (for --separate-output) or a space.  This  applies	to  other
	      widgets such as forms and editboxes which normally use a newline.

       --print-maxsize
	      Print  the maximum size of dialog boxes, i.e., the screen size, to dialog's output.
	      This may be used alone, without other options.

       --print-size
	      Prints the size of each dialog box to dialog's output.

       --print-version
	      Prints dialog's version to dialog's output.  This may be used alone, without  other
	      options.	It does not cause dialog to exit by itself.

       --quoted
	      Normally dialog quotes the strings returned by checklist's as well as the item-help
	      text.  Use this option to quote all string results.

       --scrollbar
	      For widgets holding a scrollable set of data, draw a scrollbar on its right-margin.
	      This does not respond to the mouse.

       --separate-output
	      For checklist widgets, output result one line at a time, with no quoting.  This fa-
	      cilitates parsing by another program.

       --separate-widget string
	      Specify a string that will separate the output on dialog's output from each widget.
	      This  is	used to simplify parsing the result of a dialog with several widgets.  If
	      this option is not given, the default separator string is a tab character.

       --shadow
	      Draw a shadow to the right and bottom of each dialog box.

       --single-quoted
	      Use single-quoting as needed (and no quotes if unneeded) for the output  of  check-
	      list's  as well as the item-help text.  If this option is not set, dialog uses dou-
	      ble quotes around each item.  In either case, dialog adds backslashes to	make  the
	      output useful in shell scripts.

       --size-err
	      Check  the resulting size of a dialog box before trying to use it, printing the re-
	      sulting size if it is larger than the screen.  (This option is obsolete, since  all
	      new-window calls are checked).

       --sleep secs
	      Sleep (delay) for the given number of seconds after processing a dialog box.

       --stderr
	      Direct  output  to  the standard error.  This is the default, since curses normally
	      writes screen updates to the standard output.

       --stdout
	      Direct output to the standard output.  This option is  provided  for  compatibility
	      with Xdialog, however using it in portable scripts is not recommended, since curses
	      normally writes its screen updates to the standard output.  If you use this option,
	      dialog  attempts	to reopen the terminal so it can write to the display.	Depending
	      on the platform and your environment, that may fail.

       --tab-correct
	      Convert each tab character to one or more spaces (for the textbox widget; otherwise
	      to a single space).  Otherwise, tabs are rendered according to the curses library's
	      interpretation.

       --tab-len n
	      Specify the number of spaces that a tab character occupies if  the  "--tab-correct"
	      option  is given.  The default is 8.  This option is only effective for the textbox
	      widget.

       --time-format format
	      If the host provides strftime, this option allows you to specify the format of  the
	      time  printed  for  the --timebox widget.  The day, month, year values in this case
	      are for the current local time.

       --timeout secs
	      Timeout (exit with error code) if no user response within the given number of  sec-
	      onds.  A timeout of zero seconds is ignored.

	      This option is ignored by the "--pause" widget.  It is also overridden if the back-
	      ground "--tailboxbg" option is used to setup multiple concurrent widgets.

       --title title
	      Specifies a title string to be displayed at the top of the dialog box.

       --trace filename
	      logs the command-line parameters, keystrokes and other  information  to  the  given
	      file.   If dialog reads a configure file, it is logged as well.  Piped input to the
	      gauge widget is logged.  Use control/T to log a picture of the current dialog  win-
	      dow.

       The  dialog  program handles some command-line parameters specially, and removes them from
       the parameter list as they are processed.  For example, if the first  option  is  --trace,
       then that is processed (and removed) before dialog initializes the display.

       --trim eliminate  leading  blanks,  trim literal newlines and repeated blanks from message
	      text.

	      See also the "--cr-wrap" and "--no-collapse" options.

       --version
	      Prints dialog's version to the standard output, and exits.  See also  "--print-ver-
	      sion".

       --visit-items
	      Modify  the tab-traversal of checklist, radiolist, menubox and inputmenu to include
	      the list of items as one of the states.  This is useful as a visual aid, i.e.,  the
	      cursor position helps some users.

	      When  this  option is given, the cursor is initially placed on the list.	Abbrevia-
	      tions (the first letter of the tag) apply to the list items.  If	you  tab  to  the
	      button row, abbreviations apply to the buttons.

       --yes-label string
	      Override the label used for "Yes" buttons.

   Box Options
       All dialog boxes have at least three parameters:

       text the caption or contents of the box.

       height
	    the height of the dialog box.

       width
	    the width of the dialog box.

       Other parameters depend on the box type.

       --buildlist text height width [ tag item status ] ...
	      A  buildlist  dialog  displays two lists, side-by-side.  The list on the left shows
	      unselected items.  The list on the right shows selected items.  As  items  are  se-
	      lected or unselected, they move between the lists.

	      Use a carriage return or the "OK" button to accept the current value in the select-
	      ed-window and exit.  The results are written using the order displayed in  the  se-
	      lected-window.

	      The initial on/off state of each entry is specified by status.

	      The dialog behaves like a menu, using the --visit-items to control whether the cur-
	      sor is allowed to visit the lists directly.

	      o   If --visit-items is not given, tab-traversal uses two states (OK/Cancel).

	      o   If --visit-items is given, tab-traversal uses four  states  (Left/Right/OK/Can-
		  cel).

	      Whether  or  not	--visit--items is given, it is possible to move the highlight be-
	      tween the two lists using the default  "^"  (left-column)  and  "$"  (right-column)
	      keys.

	      On  exit,  a  list  of  the tag strings of those entries that are turned on will be
	      printed on dialog's output.

	      If the "--separate-output" option is not given, the strings will be quoted as need-
	      ed  to  make it simple for scripts to separate them.  By default, this uses double-
	      quotes.  See the "--single-quoted" option, which modifies the quoting behavior.

       --calendar text height width day month year
	      A calendar box displays month, day and year in separately adjustable  windows.   If
	      the  values for day, month or year are missing or negative, the current date's cor-
	      responding values are used.  You can increment or decrement any of those using  the
	      left-,  up-,  right- and down-arrows.  Use vi-style h, j, k and l for moving around
	      the array of days in a month.  Use tab or backtab to move between windows.  If  the
	      year is given as zero, the current date is used as an initial value.

	      On  exit,  the date is printed in the form day/month/year.  The format can be over-
	      ridden using the --date-format option.

       --checklist text height width list-height [ tag item status ] ...
	      A checklist box is similar to a menu box; there are multiple entries  presented  in
	      the  form  of  a	menu.  Another difference is that you can indicate which entry is
	      currently selected, by setting its status to on.	Instead  of  choosing  one  entry
	      among  the  entries,  each  entry can be turned on or off by the user.  The initial
	      on/off state of each entry is specified by status.

	      On exit, a list of the tag strings of those entries that	are  turned  on  will  be
	      printed on dialog's output.

	      If the "--separate-output" option is not given, the strings will be quoted as need-
	      ed to make it simple for scripts to separate them.  By default, this  uses  double-
	      quotes.  See the "--single-quoted" option, which modifies the quoting behavior.

       --dselect filepath height width
	      The directory-selection dialog displays a text-entry window in which you can type a
	      directory, and above that a windows with directory names.

	      Here filepath can be a filepath in which case the directory window will display the
	      contents	of the path and the text-entry window will contain the preselected direc-
	      tory.

	      Use tab or arrow keys to move between the windows.  Within  the  directory  window,
	      use  the	up/down arrow keys to scroll the current selection.  Use the space-bar to
	      copy the current selection into the text-entry window.

	      Typing any printable characters switches focus to the text-entry	window,  entering
	      that character as well as scrolling the directory window to the closest match.

	      Use  a  carriage return or the "OK" button to accept the current value in the text-
	      entry window and exit.

	      On exit, the contents of the text-entry window are written to dialog's output.

       --editbox filepath height width
	      The edit-box dialog displays a copy of  the  file.   You	may  edit  it  using  the
	      backspace,  delete  and  cursor  keys to correct typing errors.  It also recognizes
	      pageup/pagedown.	Unlike the --inputbox, you must tab to the "OK" or "Cancel"  but-
	      tons  to	close the dialog.  Pressing the "Enter" key within the box will split the
	      corresponding line.

	      On exit, the contents of the edit window are written to dialog's output.

       --form text height width formheight [ label y x item y x flen ilen ] ...
	      The form dialog displays a form consisting of labels and fields,	which  are  posi-
	      tioned on a scrollable window by coordinates given in the script.  The field length
	      flen and input-length ilen tell how long the field can be.  The former defines  the
	      length  shown for a selected field, while the latter defines the permissible length
	      of the data entered in the field.

	      o   If flen is zero, the corresponding field cannot be altered.  and  the  contents
		  of the field determine the displayed-length.

	      o   If flen is negative, the corresponding field cannot be altered, and the negated
		  value of flen is used as the displayed-length.

	      o   If ilen is zero, it is set to flen.

	      Use up/down arrows (or control/N, control/P) to move between fields.   Use  tab  to
	      move between windows.

	      On exit, the contents of the form-fields are written to dialog's output, each field
	      separated by a newline.  The text used to fill non-editable fields (flen is zero or
	      negative) is not written out.

       --fselect filepath height width
	      The  fselect  (file-selection) dialog displays a text-entry window in which you can
	      type a filename (or directory), and above that two windows with directory names and
	      filenames.

	      Here  filepath  can be a filepath in which case the file and directory windows will
	      display the contents of the path and the text-entry window will contain the  prese-
	      lected filename.

	      Use  tab	or arrow keys to move between the windows.  Within the directory or file-
	      name windows, use the up/down arrow keys to scroll the current selection.  Use  the
	      space-bar to copy the current selection into the text-entry window.

	      Typing  any  printable characters switches focus to the text-entry window, entering
	      that character as well as scrolling the directory and filename windows to the clos-
	      est match.

	      Typing  the  space  character forces dialog to complete the current name (up to the
	      point where there may be a match against more than one entry).

	      Use a carriage return or the "OK" button to accept the current value in  the  text-
	      entry window and exit.

	      On exit, the contents of the text-entry window are written to dialog's output.

       --gauge text height width [percent]
	      A  gauge box displays a meter along the bottom of the box.  The meter indicates the
	      percentage.  New percentages are read from standard input, one  integer  per  line.
	      The  meter  is updated to reflect each new percentage.  If the standard input reads
	      the string "XXX", then the first line following is taken as an integer  percentage,
	      then subsequent lines up to another "XXX" are used for a new prompt.  The gauge ex-
	      its when EOF is reached on the standard input.

	      The percent value denotes the initial percentage shown in the meter.  If not speci-
	      fied, it is zero.

	      On  exit,  no  text is written to dialog's output.  The widget accepts no input, so
	      the exit status is always OK.

       --infobox text height width
	      An info box is basically a message box.  However, in this case,  dialog  will  exit
	      immediately  after  displaying  the message to the user.	The screen is not cleared
	      when dialog exits, so that the message will remain on the screen until the  calling
	      shell script clears it later.  This is useful when you want to inform the user that
	      some operations are carrying on that may require some time to finish.

	      On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  Only an "OK"  button  is  provided
	      for input, but an ESC exit status may be returned.

       --inputbox text height width [init]
	      An  input box is useful when you want to ask questions that require the user to in-
	      put a string as the answer.  If init is supplied it is used to initialize the input
	      string.	When  entering	the  string, the backspace, delete and cursor keys can be
	      used to correct typing errors.  If the input string is longer than can fit  in  the
	      dialog box, the input field will be scrolled.

	      On exit, the input string will be printed on dialog's output.

       --inputmenu text height width menu-height [ tag item ] ...
	      An  inputmenu  box  is  very similar to an ordinary menu box.  There are only a few
	      differences between them:

	      1.  The entries are not automatically centered but left adjusted.

	      2.  An extra button (called Rename) is implied to rename the current item  when  it
		  is pressed.

	      3.  It is possible to rename the current entry by pressing the Rename button.  Then
		  dialog will write the following on dialog's output.

		  RENAMED <tag> <item>

       --menu text height width menu-height [ tag item ] ...
	      As its name suggests, a menu box is a dialog box that can be used to present a list
	      of  choices in the form of a menu for the user to choose.  Choices are displayed in
	      the order given.	Each menu entry consists of a tag string and an item string.  The
	      tag  gives  the  entry a name to distinguish it from the other entries in the menu.
	      The item is a short description of the option that the entry represents.	The  user
	      can  move between the menu entries by pressing the cursor keys, the first letter of
	      the tag as a hot-key, or the number keys 1-9. There are  menu-height  entries  dis-
	      played in the menu at one time, but the menu will be scrolled if there are more en-
	      tries than that.

	      On exit the tag of the chosen menu entry will be printed on  dialog's  output.   If
	      the "--help-button" option is given, the corresponding help text will be printed if
	      the user selects the help button.

       --mixedform text height width formheight [ label y x item y x flen ilen itype ] ...
	      The mixedform dialog displays a form consisting of labels and fields, much like the
	      --form  dialog.	It  differs  by adding a field-type parameter to each field's de-
	      scription.  Each bit in the type denotes an attribute of the field:

	      1    hidden, e.g., a password field.

	      2    readonly, e.g., a label.

       --mixedgauge text height width percent [ tag1 item1 ] ...
	      A mixedgauge box displays a meter along the bottom of the box.  The meter indicates
	      the percentage.

	      It also displays a list of the tag- and item-values at the top of the box.  See di-
	      alog(3) for the tag values.

	      The text is shown as a caption between the list and meter.  The percent  value  de-
	      notes the initial percentage shown in the meter.

	      No provision is made for reading data from the standard input as --gauge does.

	      On  exit,  no  text is written to dialog's output.  The widget accepts no input, so
	      the exit status is always OK.

       --msgbox text height width
	      A message box is very similar to a yes/no box.  The only difference between a  mes-
	      sage  box  and a yes/no box is that a message box has only a single OK button.  You
	      can use this dialog box to display any message you like.	After  reading	the  mes-
	      sage,  the  user	can  press the ENTER key so that dialog will exit and the calling
	      shell script can continue its operation.

	      If the message is too large for the space, dialog may allow you to scroll it,  pro-
	      vided that the underlying curses implementation is capable enough.  In this case, a
	      percentage is shown in the base of the widget.

	      On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  Only an "OK"  button  is  provided
	      for input, but an ESC exit status may be returned.

       --pause text height width seconds
	      A  pause box displays a meter along the bottom of the box.  The meter indicates how
	      many seconds remain until the end of the pause.  The pause exits	when  timeout  is
	      reached  or the user presses the OK button (status OK) or the user presses the CAN-
	      CEL button or Esc key.

       --passwordbox text height width [init]
	      A password box is similar to an input box, except that the text the user enters  is
	      not  displayed.  This is useful when prompting for passwords or other sensitive in-
	      formation.  Be aware that if anything is passed in "init", it will  be  visible  in
	      the  system's  process table to casual snoopers.	Also, it is very confusing to the
	      user to provide them with a default password they cannot see.  For  these  reasons,
	      using "init" is highly discouraged.  See "--insecure" if you do not care about your
	      password.

	      On exit, the input string will be printed on dialog's output.

       --passwordform text height width formheight [ label y x item y x flen ilen ] ...
	      This is identical to --form except that all text fields  are  treated  as  password
	      widgets rather than inputbox widgets.

       --prgbox text command height width

       --prgbox command height width
	      A prgbox is very similar to a programbox.

	      This  dialog box is used to display the output of a command that is specified as an
	      argument to prgbox.

	      After the command completes, the user can press the ENTER key so that  dialog  will
	      exit and the calling shell script can continue its operation.

	      If  three  parameters  are  given, it displays the text under the title, delineated
	      from the scrolling file's contents.  If only two parameters are given, this text is
	      omitted.

       --programbox text height width

       --programbox height width
	      A  programbox is very similar to a progressbox.  The only difference between a pro-
	      gram box and a progress box is that a program box displays an OK button  (but  only
	      after the command completes).

	      This  dialog  box is used to display the piped output of a command.  After the com-
	      mand completes, the user can press the ENTER key so that dialog will exit  and  the
	      calling shell script can continue its operation.

	      If  three  parameters  are  given, it displays the text under the title, delineated
	      from the scrolling file's contents.  If only two parameters are given, this text is
	      omitted.

       --progressbox text height width

       --progressbox height width
	      A progressbox is similar to an tailbox, except that

	      a) rather than displaying the contents of a file,
		 it displays the piped output of a command and

	      b) it will exit when it reaches the end of the file
		 (there is no "OK" button).

	      If  three  parameters  are  given, it displays the text under the title, delineated
	      from the scrolling file's contents.  If only two parameters are given, this text is
	      omitted.

       --radiolist text height width list-height  [ tag item status ] ...
	      A  radiolist box is similar to a menu box.  The only difference is that you can in-
	      dicate which entry is currently selected, by setting its status to on.

	      On exit, the tag of the selected item is written to dialog's output.

       --tailbox file height width
	      Display text from a file in a dialog box,  as  in  a  "tail  -f"	command.   Scroll
	      left/right using vi-style 'h' and 'l', or arrow-keys.  A '0' resets the scrolling.

	      On  exit,  no  text is written to dialog's output.  Only an "OK" button is provided
	      for input, but an ESC exit status may be returned.

       --rangebox text height width list-height min-value max-value default-value
	      Allow the user to select from a range of values, e.g., using a slider.  The  dialog
	      shows  the current value as a bar (like the gauge dialog).  Tabs or arrow keys move
	      the cursor between the buttons and the value.  When the cursor is on the value, you
	      can edit it by:

	      left/right cursor movement to select a digit to modify

	      +/-  characters to increment/decrement the digit by one

	      0 through 9
		   to set the digit to the given value

	      Some keys are also recognized in all cursor positions:

	      home/end
		   set the value to its maximum or minimum

	      pageup/pagedown
		   increment the value so that the slider moves by one column

       --tailboxbg file height width
	      Display  text from a file in a dialog box as a background task, as in a "tail -f &"
	      command.	Scroll left/right using vi-style 'h' and 'l', or arrow-keys.  A  '0'  re-
	      sets the scrolling.

	      Dialog  treats the background task specially if there are other widgets (--and-wid-
	      get) on the screen concurrently.	Until those widgets are closed (e.g.,  an  "OK"),
	      dialog  will  perform all of the tailboxbg widgets in the same process, polling for
	      updates.	You may use a tab to traverse between the  widgets  on	the  screen,  and
	      close  them  individually, e.g., by pressing ENTER.  Once the non-tailboxbg widgets
	      are closed, dialog forks a copy of itself  into  the  background,  and  prints  its
	      process id if the "--no-kill" option is given.

	      On  exit, no text is written to dialog's output.	Only an "EXIT" button is provided
	      for input, but an ESC exit status may be returned.

	      NOTE: Older versions of dialog forked  immediately  and  attempted  to  update  the
	      screen  individually.   Besides being bad for performance, it was unworkable.  Some
	      older scripts may not work properly with the polled scheme.

       --textbox file height width
	      A text box lets you display the contents of a text file in a  dialog  box.   It  is
	      like  a  simple  text file viewer.  The user can move through the file by using the
	      cursor, page-up, page-down and HOME/END keys available on most keyboards.   If  the
	      lines  are  too long to be displayed in the box, the LEFT/RIGHT keys can be used to
	      scroll the text region horizontally.  You may also use vi-style keys h, j, k, l  in
	      place  of  the  cursor keys, and B or N in place of the page-up and page-down keys.
	      Scroll up/down using vi-style 'k' and 'j', or arrow-keys.  Scroll left/right  using
	      vi-style	'h'  and 'l', or arrow-keys.  A '0' resets the left/right scrolling.  For
	      more convenience, vi-style forward and backward searching functions are  also  pro-
	      vided.

	      On  exit, no text is written to dialog's output.	Only an "EXIT" button is provided
	      for input, but an ESC exit status may be returned.

       --timebox text height [width hour minute second]
	      A dialog is displayed which allows you to select hour, minute and second.   If  the
	      values  for hour, minute or second are missing or negative, the current date's cor-
	      responding values are used.  You can increment or decrement any of those using  the
	      left-, up-, right- and down-arrows.  Use tab or backtab to move between windows.

	      On  exit,  the result is printed in the form hour:minute:second.	The format can be
	      overridden using the --time-format option.

       --treeview text height width list-height [ tag item status depth ] ...
	      Display data organized as a tree.  Each group of data contains a tag, the  text  to
	      display  for  the item, its status ("on" or "off") and the depth of the item in the
	      tree.

	      Only one item can be selected (like the radiolist).  The tag is not displayed.

	      On exit, the tag of the selected item is written to dialog's output.

       --yesno text height width
	      A yes/no dialog box of size height rows by width columns will  be  displayed.   The
	      string specified by text is displayed inside the dialog box.  If this string is too
	      long to fit in one line, it will be automatically divided into  multiple	lines  at
	      appropriate  places.   The text string can also contain the sub-string "\n" or new-
	      line characters `\n' to control line breaking explicitly.  This dialog box is  use-
	      ful for asking questions that require the user to answer either yes or no.  The di-
	      alog box has a Yes button and a No button, in which the user can switch between  by
	      pressing the TAB key.

	      On  exit, no text is written to dialog's output.	In addition to the "Yes" and "No"
	      exit codes (see DIAGNOSTICS) an ESC exit status may be returned.

	      The codes used for "Yes" and "No" match those used for "OK" and "Cancel", internal-
	      ly no distinction is made.

   Obsolete Options
       --beep This was used to tell the original cdialog that it should make a beep when the sep-
	      arate processes of the tailboxbg widget would repaint the screen.

       --beep-after
	      Beep after a user has completed a widget by pressing one of the buttons.

RUN-TIME CONFIGURATION
       1.  Create a sample configuration file by typing:

		 "dialog --create-rc <file>"

       2.  At start, dialog determines the settings to use as follows:

	   a)  if environment variable DIALOGRC is set, its value determines the name of the con-
	       figuration file.

	   b)  if the file in (a) is not found, use the file $HOME/.dialogrc as the configuration
	       file.

	   c)  if the file in (b) is not found, try using the GLOBALRC file  determined  at  com-
	       pile-time, i.e., /etc/dialogrc.

	   d)  if the file in (c) is not found, use compiled in defaults.

       3.  Edit  the sample configuration file and copy it to some place that dialog can find, as
	   stated in step 2 above.

KEY BINDINGS
       You can override or add to key bindings in dialog by adding  to	the  configuration  file.
       Dialog's bindkey command maps single keys to its internal coding.

	      bindkey widget curses_key dialog_key

       The  widget  name can be "*" (all widgets), or specific widgets such as textbox.  Specific
       widget bindings override the "*" bindings.  User-defined bindings  override  the  built-in
       bindings.

       The  curses_key	can  be  any  of  the  names  derived  from  curses.h,	e.g., "HELP" from
       "KEY_HELP".  Dialog also recognizes ANSI control characters such as "^A", "^?", as well as
       C1-controls  such as "~A" and "~?".  Finally, it allows any single character to be escaped
       with a backslash.

       Dialog's internal keycode names correspond to the DLG_KEYS_ENUM type in dlg_keys.h,  e.g.,
       "HELP" from "DLGK_HELP".

   Widget Names
       Some  widgets  (such  as  the formbox) have an area where fields can be edited.	Those are
       managed in a subwindow of the widget, and may have separate keybindings from the main wid-
       get because the subwindows are registered using a different name.

			       Widget	     Window name   Subwindow Name
			       calendar      calendar
			       checklist     checklist
			       editbox	     editbox	   editbox2
			       form	     formbox	   formfield
			       fselect	     fselect	   fselect2
			       inputbox      inputbox	   inputbox2
			       menu	     menubox	   menu
			       msgbox	     msgbox
			       pause	     pause
			       progressbox   progressbox
			       radiolist     radiolist
			       tailbox	     tailbox
			       textbox	     textbox	   searchbox
			       timebox	     timebox
			       yesno	     yesno

       Some  widgets  are actually other widgets, using internal settings to modify the behavior.
       Those use the same widget name as the actual widget:

				      Widget	     Actual Widget
				      dselect	     fselect
				      infobox	     msgbox
				      inputmenu      menu
				      mixedform      form
				      passwordbox    inputbox
				      passwordform   form
				      prgbox	     progressbox
				      programbox     progressbox
				      tailboxbg      tailbox

   Built-in Bindings
       This manual page does not list the key bindings for each widget, because that detailed in-
       formation  can  be obtained by running dialog.  If you have set the --trace option, dialog
       writes the key-binding information for each widget as it is registered.

   Example
       Normally dialog uses different keys for navigating between the buttons and editing part of
       a  dialog versus navigating within the editing part.  That is, tab (and back-tab) traverse
       buttons (or between buttons and the editing part), while arrow keys traverse fields within
       the  editing part.  Tabs are also recognized as a special case for traversing between wid-
       gets, e.g., when using multiple tailboxbg widgets.

       Some users may wish to use the same key for traversing within  the  editing  part  as  for
       traversing  between buttons.  The form widget is written to support this sort of redefini-
       tion of the keys, by  adding  a	special  group	in  <code>dlgk_keys.h</code>  for  "form"
       (left/right/next/prev).	Here is an example binding demonstrating how to do this:

	      bindkey formfield TAB  form_NEXT
	      bindkey formbox	TAB  form_NEXT
	      bindkey formfield BTAB form_prev
	      bindkey formbox	BTAB form_prev

       That type of redefinition would not be useful in other widgets, e.g., calendar, due to the
       potentially large number of fields to traverse.

ENVIRONMENT
       DIALOGOPTS     Define this variable to apply any of the common  options	to  each  widget.
		      Most of the common options are reset before processing each widget.  If you
		      set the options in this environment variable, they are applied to  dialog's
		      state  after the reset.  As in the "--file" option, double-quotes and back-
		      slashes are interpreted.

		      The "--file" option is not considered a common option (so you cannot  embed
		      it within this environment variable).

       DIALOGRC       Define  this  variable if you want to specify the name of the configuration
		      file to use.

       DIALOG_CANCEL

       DIALOG_ERROR

       DIALOG_ESC

       DIALOG_EXTRA

       DIALOG_HELP

       DIALOG_ITEM_HELP

       DIALOG_OK      Define any of these variables to change the exit code on Cancel (1),  error
		      (-1), ESC (255), Extra (3), Help (2), Help with --item-help (2), or OK (0).
		      Normally shell scripts cannot distinguish between -1 and 255.

       DIALOG_TTY     Set this variable to "1" to provide compatibility with  older  versions  of
		      dialog which assumed that if the script redirects the standard output, that
		      the "--stdout" option was given.

FILES
       $HOME/.dialogrc	   default configuration file

EXAMPLES
       The dialog sources contain several samples of how to use the different box options and how
       they look.  Just take a look into the directory samples/ of the source.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Exit  status  is subject to being overridden by environment variables.  The default values
       and corresponding environment variables that can override them are:

       0    if dialog is exited by pressing the Yes or OK button (DIALOG_OK).

       1    if the No or Cancel button is pressed (DIALOG_CANCEL).

       2    if the Help button is pressed (DIALOG_HELP).

       3    if the Extra button is pressed (DIALOG_EXTRA).

       4    if the Help button is pressed (DIALOG_HELP), or the --item-help option  is	set  when
	    the Help button is pressed (DIALOG_ITEM_HELP),

       -1   if	errors occur inside dialog (DIALOG_ERROR) or dialog is exited by pressing the ESC
	    key (DIALOG_ESC).

PORTABILITY
       Dialog works with X/Open curses.  However, some implementations have deficiencies:

	  o   HPUX curses (and perhaps others) do not open the terminal properly for the  newterm
	      function.   This	interferes with dialog's --input-fd option, by preventing cursor-
	      keys and similar escape sequences from being recognized.

	  o   NetBSD 5.1 curses has incomplete support for wide-characters.  dialog  will  build,
	      but not all examples display properly.

COMPATIBILITY
       You may want to write scripts which run with other dialog "clones".

   ORIGINAL DIALOG
       First,  there  is the "original" dialog program to consider (versions 0.3 to 0.9).  It had
       some misspelled (or inconsistent) options.  The dialog program maps those  deprecated  op-
       tions to the preferred ones.  They include:

	      Option	     Treatment
	      ---------------------------------
	      --beep-after   ignored
	      --guage	     mapped to --gauge

   XDIALOG
       Technically, "Xdialog", this is an X application.  With some care, it is possible to write
       useful scripts that work with both Xdialog and dialog.

       The dialog program ignores these options which are recognized by Xdialog:

	      Option		 Treatment
	      -----------------------------------------------
	      --allow-close	 ignored
	      --auto-placement	 ignored
	      --fixed-font	 ignored
	      --icon		 ignored
	      --keep-colors	 ignored
	      --no-close	 ignored
	      --no-cr-wrap	 ignored
	      --screen-center	 ignored
	      --separator	 mapped to --separate-output
	      --smooth		 ignored
	      --under-mouse	 ignored
	      --wmclass 	 ignored

       Xdialog's manpage has a section discussing its compatibility with dialog.  There are  some
       differences not shown in the manpage.  For example, the html documentation states

	      Note:  former  Xdialog  releases	used  the  "0 (line feed) as a results	separator
	      for  the	checklist  widget; this has been changed  to  "/"  in  Xdialog v1.5.0  so
	      to  make	it  compatible	with  (c)dialog.  In  your  old scripts using the Xdialog
	      checklist, you will  then  have  to  add	the --separate-output option  before  the
	      --checklist one.

       Dialog  has not used a different separator; the difference was likely due to confusion re-
       garding some script.

   WHIPTAIL
       Then there is whiptail.	For practical purposes, it is maintained by Debian  (very  little
       work is done by its upstream developers).  Its documentation (README.whiptail) claims

	      whiptail(1) is a lightweight replacement for dialog(1),
	      to provide dialog boxes for shell scripts.
	      It is built on the
	      newt windowing library rather than the ncurses library, allowing
	      it to be smaller in embedded enviroments such as installers,
	      rescue disks, etc.

	      whiptail is designed to be drop-in compatible with dialog, but
	      has less features: some dialog boxes are not implemented, such
	      as tailbox, timebox, calendarbox, etc.

       Comparing  actual  sizes (Debian testing, 2007/1/10): The total of sizes for whiptail, the
       newt, popt and slang libraries is 757kb.   The  comparable  number  for	dialog	(counting
       ncurses) is 520kb.  Disregard the first paragraph.

       The  second  paragraph is misleading, since whiptail also does not work for common options
       of dialog, such as the gauge box.  whiptail is less compatible with dialog than the origi-
       nal mid-1990s dialog 0.4 program.

       whiptail's  manpage  borrows  features from dialog, e.g., but oddly cites only dialog ver-
       sions up to 0.4 (1994) as a source.  That is, its manpage refers to  features  which  were
       borrowed from more recent versions of dialog, e.g.,

       o   --gauge (from 0.5)

       o   --passwordbox (from Debian changes in 1999),

       o   --default-item (from dialog 2000/02/22),

       o   --output-fd (from dialog 2002/08/14).

       Somewhat  humorously,  one may note that the popt feature (undocumented in its manpage) of
       using a "--" as an escape was documented in dialog's manpage about a year  before  it  was
       mentioned in whiptail's manpage.  whiptail's manpage incorrectly attributes that to getopt
       (and is inaccurate anyway).

       Debian uses whiptail for the official dialog variation.

       The dialog program ignores or maps these options which are recognized by whiptail:

	      Option		Treatment
	      -------------------------------------------
	      --cancel-button	mapped to --cancel-label
	      --fb		ignored
	      --fullbutton	ignored
	      --no-button	mapped to --no-label
	      --nocancel	mapped to --no-cancel
	      --noitem		mapped to --no-items
	      --notags		mapped to --no-tags
	      --ok-button	mapped to --ok-label
	      --scrolltext	mapped to --scrollbar
	      --topleft 	mapped to --begin 0 0
	      --yes-button	mapped to --yes-label

       There are visual differences which are not addressed by command-line options:

       o   dialog centers lists within the window.  whiptail typically	puts  lists  against  the
	   left margin.

       o   whiptail  uses  angle  brackets ("<" and ">") for marking buttons.  dialog uses square
	   brackets.

       o   whiptail marks the limits of subtitles with vertical bars.  dialog does not	mark  the
	   limits.

       o   whiptail  attempts  to  mark  the top/bottom cells of a scrollbar with up/down arrows.
	   When it cannot do this, it fills those cells with the background color of the  scroll-
	   bar	and  confusing the user.  dialog uses the entire scrollbar space, thereby getting
	   better resolution.

BUGS
       Perhaps.

AUTHOR
       Thomas E. Dickey (updates for 0.9b and beyond)

CONTRIBUTORS
       Kiran Cherupally - the mixed form and mixed gauge widgets.

       Tobias C. Rittweiler

       Valery Reznic - the form and progressbox widgets.

       Yura Kalinichenko adapted the gauge widget as "pause".

       This is a rewrite (except as needed to provide compatibility) of the  earlier  version  of
       dialog 0.9a, which lists as authors:

       o   Savio Lam - version 0.3, "dialog"

       o   Stuart Herbert - patch for version 0.4

       o   Marc Ewing - the gauge widget.

       o   Pasquale De Marco "Pako" - version 0.9a, "cdialog"

$Date: 2013/03/15 09:07:30 $								DIALOG(1)
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