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dcraw(1)										 dcraw(1)

NAME
       dcraw - command-line decoder for raw digital photos

SYNOPSIS
       dcraw [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION
       dcraw decodes raw photos, displays metadata, and extracts thumbnails.

GENERAL OPTIONS
       -v     Print verbose messages, not just warnings and errors.

       -c     Write decoded images or thumbnails to standard output.

       -e     Extract  the  camera-generated  thumbnail,  not the raw image.  You'll get either a
	      JPEG or a PPM file, depending on the camera.

       -z     Change the access and modification times of an AVI, JPEG, TIFF or raw file to  when
	      the photo was taken, assuming that the camera clock was set to Universal Time.

       -i     Identify	files  but  don't  decode them.  Exit status is 0 if dcraw can decode the
	      last file, 1 if it can't.  -i -v shows metadata.

	      dcraw cannot decode JPEG files!!

REPAIR OPTIONS
       -I     Read the raw pixels from standard input in CPU byte  order  with	no  header.   Use
	      dcraw -E -4 to get the raw pixel values.

       -P deadpixels.txt
	      Read  the  dead pixel list from this file instead of ".badpixels".  See FILES for a
	      description of the format.

       -K darkframe.pgm
	      Subtract a dark frame from the raw data.	To generate a dark  frame,  shoot  a  raw
	      photo with no light and do dcraw -D -4 -j -t 0.

       -k darkness
	      When  shadows appear foggy, you need to raise the darkness level.  To measure this,
	      apply pamsumm -mean to the dark frame generated above.

       -S saturation
	      When highlights appear pink, you need to lower the saturation  level.   To  measure
	      this,  take  a picture of something shiny and do dcraw -D -4 -j -c photo.raw | pam-
	      summ -max

	      The default darkness and saturation are usually correct.

       -n noise_threshold
	      Use wavelets to erase noise while  preserving  real  detail.   The  best	threshold
	      should be somewhere between 100 and 1000.

       -C red_mag blue_mag
	      Enlarge the raw red and blue layers by the given factors, typically 0.999 to 1.001,
	      to correct chromatic aberration.

       -H 0   Clip all highlights to solid white (default).

       -H 1   Leave highlights unclipped in various shades of pink.

       -H 2   Blend clipped and unclipped values together for a gradual fade to white.

       -H 3+  Reconstruct highlights.  Low numbers favor whites; high numbers favor colors.   Try
	      -H  5  as  a compromise.	If that's not good enough, do -H 9, cut out the non-white
	      highlights, and paste them into an image generated with -H 3.

COLOR OPTIONS
       By default, dcraw uses a fixed white balance based on a color  chart  illuminated  with	a
       standard D65 lamp.

       -w     Use the white balance specified by the camera.  If this is not found, print a warn-
	      ing and use another method.

       -a     Calculate the white balance by averaging the entire image.

       -A left top width height
	      Calculate  the  white  balance  by  averaging  a	rectangular   area.    First   do
	      dcraw -j -t 0 and select an area of neutral grey color.

       -r mul0 mul1 mul2 mul3
	      Specify  your  own raw white balance.  These multipliers can be cut and pasted from
	      the output of dcraw -v.

       +M or -M
	      Use (or don't use) any color matrix from the camera metadata.  The default is +M if
	      -w  is  set,  -M	otherwise.  This option only affects Olympus, Leaf, and Phase One
	      cameras.

       -o [0-5]
	      Select the output colorspace when the -p option is not used:

		   0   Raw color (unique to each camera)
		   1   sRGB D65 (default)
		   2   Adobe RGB (1998) D65
		   3   Wide Gamut RGB D65
		   4   Kodak ProPhoto RGB D65
		   5   XYZ

       -p camera.icm [ -o output.icm ]
	      Use ICC profiles to define the camera's raw colorspace and the desired output  col-
	      orspace (sRGB by default).

       -p embed
	      Use the ICC profile embedded in the raw photo.

INTERPOLATION OPTIONS
       -d     Show the raw data as a grayscale image with no interpolation.  Good for photograph-
	      ing black-and-white documents.

       -D     Same as -d, but with the original unscaled pixel values.

       -E     Same as -D, but masked pixels are not cropped.

       -h     Output a half-size color image.  Twice as fast as -q 0.

       -q 0   Use high-speed, low-quality bilinear interpolation.

       -q 1   Use Variable Number of Gradients (VNG) interpolation.

       -q 2   Use Patterned Pixel Grouping (PPG) interpolation.

       -q 3   Use Adaptive Homogeneity-Directed (AHD) interpolation.

       -f     Interpolate RGB as four colors.  Use this if the output shows false 2x2 meshes with
	      VNG or mazes with AHD.

       -m number_of_passes
	      After  interpolation,  clean up color artifacts by repeatedly applying a 3x3 median
	      filter to the R-G and B-G channels.

OUTPUT OPTIONS
       By default, dcraw writes PGM/PPM/PAM with 8-bit samples, a  BT.709  gamma  curve,  a  his-
       togram-based white level, and no metadata.

       -W     Use a fixed white level, ignoring the image histogram.

       -b brightness
	      Divide the white level by this number, 1.0 by default.

       -g power toe_slope
	      Set  the	gamma curve, by default BT.709 (-g 2.222 4.5).	If you prefer sRGB gamma,
	      use -g 2.4 12.92.  For a simple power curve, set the toe slope to zero.

       -6     Write sixteen bits per sample instead of eight.

       -4     Linear 16-bit, same as -6 -W -g 1 1.

       -T     Write TIFF with metadata instead of PGM/PPM/PAM.

       -t [0-7,90,180,270]
	      Flip the output image.  By default, dcraw applies the flip specified by the camera.
	      -t 0 disables all flipping.

       -j     For  Fuji Super CCD  cameras,  show  the image tilted 45 degrees.  For cameras with
	      non-square pixels, do not stretch the image to its correct aspect  ratio.   In  any
	      case, this option guarantees that each output pixel corresponds to one raw pixel.

       -s [0..N-1] or -s all
	      If  a  file  contains  N	raw  images, choose one or "all" to decode.  For example,
	      Fuji Super CCD SR cameras generate a second image underexposed four stops  to  show
	      detail in the highlights.

FILES
       ./.badpixels, ../.badpixels, ../../.badpixels, ...
	      List of your camera's dead pixels, so that dcraw can interpolate around them.  Each
	      line specifies the column, row, and UNIX time of death for one pixel.  For example:

	       962   91 1028350000  # died between August 1 and 4, 2002
	      1285 1067 0	    # don't know when this pixel died

	      These coordinates are before any cropping or rotation, so use  dcraw  -j	-t  0  to
	      locate dead pixels.

SEE ALSO
       pgm(5),	ppm(5),  pam(5),  pamsumm(1), pnmgamma(1), pnmtotiff(1), pnmtopng(1), gphoto2(1),
       cjpeg(1), djpeg(1)

AUTHOR
       Written by David Coffin, dcoffin a cybercom o net

					   May 14, 2009 				 dcraw(1)
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