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curl(1) 				   Curl Manual					  curl(1)

NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options] [URL...]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the supported protocols
       (DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS, IMAP, IMAPS, LDAP, LDAPS, POP3, POP3S,  RTMP,
       RTSP,  SCP,  SFTP, SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET and TFTP).  The command is designed to work without
       user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of useful	tricks	like  proxy  support,  user  authentication,  FTP
       upload,	HTTP post, SSL connections, cookies, file transfer resume, Metalink, and more. As
       you will see below, the number of features will make your head spin!

       curl is powered by libcurl for all transfer-related features. See libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The URL syntax is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed description in RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs by writing part sets within braces as in:

	http://site.{one,two,three}.com

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

	ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[1-100].txt
	ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)
	ftp://ftp.letters.com/file[a-z].txt

       Nested sequences are not supported, but you can use several ones next to each other:

	http://any.org/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line. They will be fetched in a  sequen-
       tial manner in the specified order.

       You can specify a step counter for the ranges to get every Nth number or letter:

	http://www.numericals.com/file[1-100:10].txt
	http://www.letters.com/file[a-z:2].txt

       If  you	specify  URL without protocol:// prefix, curl will attempt to guess what protocol
       you might want. It will then default to HTTP but try other protocols based  on  often-used
       host  name prefixes. For example, for host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you
       want to speak FTP.

       curl will do its best to use what you pass to it as a URL. It is not trying to validate it
       as  a  syntactically  correct  URL  by  any means but is instead very liberal with what it
       accepts.

       curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so that getting  many
       files  from  the  same  server  will  not do multiple connects / handshakes. This improves
       speed. Of course this is only done on files specified on a single command line and  cannot
       be used between separate curl invokes.

PROGRESS METER
       curl normally displays a progress meter during operations, indicating the amount of trans-
       ferred data, transfer speeds and estimated time left, etc.

       curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so if you invoke curl to do an  opera-
       tion and it is about to write data to the terminal, it disables the progress meter as oth-
       erwise it would mess up the output mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT  requests,  you  need	to  redirect  the
       response output to a file, using shell redirect (>), -o [file] or similar.

       It  is  not  the same case for FTP upload as that operation does not spit out any response
       data to the terminal.

       If you prefer a progress "bar" instead of the regular meter, -# is your friend.

OPTIONS
       In general, all boolean options are enabled with --option  and  yet  again  disabled  with
       --no-option.  That  is,	you use the exact same option name but prefix it with "no-". How-
       ever, in this list we mostly only list and show the --option version of them.  (This  con-
       cept with --no options was added in 7.19.0. Previously most options were toggled on/off on
       repeated use of the same command line option.)

       -#, --progress-bar
	      Make curl display progress as a simple progress bar instead of the  standard,  more
	      informational, meter.

       -0, --http1.0
	      (HTTP) Forces curl to issue its requests using HTTP 1.0 instead of using its inter-
	      nally preferred: HTTP 1.1.

       -1, --tlsv1
	      (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.x when negotiating with a remote TLS server.
	      You  can use options --tlsv1.0, --tlsv1.1, and --tlsv1.2 to control the TLS version
	      more precisely (if the SSL backend in use supports such a level of control).

       -2, --sslv2
	      (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 2 when negotiating with a remote SSL server.

       -3, --sslv3
	      (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 3 when negotiating with a remote SSL server.

       -4, --ipv4
	      If curl is capable of resolving an address to multiple IP versions (which it is  if
	      it  is  IPv6-capable),  this  option  tells curl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses
	      only.

       -6, --ipv6
	      If curl is capable of resolving an address to multiple IP versions (which it is  if
	      it  is  IPv6-capable),  this  option  tells curl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses
	      only.

       -a, --append
	      (FTP/SFTP) When used in an upload, this will tell curl to append to the target file
	      instead  of  overwriting	it.  If the file doesn't exist, it will be created.  Note
	      that this flag is ignored by some SSH servers (including OpenSSH).

       -A, --user-agent <agent string>
	      (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.	Some  badly  done
	      CGIs fail if this field isn't set to "Mozilla/4.0". To encode blanks in the string,
	      surround the string with single quote marks. This can also  be  set  with  the  -H,
	      --header option of course.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --anyauth
	      (HTTP)  Tells  curl to figure out authentication method by itself, and use the most
	      secure one the remote site claims to support. This is done by first doing a request
	      and  checking  the response-headers, thus possibly inducing an extra network round-
	      trip. This is used instead of setting a specific authentication method,  which  you
	      can do with --basic, --digest, --ntlm, and --negotiate.

	      Note that using --anyauth is not recommended if you do uploads from stdin, since it
	      may require data to be sent twice and then the client must be able  to  rewind.  If
	      the need should arise when uploading from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

       -b, --cookie <name=data>
	      (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server as a cookie. It is supposedly the data pre-
	      viously received from the server in a "Set-Cookie:" line.  The data  should  be  in
	      the format "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2".

	      If  no  '='  symbol is used in the line, it is treated as a filename to use to read
	      previously stored cookie lines from, which should be used in this session  if  they
	      match.  Using  this  method also activates the "cookie parser" which will make curl
	      record incoming cookies too, which may be handy if you're using this in combination
	      with  the  -L,  --location option. The file format of the file to read cookies from
	      should be plain HTTP headers or the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format.

	      NOTE that the file specified with -b, --cookie is only used as  input.  No  cookies
	      will  be	stored	in the file. To store cookies, use the -c, --cookie-jar option or
	      you could even save the HTTP headers to a file using -D, --dump-header!

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -B, --use-ascii
	      (FTP/LDAP) Enable ASCII transfer. For FTP, this can also be enforced  by	using  an
	      URL  that ends with ";type=A". This option causes data sent to stdout to be in text
	      mode for win32 systems.

       --basic
	      (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication. This is the  default	and  this
	      option  is usually pointless, unless you use it to override a previously set option
	      that sets a different authentication method (such as --ntlm, --digest, or --negoti-
	      ate).

       -c, --cookie-jar <file name>
	      (HTTP)  Specify  to which file you want curl to write all cookies after a completed
	      operation. Curl writes all cookies previously read from a specified file as well as
	      all  cookies  received from remote server(s). If no cookies are known, no file will
	      be written. The file will be written using the Netscape cookie file format. If  you
	      set the file name to a single dash, "-", the cookies will be written to stdout.

	      This command line option will activate the cookie engine that makes curl record and
	      use cookies. Another way to activate it is to use the -b, --cookie option.

	      If the cookie jar can't be created or written to, the whole  curl  operation  won't
	      fail  or	even  report an error clearly. Using -v will get a warning displayed, but
	      that is the only visible feedback you get about this possibly lethal situation.

	      If this option is used several times, the last specified file name will be used.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
	      Continue/Resume a previous file transfer at the given offset. The given  offset  is
	      the  exact number of bytes that will be skipped, counting from the beginning of the
	      source file before it is transferred to the destination.	If used with uploads, the
	      FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

	      Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out where/how to resume the transfer.
	      It then uses the given output/input files to figure that out.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
	      (SSL) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list	of  ciphers  must
	      specify	valid  ciphers.  Read  up  on  SSL  cipher  list  details  on  this  URL:
	      http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html

	      NSS ciphers are done differently than OpenSSL and GnuTLS.  The  full  list  of  NSS
	      ciphers	is   in   the	NSSCipherSuite	entry  at  this  URL:  http://git.fedora-
	      hosted.org/cgit/mod_nss.git/plain/docs/mod_nss.html#Directives

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --compressed
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of the algorithms curl supports, and
	      save  the  uncompressed  document.   If this option is used and the server sends an
	      unsupported encoding, curl will report an error.

       --connect-timeout <seconds>
	      Maximum time in seconds that you allow the connection to the server to take.   This
	      only limits the connection phase, once curl has connected this option is of no more
	      use. See also the -m, --max-time option.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --create-dirs
	      When used in conjunction with the -o option, curl will create the  necessary  local
	      directory  hierarchy  as needed. This option creates the dirs mentioned with the -o
	      option, nothing else. If the -o file name uses no dir or if the  dirs  it  mentions
	      already exist, no dir will be created.

	      To create remote directories when using FTP or SFTP, try --ftp-create-dirs.

       --crlf (FTP) Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).

       --crlfile <file>
	      (HTTPS/FTPS)  Provide  a	file  using PEM format with a Certificate Revocation List
	      that may specify peer certificates that are to be considered revoked.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

	      (Added in 7.19.7)

       -d, --data <data>
	      (HTTP) Sends the specified data in a POST request to the HTTP server, in	the  same
	      way that a browser does when a user has filled in an HTML form and presses the sub-
	      mit button. This will cause curl to pass the data to the server using the  content-
	      type application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F, --form.

	      -d,  --data  is  the  same  as --data-ascii. To post data purely binary, you should
	      instead use the --data-binary option. To URL-encode the value of a form  field  you
	      may use --data-urlencode.

	      If  any  of these options is used more than once on the same command line, the data
	      pieces specified will be merged together with a separating  &-symbol.  Thus,  using
	      '-d  name=daniel	-d  skill=lousy'  would  generate  a  post  chunk that looks like
	      'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

	      If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a file name to read the
	      data  from, or - if you want curl to read the data from stdin.  The contents of the
	      file must already be URL-encoded. Multiple files can  also  be  specified.  Posting
	      data from a file named 'foobar' would thus be done with --data @foobar.

       -D, --dump-header <file>
	      Write the protocol headers to the specified file.

	      This  option  is	handy to use when you want to store the headers that an HTTP site
	      sends to you. Cookies from the headers could then be read in a second curl  invoca-
	      tion  by	using  the  -b, --cookie option! The -c, --cookie-jar option is however a
	      better way to store cookies.

	      When used in FTP, the FTP server response lines are considered being "headers"  and
	      thus are saved there.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --data-ascii <data>
	      See -d, --data.

       --data-binary <data>
	      (HTTP) This posts data exactly as specified with no extra processing whatsoever.

	      If  you  start  the data with the letter @, the rest should be a filename.  Data is
	      posted in a similar manner as --data-ascii does, except that newlines are preserved
	      and conversions are never done.

	      If this option is used several times, the ones following the first will append data
	      as described in -d, --data.

       --data-urlencode <data>
	      (HTTP) This posts data, similar to the other --data options with the exception that
	      this performs URL-encoding. (Added in 7.18.0)

	      To be CGI-compliant, the <data> part should begin with a name followed by a separa-
	      tor and a content specification. The <data> part can be passed to curl using one of
	      the following syntaxes:

	      content
		     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that on. Just be careful
		     so that the content doesn't contain any = or @ symbols, as  that  will  then
		     make the syntax match one of the other cases below!

	      =content
		     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that on. The preceding =
		     symbol is not included in the data.

	      name=content
		     This will make curl URL-encode the content part and pass that on. Note  that
		     the name part is expected to be URL-encoded already.

	      @filename
		     This  will make curl load data from the given file (including any newlines),
		     URL-encode that data and pass it on in the POST.

	      name@filename
		     This will make curl load data from the given file (including any  newlines),
		     URL-encode that data and pass it on in the POST. The name part gets an equal
		     sign appended, resulting in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note that the name
		     is expected to be URL-encoded already.

       --delegation LEVEL
	      Set  LEVEL  to tell the server what it is allowed to delegate when it comes to user
	      credentials. Used with GSS/kerberos.

	      none   Don't allow any delegation.

	      policy Delegates if and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag is set in the Kerberos ser-
		     vice ticket, which is a matter of realm policy.

	      always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       --digest
	      (HTTP)  Enables  HTTP  Digest authentication. This is an authentication scheme that
	      prevents the password from being sent over the wire in clear text. Use this in com-
	      bination	with the normal -u, --user option to set user name and password. See also
	      --ntlm, --negotiate and --anyauth for related options.

	      If this option is used several times, only the first one is used.

       --disable-eprt
	      (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands when doing  active
	      FTP  transfers.  Curl  will  normally  always  first attempt to use EPRT, then LPRT
	      before using PORT, but with this option, it will use PORT right away. EPRT and LPRT
	      are  extensions  to the original FTP protocol, and may not work on all servers, but
	      they enable more functionality in a better way than the traditional PORT command.

	      --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt is  an  alias  for
	      --disable-eprt.

	      Disabling  EPRT  only changes the active behavior. If you want to switch to passive
	      mode you need to not use -P, --ftp-port or force it with --ftp-pasv.

       --disable-epsv
	      (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the  EPSV  command	when  doing  passive  FTP
	      transfers.  Curl	will  normally	always first attempt to use EPSV before PASV, but
	      with this option, it will not try using EPSV.

	      --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv is  an  alias  for
	      --disable-epsv.

	      Disabling  EPSV  only changes the passive behavior. If you want to switch to active
	      mode you need to use -P, --ftp-port.

       -e, --referer <URL>
	      (HTTP) Sends the "Referer Page" information to the HTTP server. This  can  also  be
	      set  with  the  -H, --header flag of course.  When used with -L, --location you can
	      append ";auto" to the --referer URL to make curl automatically set the previous URL
	      when  it	follows a Location: header. The ";auto" string can be used alone, even if
	      you don't set an initial --referer.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
	      (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified client certificate file when getting  a  file
	      with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based protocol. The certificate must be in PEM for-
	      mat.  If the optional password isn't specified, it will be queried for on the  ter-
	      minal.  Note  that this option assumes a "certificate" file that is the private key
	      and the private certificate concatenated! See --cert  and  --key	to  specify  them
	      independently.

	      If  curl	is  built  against the NSS SSL library then this option can tell curl the
	      nickname of the certificate to use within the NSS database defined by the  environ-
	      ment variable SSL_DIR (or by default /etc/pki/nssdb). If the NSS PEM PKCS#11 module
	      (libnsspem.so) is available then PEM files may be loaded. If you want to use a file
	      from  the  current directory, please precede it with "./" prefix, in order to avoid
	      confusion with a nickname.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --engine <name>
	      Select the OpenSSL crypto engine to use for cipher operations. Use --engine list to
	      print  a	list  of build-time supported engines. Note that not all (or none) of the
	      engines may be available at run-time.

       --environment
	      (RISC OS ONLY) Sets a range of environment variables, using the names the -w option
	      supports, to allow easier extraction of useful information after having run curl.

       --egd-file <file>
	      (SSL)  Specify  the path name to the Entropy Gathering Daemon socket. The socket is
	      used to seed the random engine for SSL  connections.  See  also  the  --random-file
	      option.

       --cert-type <type>
	      (SSL) Tells curl what certificate type the provided certificate is in. PEM, DER and
	      ENG are recognized types.  If not specified, PEM is assumed.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cacert <CA certificate>
	      (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to verify the peer. The file
	      may  contain  multiple  CA  certificates. The certificate(s) must be in PEM format.
	      Normally curl is built to use a default file for this, so this option is	typically
	      used to alter that default file.

	      curl  recognizes	the environment variable named 'CURL_CA_BUNDLE' if it is set, and
	      uses the given path as a path to a CA cert bundle. This option overrides that vari-
	      able.

	      The  windows  version  of  curl  will  automatically look for a CA certs file named
	      'curl-ca-bundle.crt', either in the same directory as curl.exe, or in  the  Current
	      Working Directory, or in any folder along your PATH.

	      If  curl	is  built  against  the NSS SSL library, the NSS PEM PKCS#11 module (lib-
	      nsspem.so) needs to be available for this option to work properly.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --capath <CA certificate directory>
	      (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate directory  to  verify  the  peer.
	      Multiple	 paths	 can   be   provided   by   separating	 them	with   ":"  (e.g.
	      "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must be in PEM format, and if curl is  built
	      against  OpenSSL, the directory must have been processed using the c_rehash utility
	      supplied with OpenSSL. Using --capath can allow OpenSSL-powered curl to  make  SSL-
	      connections much more efficiently than using --cacert if the --cacert file contains
	      many CA certificates.

	      If this option is set, the default capath value will be ignored, and if it is  used
	      several times, the last one will be used.

       -f, --fail
	      (HTTP)  Fail  silently  (no output at all) on server errors. This is mostly done to
	      better enable scripts etc to better deal with failed attempts. In normal cases when
	      an  HTTP server fails to deliver a document, it returns an HTML document stating so
	      (which often also describes why and more). This flag will prevent  curl  from  out-
	      putting that and return error 22.

	      This  method is not fail-safe and there are occasions where non-successful response
	      codes will slip through, especially when authentication is involved (response codes
	      401 and 407).

       -F, --form <name=content>
	      (HTTP) This lets curl emulate a filled-in form in which a user has pressed the sub-
	      mit button. This causes curl to POST data using  the  Content-Type  multipart/form-
	      data  according  to  RFC 2388. This enables uploading of binary files etc. To force
	      the 'content' part to be a file, prefix the file name with an @ sign. To	just  get
	      the  content  part from a file, prefix the file name with the symbol <. The differ-
	      ence between @ and < is then that @ makes a file get attached in the post as a file
	      upload,  while  the  <  makes  a text field and just get the contents for that text
	      field from a file.

	      Example, to send your password file to the server, where 'password' is the name  of
	      the form-field to which /etc/passwd will be the input:

	      curl -F password=@/etc/passwd www.mypasswords.com

	      To  read content from stdin instead of a file, use - as the filename. This goes for
	      both @ and < constructs.

	      You can also tell curl what Content-Type to use by using 'type=', in a manner simi-
	      lar to:

	      curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" url.com

	      or

	      curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" url.com

	      You  can	also  explicitly  change  the name field of a file upload part by setting
	      filename=, like this:

	      curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" url.com

	      If filename/path contains ',' or ';', it must be quoted by double-quotes like:

	      curl -F "file=@\"localfile\";filename=\"nameinpost\"" url.com

	      or

	      curl -F 'file=@"localfile";filename="nameinpost"' url.com

	      Note that if a filename/path is quoted by double-quotes, any double-quote or  back-
	      slash within the filename must be escaped by backslash.

	      See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

       --ftp-account [data]
	      (FTP)  When  an FTP server asks for "account data" after user name and password has
	      been provided, this data is sent off using the ACCT command. (Added in 7.13.0)

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
	      (FTP) If authenticating with the USER and PASS commands fails, send  this  command.
	      When  connecting	to  Tumbleweed's Secure Transport server over FTPS using a client
	      certificate, using "SITE AUTH" will tell the server to retrieve the  username  from
	      the certificate. (Added in 7.15.5)

       --ftp-create-dirs
	      (FTP/SFTP)  When	an  FTP  or SFTP URL/operation uses a path that doesn't currently
	      exist on the server, the standard behavior of curl is to fail. Using  this  option,
	      curl will instead attempt to create missing directories.

       --ftp-method [method]
	      (FTP)  Control what method curl should use to reach a file on an FTP(S) server. The
	      method argument should be one of the following alternatives:

	      multicwd
		     curl does a single CWD operation for each path part in the  given	URL.  For
		     deep hierarchies this means very many commands. This is how RFC 1738 says it
		     should be done. This is the default but the slowest behavior.

	      nocwd  curl does no CWD at all. curl will do SIZE, RETR, STOR etc and give  a  full
		     path to the server for all these commands. This is the fastest behavior.

	      singlecwd
		     curl  does  one  CWD with the full target directory and then operates on the
		     file "normally" (like in the multicwd case). This is somewhat more standards
		     compliant than 'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.
       (Added in 7.15.1)

       --ftp-pasv
	      (FTP)  Use  passive  mode  for the data connection. Passive is the internal default
	      behavior, but using this option can be used to  override	a  previous  -P/-ftp-port
	      option. (Added in 7.11.0)

	      If  this	option	is  used  several  times,  only the first one is used. Undoing an
	      enforced passive really isn't doable but you must then instead enforce the  correct
	      -P, --ftp-port again.

	      Passive  mode means that curl will try the EPSV command first and then PASV, unless
	      --disable-epsv is used.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
	      (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server suggests in	its  response  to
	      curl's  PASV  command when curl connects the data connection. Instead curl will re-
	      use the same IP address it already uses  for  the  control  connection.  (Added  in
	      7.14.2)

	      This option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used instead of PASV.

       --ftp-pret
	      (FTP) Tell curl to send a PRET command before PASV (and EPSV). Certain FTP servers,
	      mainly drftpd, require this non-standard command for directory listings as well  as
	      up and downloads in PASV mode.  (Added in 7.20.x)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
	      (FTP)  Use CCC (Clear Command Channel) Shuts down the SSL/TLS layer after authenti-
	      cating. The rest of the control channel communication  will  be  unencrypted.  This
	      allows  NAT routers to follow the FTP transaction. The default mode is passive. See
	      --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode for other modes.  (Added in 7.16.1)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode [active/passive]
	      (FTP) Use CCC (Clear Command Channel) Sets the CCC mode. The passive mode will  not
	      initiate the shutdown, but instead wait for the server to do it, and will not reply
	      to the shutdown from the server. The active mode initiates the shutdown  and  waits
	      for a reply from the server.  (Added in 7.16.2)

       --ftp-ssl-control
	      (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for the FTP login, clear for transfer.  Allows secure authen-
	      tication, but non-encrypted data transfers for efficiency.  Fails the  transfer  if
	      the  server  doesn't support SSL/TLS.  (Added in 7.16.0) that can still be used but
	      will be removed in a future version.

       --form-string <name=string>
	      (HTTP) Similar to --form except that the value string for the  named  parameter  is
	      used  literally.	Leading  '@'  and  '<' characters, and the ';type=' string in the
	      value have no special meaning. Use this in preference to --form if there's any pos-
	      sibility	that the string value may accidentally trigger the '@' or '<' features of
	      --form.

       -g, --globoff
	      This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set this  option,  you
	      can  specify  URLs  that	contain the letters {}[] without having them being inter-
	      preted by curl itself. Note that these letters are not normal  legal  URL  contents
	      but they should be encoded according to the URI standard.

       -G, --get
	      When  used,  this  option  will  make all data specified with -d, --data or --data-
	      binary to be used in an HTTP GET request instead of the POST request that otherwise
	      would be used. The data will be appended to the URL with a '?' separator.

	      If  used	in combination with -I, the POST data will instead be appended to the URL
	      with a HEAD request.

	      If this option is used several times, only the first one is used. This  is  because
	      undoing  a GET doesn't make sense, but you should then instead enforce the alterna-
	      tive method you prefer.

       -H, --header <header>
	      (HTTP) Extra header to use when getting a web page. You may specify any  number  of
	      extra  headers.  Note that if you should add a custom header that has the same name
	      as one of the internal ones curl would use, your externally set header will be used
	      instead  of the internal one. This allows you to make even trickier stuff than curl
	      would normally do. You should not replace internally set	headers  without  knowing
	      perfectly well what you're doing. Remove an internal header by giving a replacement
	      without content on the right side of the colon, as in: -H "Host:". If you send  the
	      custom  header  with  no-value then its header must be terminated with a semicolon,
	      such as -H "X-Custom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:".

	      curl will make sure that each header you add/replace is sent with the  proper  end-
	      of-line  marker,	you  should thus not add that as a part of the header content: do
	      not add newlines or carriage returns, they will only mess things up for you.

	      See also the -A, --user-agent and -e, --referer options.

	      This option can be used multiple times to add/replace/remove multiple headers.

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
	      (SCP/SFTP) Pass a string containing 32 hexadecimal digits. The string should be the
	      128  bit MD5 checksum of the remote host's public key, curl will refuse the connec-
	      tion with the host unless the md5sums match. (Added in 7.17.1)

       --ignore-content-length
	      (HTTP) Ignore the Content-Length header. This is particularly  useful  for  servers
	      running  Apache  1.x,  which  will report incorrect Content-Length for files larger
	      than 2 gigabytes.

       -i, --include
	      (HTTP) Include the HTTP-header in the output. The HTTP-header includes things  like
	      server-name, date of the document, HTTP-version and more...

       -I, --head
	      (HTTP/FTP/FILE)  Fetch  the HTTP-header only! HTTP-servers feature the command HEAD
	      which this uses to get nothing but the header of a document. When used on an FTP or
	      FILE file, curl displays the file size and last modification time only.

       --interface <name>
	      Perform  an operation using a specified interface. You can enter interface name, IP
	      address or host name. An example could look like:

	       curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
	      (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this option  will  make
	      it  discard all "session cookies". This will basically have the same effect as if a
	      new session is started.  Typical	browsers  always  discard  session  cookies  when
	      they're closed down.

       -J, --remote-header-name
	      (HTTP)  This  option tells the -O, --remote-name option to use the server-specified
	      Content-Disposition filename instead of extracting a filename from the URL.

       -k, --insecure
	      (SSL) This option explicitly allows curl to perform "insecure" SSL connections  and
	      transfers. All SSL connections are attempted to be made secure by using the CA cer-
	      tificate bundle installed by default. This makes all connections considered  "inse-
	      cure" fail unless -k, --insecure is used.

	      See	 this	     online	  resource	 for	   further	 details:
	      http://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

       -K, --config <config file>
	      Specify which config file to read curl arguments from. The config file  is  a  text
	      file  in	which command line arguments can be written which then will be used as if
	      they were written on the actual command line. Options and their parameters must  be
	      specified  on the same config file line, separated by whitespace, colon, the equals
	      sign or any combination thereof (however, the preferred  separator  is  the  equals
	      sign).  If  the  parameter is to contain whitespace, the parameter must be enclosed
	      within quotes. Within double quotes, the following escape sequences are  available:
	      \\,  \",	\t,  \n, \r and \v. A backslash preceding any other letter is ignored. If
	      the first column of a config line is a '#' character, the rest of the line will  be
	      treated as a comment. Only write one option per physical line in the config file.

	      Specify the filename to -K, --config as '-' to make curl read the file from stdin.

	      Note  that  to  be able to specify a URL in the config file, you need to specify it
	      using the --url option, and not by simply writing the URL on its own line.  So,  it
	      could look similar to this:

	      url = "http://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

	      Long  option  names  can optionally be given in the config file without the initial
	      double dashes.

	      When curl is invoked, it always (unless -q is used) checks  for  a  default  config
	      file  and uses it if found. The default config file is checked for in the following
	      places in this order:

	      1) curl tries to find the "home dir": It first checks for the  CURL_HOME	and  then
	      the  HOME environment variables. Failing that, it uses getpwuid() on UNIX-like sys-
	      tems (which returns the home dir given the current user in your  system).  On  Win-
	      dows,  it  then checks for the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort the '%USERPRO-
	      FILE%\Application Data'.

	      2) On windows, if there is no _curlrc file in the home dir, it checks  for  one  in
	      the  same  dir  the curl executable is placed. On UNIX-like systems, it will simply
	      try to load .curlrc from the determined home dir.

	      # --- Example file ---
	      # this is a comment
	      url = "curl.haxx.se"
	      output = "curlhere.html"
	      user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

	      # and fetch another URL too
	      url = "curl.haxx.se/docs/manpage.html"
	      -O
	      referer = "http://nowhereatall.com/"
	      # --- End of example file ---

	      This option can be used multiple times to load multiple config files.

       --keepalive-time <seconds>
	      This option sets the  time  a  connection  needs	to  remain  idle  before  sending
	      keepalive  probes and the time between individual keepalive probes. It is currently
	      effective on operating systems offering the TCP_KEEPIDLE and  TCP_KEEPINTVL  socket
	      options  (meaning  Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX and more). This option has no effect if
	      --no-keepalive is used. (Added in 7.18.0)

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be  used.  If  unspecified,
	      the option defaults to 60 seconds.

       --key <key>
	      (SSL/SSH)  Private  key  file  name. Allows you to provide your private key in this
	      separate file.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --key-type <type>
	      (SSL) Private key file type. Specify which type your --key provided private key is.
	      DER, PEM, and ENG are supported. If not specified, PEM is assumed.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --krb <level>
	      (FTP)  Enable Kerberos authentication and use. The level must be entered and should
	      be one of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or 'private'. Should  you  use  a  level
	      that is not one of these, 'private' will instead be used.

	      This  option requires a library built with kerberos4 or GSSAPI (GSS-Negotiate) sup-
	      port. This is not very common. Use -V, --version to see if your curl supports it.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -l, --list-only
	      (FTP) When listing an FTP directory, this switch forces a  name-only  view.   Espe-
	      cially  useful  if you want to machine-parse the contents of an FTP directory since
	      the normal directory view doesn't use a standard look or format.

	      This option causes an FTP NLST command to be sent.   Some  FTP  servers  list  only
	      files  in  their	response to NLST; they do not include subdirectories and symbolic
	      links.

       -L, --location
	      (HTTP/HTTPS) If the server reports that the requested page has moved to a different
	      location	(indicated  with a Location: header and a 3XX response code), this option
	      will make curl redo the request on  the  new  place.  If	used  together	with  -i,
	      --include  or  -I,  --head,  headers  from  all requested pages will be shown. When
	      authentication is used, curl only sends its credentials to the initial host.  If	a
	      redirect	takes  curl  to  a  different  host,  it  won't  be able to intercept the
	      user+password. See also --location-trusted on how to change this. You can limit the
	      amount of redirects to follow by using the --max-redirs option.

	      When  curl  follows a redirect and the request is not a plain GET (for example POST
	      or PUT), it will do the following request with a GET if the HTTP response was  301,
	      302,  or	303.  If  the response code was any other 3xx code, curl will re-send the
	      following request using the same unmodified method.

       --libcurl <file>
	      Append this option to any ordinary curl command line, and you will get  a  libcurl-
	      using  C source code written to the file that does the equivalent of what your com-
	      mand-line operation does!

	      If this option is used several times, the last given file name will be used. (Added
	      in 7.16.1)

       --limit-rate <speed>
	      Specify  the  maximum transfer rate you want curl to use. This feature is useful if
	      you have a limited pipe and you'd like your transfer not to use your  entire  band-
	      width.

	      The  given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix is appended.  Append-
	      ing 'k' or 'K' will count the number as kilobytes, 'm' or M'  makes  it  megabytes,
	      while 'g' or 'G' makes it gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.

	      The  given  rate	is the average speed counted during the entire transfer. It means
	      that curl might use higher transfer speeds in short bursts, but over time  it  uses
	      no more than the given rate.

	      If  you also use the -Y, --speed-limit option, that option will take precedence and
	      might cripple the rate-limiting slightly, to help  keeping  the  speed-limit  logic
	      working.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --local-port <num>[-num]
	      Set a preferred number or range of local port numbers to use for the connection(s).
	      Note that port numbers by nature are a scarce resource that will be busy	at  times
	      so  setting  this  range to something too narrow might cause unnecessary connection
	      setup failures. (Added in 7.15.2)

       --location-trusted
	      (HTTP/HTTPS) Like -L, --location, but will allow sending the name + password to all
	      hosts  that  the	site  may  redirect  to. This may or may not introduce a security
	      breach if the site redirects you to a site to which you'll send your authentication
	      info (which is plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

       -m, --max-time <seconds>
	      Maximum time in seconds that you allow the whole operation to take.  This is useful
	      for preventing your batch jobs from hanging for hours due to slow networks or links
	      going down.  See also the --connect-timeout option.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --mail-auth <address>
	      (SMTP)  Specify  a  single address. This will be used to specify the authentication
	      address (identity) of a submitted message that is being relayed to another server.

	      (Added in 7.25.0)

       --mail-from <address>
	      (SMTP) Specify a single address that the given mail should get sent from.

	      (Added in 7.20.0)

       --max-filesize <bytes>
	      Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file to download. If the file requested is
	      larger  than this value, the transfer will not start and curl will return with exit
	      code 63.

	      NOTE: The file size is not always known prior to download, and for such files  this
	      option has no effect even if the file transfer ends up being larger than this given
	      limit. This concerns both FTP and HTTP transfers.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
	      (SMTP) Specify a single address that the given mail should get sent to. This option
	      can be used multiple times to specify many recipients.

	      (Added in 7.20.0)

       --max-redirs <num>
	      Set  maximum  number  of redirection-followings allowed. If -L, --location is used,
	      this option can be used to prevent curl from following redirections "in  absurdum".
	      By  default,  the limit is set to 50 redirections. Set this option to -1 to make it
	      limitless.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --metalink
	      This option can tell curl to parse and process a given URI as Metalink  file  (both
	      version 3 and 4 (RFC 5854) are supported) and make use of the mirrors listed within
	      for failover if there are errors (such as the file or server not being  available).
	      It will also verify the hash of the file after the download completes. The Metalink
	      file itself is downloaded and processed in memory and not stored in the local  file
	      system.

	      Example to use a remote Metalink file:

	      curl --metalink http://www.example.com/example.metalink

	      To use a Metalink file in the local file system, use FILE protocol (file://):

	      curl --metalink file://example.metalink

	      Please  note that if FILE protocol is disabled, there is no way to use a local Met-
	      alink file at the time of this writing. Also note that if --metalink and	--include
	      are  used together, --include will be ignored. This is because including headers in
	      the response will break Metalink parser and if the headers are included in the file
	      described in Metalink file, hash check will fail.

	      (Added in 7.27.0, if built against the libmetalink library.)

       -n, --netrc
	      Makes  curl  scan  the .netrc (_netrc on Windows) file in the user's home directory
	      for login name and password. This is typically used for FTP on UNIX. If  used  with
	      HTTP,  curl  will enable user authentication. See netrc(4) or ftp(1) for details on
	      the file format. Curl will not complain if that file doesn't have the right permis-
	      sions  (it should not be either world- or group-readable). The environment variable
	      "HOME" is used to find the home directory.

	      A quick and very simple example of how to setup a .netrc to allow curl  to  FTP  to
	      the  machine  host.domain.com  with user name 'myself' and password 'secret' should
	      look similar to:

	      machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

       -N, --no-buffer
	      Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal work situations,  curl  will
	      use a standard buffered output stream that will have the effect that it will output
	      the data in chunks, not necessarily exactly when	the  data  arrives.   Using  this
	      option will disable that buffering.

	      Note  that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --buffer to
	      enforce the buffering.

       --netrc-file
	      This option is similar to --netrc, except that you provide the  path  (absolute  or
	      relative)  to  the netrc file that Curl should use.  You can only specify one netrc
	      file per invocation. If several --netrc-file options are provided,  only	the  last
	      one will be used.  (Added in 7.21.5)

	      This  option  overrides any use of --netrc as they are mutually exclusive.  It will
	      also abide by --netrc-optional if specified.

       --netrc-optional
	      Very similar to --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc usage  optional  and  not
	      mandatory as the --netrc option does.

       --negotiate
	      (HTTP)  Enables GSS-Negotiate authentication. The GSS-Negotiate method was designed
	      by Microsoft and is used in their web applications. It is primarily meant as a sup-
	      port for Kerberos5 authentication but may be also used along with another authenti-
	      cation method. For more information see IETF draft draft-brezak-spnego-http-04.txt.

	      If you want to enable Negotiate for your proxy authentication,  then  use  --proxy-
	      negotiate.

	      This  option requires a library built with GSSAPI support. This is not very common.
	      Use -V, --version to see if your version supports GSS-Negotiate.

	      When using this option, you must also provide a fake -u, --user option to  activate
	      the  authentication  code properly. Sending a '-u :' is enough as the user name and
	      password from the -u option aren't actually used.

	      If this option is used several times, only the first one is used.

       --no-keepalive
	      Disables the use of keepalive messages on the TCP connection, as	by  default  curl
	      enables them.

	      Note  that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --keepalive
	      to enforce keepalive.

       --no-sessionid
	      (SSL) Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching.  By default all  transfers  are
	      done using the cache. Note that while nothing should ever get hurt by attempting to
	      reuse SSL session-IDs, there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that
	      may require you to disable this in order for you to succeed. (Added in 7.16.0)

	      Note  that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --sessionid
	      to enforce session-ID caching.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
	      Comma-separated list of hosts which do not use a proxy, if one is  specified.   The
	      only  wildcard  is  a  single * character, which matches all hosts, and effectively
	      disables the proxy. Each name in this list is matched as either a domain which con-
	      tains  the  hostname,  or  the  hostname itself. For example, local.com would match
	      local.com, local.com:80, and www.local.com, but not  www.notlocal.com.   (Added  in
	      7.19.4).

       --ntlm (HTTP)  Enables NTLM authentication. The NTLM authentication method was designed by
	      Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers. It is a  proprietary  protocol,  reverse-
	      engineered  by  clever  people and implemented in curl based on their efforts. This
	      kind of behavior should not be endorsed, you should  encourage  everyone	who  uses
	      NTLM  to	switch	to a public and documented authentication method instead, such as
	      Digest.

	      If you want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then use --proxy-ntlm.

	      This option requires a library built with SSL support. Use -V, --version to see  if
	      your curl supports NTLM.

	      If this option is used several times, only the first one is used.

       -o, --output <file>
	      Write output to <file> instead of stdout. If you are using {} or [] to fetch multi-
	      ple documents, you can use '#' followed by a number in the <file>  specifier.  That
	      variable	will  be replaced with the current string for the URL being fetched. Like
	      in:

		curl http://{one,two}.site.com -o "file_#1.txt"

	      or use several variables like:

		curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2"

	      You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you have.

	      See also the --create-dirs option to  create  the  local	directories  dynamically.
	      Specifying  the  output  as '-' (a single dash) will force the output to be done to
	      stdout.

       -O, --remote-name
	      Write output to a local file named like the remote file we get. (Only the file part
	      of the remote file is used, the path is cut off.)

	      The  remote  file  name  to use for saving is extracted from the given URL, nothing
	      else.

	      Consequentially, the file will be saved in the current working  directory.  If  you
	      want  the file saved in a different directory, make sure you change current working
	      directory before you invoke curl with the -O, --remote-name flag!

	      You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you have.

       -p, --proxytunnel
	      When an HTTP proxy is used (-x, --proxy), this option will cause non-HTTP protocols
	      to  attempt  to tunnel through the proxy instead of merely using it to do HTTP-like
	      operations. The tunnel approach is made with the HTTP  proxy  CONNECT  request  and
	      requires	that the proxy allows direct connect to the remote port number curl wants
	      to tunnel through to.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
	      (FTP) Reverses the default initiator/listener roles when connecting with FTP.  This
	      switch  makes curl use active mode. In practice, curl then tells the server to con-
	      nect back to the client's specified address and port, while passive mode	asks  the
	      server  to  setup  an IP address and port for it to connect to. <address> should be
	      one of:

	      interface
		     i.e "eth0" to specify which interface's IP address you  want  to  use  (Unix
		     only)

	      IP address
		     i.e "192.168.10.1" to specify the exact IP address

	      host name
		     i.e "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

	      -      make curl pick the same IP address that is already used for the control con-
		     nection

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. Disable the use  of  PORT
       with  --ftp-pasv.  Disable  the	attempt  to use the EPRT command instead of PORT by using
       --disable-eprt. EPRT is really PORT++.

       Starting in 7.19.5, you can append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of the address,  to  tell
       curl  what  TCP	port range to use. That means you specify a port range, from a lower to a
       higher number. A single number works as well, but do note that it increases  the  risk  of
       failure since the port may not be available.

       --pass <phrase>
	      (SSL/SSH) Passphrase for the private key

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --post301
	      (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 2616/10.3.2 and not convert POST requests into GET
	      requests when following a 301 redirection. The non-RFC behaviour is  ubiquitous  in
	      web  browsers, so curl does the conversion by default to maintain consistency. How-
	      ever, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such a  redirection.  This
	      option is meaningful only when using -L, --location (Added in 7.17.1)

       --post302
	      (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 2616/10.3.2 and not convert POST requests into GET
	      requests when following a 302 redirection. The non-RFC behaviour is  ubiquitous  in
	      web  browsers, so curl does the conversion by default to maintain consistency. How-
	      ever, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such a  redirection.  This
	      option is meaningful only when using -L, --location (Added in 7.19.1)

       --post303
	      (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 2616/10.3.2 and not convert POST requests into GET
	      requests when following a 303 redirection. The non-RFC behaviour is  ubiquitous  in
	      web  browsers, so curl does the conversion by default to maintain consistency. How-
	      ever, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such a  redirection.  This
	      option is meaningful only when using -L, --location (Added in 7.26.0)

       --proto <protocols>
	      Tells  curl  to  use  the listed protocols for its initial retrieval. Protocols are
	      evaluated left to right, are comma separated, and  are  each  a  protocol  name  or
	      'all', optionally prefixed by zero or more modifiers. Available modifiers are:

	      +  Permit  this  protocol  in  addition to protocols already permitted (this is the
		 default if no modifier is used).

	      -  Deny this protocol, removing it from the list of protocols already permitted.

	      =  Permit only this protocol (ignoring the list already permitted), though  subject
		 to later modification by subsequent entries in the comma separated list.

	      For example:

	      --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

	      --proto -all,https,+http
			     only enables http and https

	      --proto =http,https
			     also only enables http and https

	      Unknown  protocols  produce  a warning. This allows scripts to safely rely on being
	      able to disable potentially dangerous protocols, without relying upon  support  for
	      that protocol being built into curl to avoid an error.

	      This  option  can  be  used multiple times, in which case the effect is the same as
	      concatenating the protocols into one instance of the option.

	      (Added in 7.20.2)

       --proto-redir <protocols>
	      Tells curl to use the listed protocols after a redirect. See --proto for how proto-
	      cols are represented.

	      (Added in 7.20.2)

       --proxy-anyauth
	      Tells  curl  to  pick  a suitable authentication method when communicating with the
	      given proxy. This might cause  an  extra	request/response  round-trip.  (Added  in
	      7.13.2)

       --proxy-basic
	      Tells  curl  to  use  HTTP  Basic  authentication when communicating with the given
	      proxy. Use --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a remote host. Basic is the default
	      authentication method curl uses with proxies.

       --proxy-digest
	      Tells  curl  to  use  HTTP  Digest authentication when communicating with the given
	      proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with a remote host.

       --proxy-negotiate
	      Tells curl to use HTTP Negotiate authentication when communicating with  the  given
	      proxy.  Use  --negotiate	for enabling HTTP Negotiate with a remote host. (Added in
	      7.17.1)

       --proxy-ntlm
	      Tells curl to use HTTP NTLM authentication when communicating with the given proxy.
	      Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote host.

       --proxy1.0 <proxyhost[:port]>
	      Use  the	specified  HTTP  1.0  proxy.  If  the port number is not specified, it is
	      assumed at port 1080.

	      The only difference between this and the HTTP proxy option (-x, --proxy),  is  that
	      attempts to use CONNECT through the proxy will specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead
	      of the default HTTP 1.1.

       --pubkey <key>
	      (SSH) Public key file name. Allows you to provide your public key in this  separate
	      file.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -q     If used as the first parameter on the command line, the curlrc config file will not
	      be read and used. See the -K, --config for  details  on  the  default  config  file
	      search path.

       -Q, --quote <command>
	      (FTP/SFTP)  Send	an arbitrary command to the remote FTP or SFTP server. Quote com-
	      mands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place (just after the initial PWD  command
	      in  an  FTP  transfer, to be exact). To make commands take place after a successful
	      transfer, prefix them with a dash '-'.  To make commands be  sent  after	curl  has
	      changed the working directory, just before the transfer command(s), prefix the com-
	      mand with a '+' (this is only supported for FTP). You may  specify  any  number  of
	      commands.  If the server returns failure for one of the commands, the entire opera-
	      tion will be aborted. You must send syntactically correct FTP commands as  RFC  959
	      defines  to FTP servers, or one of the commands listed below to SFTP servers.  This
	      option can be used multiple times. When speaking to an FTP server, prefix the  com-
	      mand  with  an  asterisk	(*) to make curl continue even if the command fails as by
	      default curl will stop at first failure.

	      SFTP is a binary protocol. Unlike for FTP,  curl	interprets  SFTP  quote  commands
	      itself  before sending them to the server.  File names may be quoted shell-style to
	      embed spaces or special characters.  Following is the list of  all  supported  SFTP
	      quote commands:

	      chgrp group file
		     The chgrp command sets the group ID of the file named by the file operand to
		     the group ID specified by the group operand. The group operand is a  decimal
		     integer group ID.

	      chmod mode file
		     The  chmod  command  modifies  the file mode bits of the specified file. The
		     mode operand is an octal integer mode number.

	      chown user file
		     The chown command sets the owner of the file named by the	file  operand  to
		     the  user	ID  specified  by the user operand. The user operand is a decimal
		     integer user ID.

	      ln source_file target_file
		     The ln and symlink commands create a symbolic link at the target_file  loca-
		     tion pointing to the source_file location.

	      mkdir directory_name
		     The mkdir command creates the directory named by the directory_name operand.

	      pwd    The  pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the current working direc-
		     tory.

	      rename source target
		     The rename command renames the file or directory named by the source operand
		     to the destination path named by the target operand.

	      rm file
		     The rm command removes the file specified by the file operand.

	      rmdir directory
		     The rmdir command removes the directory entry specified by the directory op-
		     erand, provided it is empty.

	      symlink source_file target_file
		     See ln.

       -r, --range <range>
	      (HTTP/FTP/SFTP/FILE) Retrieve  a	byte  range  (i.e  a  partial  document)  from	a
	      HTTP/1.1,  FTP  or SFTP server or a local FILE. Ranges can be specified in a number
	      of ways.

	      0-499	specifies the first 500 bytes

	      500-999	specifies the second 500 bytes

	      -500	specifies the last 500 bytes

	      9500-	specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

	      0-0,-1	specifies the first and last byte only(*)(H)

	      500-700,600-799
			specifies 300 bytes from offset 500(H)

	      100-199,500-599
			specifies two separate 100-byte ranges(*)(H)

       (*) = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply with a multipart response!

       Only digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and 'stop' fields of the 'start-stop'
       range  syntax.  If a non-digit character is given in the range, the server's response will
       be unspecified, depending on the server's configuration.

       You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have this feature  enabled,  so
       that when you attempt to get a range, you'll instead get the whole document.

       FTP  and SFTP range downloads only support the simple 'start-stop' syntax (optionally with
       one of the numbers omitted). FTP use depends on the extended FTP command SIZE.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -R, --remote-time
	      When used, this will make curl attempt to figure out the timestamp  of  the  remote
	      file, and if that is available make the local file get that same timestamp.

       --random-file <file>
	      (SSL)  Specify  the  path name to file containing what will be considered as random
	      data. The data is used to seed the random engine for SSL connections.  See also the
	      --egd-file option.

       --raw  (HTTP)  When  used,  it  disables all internal HTTP decoding of content or transfer
	      encodings and instead makes them passed on unaltered, raw. (Added in 7.16.2)

       --remote-name-all
	      This option changes the default action for all given URLs to be dealt  with  as  if
	      -O, --remote-name were used for each one. So if you want to disable that for a spe-
	      cific URL after --remote-name-all has been used, you  must  use  "-o  -"	or  --no-
	      remote-name. (Added in 7.19.0)

       --resolve <host:port:address>
	      Provide  a  custom  address  for a specific host and port pair. Using this, you can
	      make the curl requests(s) use a specified address and prevent  the  otherwise  nor-
	      mally  resolved  address	to  be used. Consider it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative
	      provided on the command line. The port number should be the  number  used  for  the
	      specific	protocol  the host will be used for. It means you need several entries if
	      you want to provide address for the same host but different ports.

	      This option can be used many times to add many host names to resolve.

	      (Added in 7.21.3)

       --retry <num>
	      If a transient error is returned when curl tries to perform  a  transfer,  it  will
	      retry  this number of times before giving up. Setting the number to 0 makes curl do
	      no retries (which is the default). Transient error means either: a timeout, an  FTP
	      4xx response code or an HTTP 5xx response code.

	      When  curl is about to retry a transfer, it will first wait one second and then for
	      all forthcoming retries it will double the waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes
	      which  then  will  be the delay between the rest of the retries.	By using --retry-
	      delay you disable this exponential backoff algorithm. See also --retry-max-time  to
	      limit the total time allowed for retries. (Added in 7.12.3)

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
	      Make  curl  sleep  this amount of time before each retry when a transfer has failed
	      with a transient error (it changes  the  default	backoff  time  algorithm  between
	      retries).  This  option  is  only interesting if --retry is also used. Setting this
	      delay to zero will make curl use the default backoff time.  (Added in 7.12.3)

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --retry-max-time <seconds>
	      The retry timer is reset before the first transfer attempt. Retries will be done as
	      usual  (see  --retry)  as long as the timer hasn't reached this given limit. Notice
	      that if the timer hasn't reached the limit, the request will be made and while per-
	      forming,	it  may  take  longer  than  this  given  time	period. To limit a single
	      request's maximum time, use -m, --max-time.  Set this option to zero to not timeout
	      retries. (Added in 7.12.3)

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -s, --silent
	      Silent  or  quiet  mode.	Don't  show progress meter or error messages.  Makes Curl
	      mute.

       -S, --show-error
	      When used with -s it makes curl show an error message if it fails.

       --ssl  (FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Try to use SSL/TLS for the connection.  Reverts to  a  non-
	      secure  connection  if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS.  See also --ftp-ssl-con-
	      trol and --ssl-reqd for different levels of encryption required. (Added in 7.20.0)

	      This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl (Added in 7.11.0). That option name can
	      still be used but will be removed in a future version.

       --ssl-reqd
	      (FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection.  Terminates the connec-
	      tion if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS. (Added in 7.20.0)

	      This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl-reqd (added  in  7.15.5).  That  option
	      name can still be used but will be removed in a future version.

       --ssl-allow-beast
	      (SSL)  This  option  tells  curl to not work around a security flaw in the SSL3 and
	      TLS1.0 protocols known as BEAST.	If this option isn't used, the SSL layer may  use
	      work-arounds known to cause interoperability problems with some older SSL implemen-
	      tations. WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this flag  you
	      ask for exactly that.  (Added in 7.25.0)

       --socks4 <host[:port]>
	      Use  the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed
	      at port 1080. (Added in 7.15.2)

	      This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually  exclu-
	      sive.

	      Since  7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4 proxy with
	      -x, --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified SOCKS4a proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed
	      at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

	      This  option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclu-
	      sive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4a proxy with
	      -x, --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol prefix.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
	      Use  the	specified  SOCKS5 proxy (and let the proxy resolve the host name). If the
	      port number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

	      This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually  exclu-
	      sive.

	      Since  7.21.7,  this  option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5 hostname
	      proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5h:// protocol prefix.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. (This  option  was
	      previously wrongly documented and used as --socks without the number appended.)

       --socks5 <host[:port]>
	      Use  the	specified  SOCKS5  proxy - but resolve the host name locally. If the port
	      number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

	      This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually  exclu-
	      sive.

	      Since  7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5 proxy with
	      -x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. (This  option  was
	      previously wrongly documented and used as --socks without the number appended.)

	      This option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6, FTPS or LDAP.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <servicename>
	      The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn. This option allows
	      you to change it.

	      Examples: --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-service sockd would use  sockd/proxy-
	      name   --socks5	proxy-name   --socks5-gssapi-service  sockd/real-name  would  use
	      sockd/real-name for cases where the proxy-name does not match the  principal  name.
	      (Added in 7.19.4).

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
	      As part of the gssapi negotiation a protection mode is negotiated. RFC 1961 says in
	      section 4.3/4.4 it should be protected, but the NEC reference  implementation  does
	      not.  The option --socks5-gssapi-nec allows the unprotected exchange of the protec-
	      tion mode negotiation. (Added in 7.19.4).

       --stderr <file>
	      Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified file instead. If the file name is	a
	      plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -t, --telnet-option <OPT=val>
	      Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

	      TTYPE=<term> Sets the terminal type.

	      XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

	      NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
	      This transfers the specified local file to the remote URL. If there is no file part
	      in the specified URL, Curl will append the local file name. NOTE that you must  use
	      a  trailing  /  on the last directory to really prove to Curl that there is no file
	      name or curl will think that your last directory name is the remote  file  name  to
	      use.  That  will most likely cause the upload operation to fail. If this is used on
	      an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will be used.

	      Use the file name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of a given file.  Alter-
	      nately,  the file name "." (a single period) may be specified instead of "-" to use
	      stdin in non-blocking mode to allow reading server  output  while  stdin	is  being
	      uploaded.

	      You  can specify one -T for each URL on the command line. Each -T + URL pair speci-
	      fies what to upload and to where. curl also supports "globbing" of the -T argument,
	      meaning  that  you  can upload multiple files to a single URL by using the same URL
	      globbing style supported in the URL, like this:

	      curl -T "{file1,file2}" http://www.uploadtothissite.com

	      or even

	      curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.picturemania.com/upload/

       --tcp-nodelay
	      Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man  page  for  details
	      about this option. (Added in 7.11.2)

       --tftp-blksize <value>
	      (TFTP)  Set  TFTP  BLKSIZE  option (must be >512). This is the block size that curl
	      will try to use when transferring data to or from a TFTP	server.  By  default  512
	      bytes will be used.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

	      (Added in 7.20.0)

       --tlsauthtype <authtype>
	      Set  TLS	authentication	type.  Currently, the only supported option is "SRP", for
	      TLS-SRP (RFC 5054). If --tlsuser and --tlspassword are specified but  --tlsauthtype
	      is not, then this option defaults to "SRP".  (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tlspassword <password>
	      Set   password   for   use  with	the  TLS  authentication  method  specified  with
	      --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlsuser also be set.  (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tlsuser <user>
	      Set  username  for  use  with  the  TLS  authentication	method	 specified   with
	      --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlspassword also be set.  (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tlsv1.0
	      (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.0 when negotiating with a remote TLS server.
	      (Added in 7.34.0)

       --tlsv1.1
	      (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.1 when negotiating with a remote TLS server.
	      (Added in 7.34.0)

       --tlsv1.2
	      (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.2 when negotiating with a remote TLS server.
	      (Added in 7.34.0)

       --tr-encoding
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one of the  algorithms
	      curl supports, and uncompress the data while receiving it.

	      (Added in 7.21.6)

       --trace <file>
	      Enables  a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data, including descriptive
	      information, to the given output file. Use "-" as filename to have the output  sent
	      to stdout.

	      This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace-ascii.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-ascii <file>
	      Enables  a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data, including descriptive
	      information, to the given output file. Use "-" as filename to have the output  sent
	      to stdout.

	      This  is	very  similar  to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and only shows the
	      ASCII part of the dump. It makes smaller output that might be easier  to	read  for
	      untrained humans.

	      This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-time
	      Prepends	a time stamp to each trace or verbose line that curl displays.	(Added in
	      7.14.0)

       -u, --user <user:password>
	      Specify the user name and password to use for server authentication. Overrides  -n,
	      --netrc and --netrc-optional.

	      If  you  just  give the user name (without entering a colon) curl will prompt for a
	      password.

	      If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and do NTLM authentication,  you  can  force
	      curl to pick up the user name and password from your environment by simply specify-
	      ing a single colon with this option: "-u :".

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -U, --proxy-user <user:password>
	      Specify the user name and password to use for proxy authentication.

	      If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and do NTLM authentication,  you  can  force
	      curl to pick up the user name and password from your environment by simply specify-
	      ing a single colon with this option: "-U :".

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --url <URL>
	      Specify a URL to fetch. This option is mostly handy when you want to specify URL(s)
	      in a config file.

	      This  option may be used any number of times. To control where this URL is written,
	      use the -o, --output or the -O, --remote-name options.

       -v, --verbose
	      Makes the fetching more verbose/talkative. Mostly  useful  for  debugging.  A  line
	      starting	with  '>'  means  "header  data"  sent	by  curl, '<' means "header data"
	      received by curl that is hidden in normal cases, and a line starting with '*' means
	      additional info provided by curl.

	      Note  that  if you only want HTTP headers in the output, -i, --include might be the
	      option you're looking for.

	      If you think this option still doesn't give  you	enough	details,  consider  using
	      --trace or --trace-ascii instead.

	      This option overrides previous uses of --trace-ascii or --trace.

	      Use -s, --silent to make curl quiet.

       -w, --write-out <format>
	      Defines  what  to display on stdout after a completed and successful operation. The
	      format is a string that may contain plain text mixed with any number of  variables.
	      The  string  can	be  specified as "string", to get read from a particular file you
	      specify it "@filename" and to tell curl to read the format  from	stdin  you  write
	      "@-".

	      The variables present in the output format will be substituted by the value or text
	      that curl thinks fit, as described below. All variables are  specified  as  %{vari-
	      able_name}  and  to  output  a normal % you just write them as %%. You can output a
	      newline by using \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

	      NOTE: The %-symbol is a special symbol in the win32-environment, where  all  occur-
	      rences of % must be doubled when using this option.

	      The variables available are:

	      content_type   The Content-Type of the requested document, if there was any.

	      filename_effective
			     The ultimate filename that curl writes out to. This is only meaning-
			     ful if curl is told to write to a file  with  the	--remote-name  or
			     --output  option. It's most useful in combination with the --remote-
			     header-name option. (Added in 7.25.1)

	      ftp_entry_path The initial path curl ended up in when logging on to the remote  FTP
			     server. (Added in 7.15.4)

	      http_code      The  numerical  response  code  that was found in the last retrieved
			     HTTP(S) or FTP(s) transfer. In 7.18.2 the	alias  response_code  was
			     added to show the same info.

	      http_connect   The  numerical  code  that  was  found  in the last response (from a
			     proxy) to a curl CONNECT request. (Added in 7.12.4)

	      local_ip	     The IP address of the local end of the most recently done connection
			     - can be either IPv4 or IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0)

	      local_port     The local port number of the most recently done connection (Added in
			     7.29.0)

	      num_connects   Number of new connects  made  in  the  recent  transfer.  (Added  in
			     7.12.3)

	      num_redirects  Number  of  redirects  that  were followed in the request. (Added in
			     7.12.3)

	      redirect_url   When an HTTP request was made without -L to follow  redirects,  this
			     variable  will  show  the	actual	URL a redirect would take you to.
			     (Added in 7.18.2)

	      remote_ip      The remote IP address of the most recently done connection - can  be
			     either IPv4 or IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0)

	      remote_port    The  remote  port number of the most recently done connection (Added
			     in 7.29.0)

	      size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

	      size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded headers.

	      size_request   The total amount of bytes that were sent in the HTTP request.

	      size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

	      speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for the complete down-
			     load. Bytes per second.

	      speed_upload   The average upload speed that curl measured for the complete upload.
			     Bytes per second.

	      ssl_verify_result
			     The result  of  the  SSL  peer  certificate  verification	that  was
			     requested.  0  means  the	verification  was  successful.	(Added in
			     7.19.0)

	      time_appconnect
			     The time, in seconds, it took from the start until  the  SSL/SSH/etc
			     connect/handshake	to  the  remote  host  was  completed.	(Added in
			     7.19.0)

	      time_connect   The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the  TCP  connect
			     to the remote host (or proxy) was completed.

	      time_namelookup
			     The  time, in seconds, it took from the start until the name resolv-
			     ing was completed.

	      time_pretransfer
			     The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the file transfer
			     was just about to begin. This includes all pre-transfer commands and
			     negotiations  that  are  specific	to  the  particular   protocol(s)
			     involved.

	      time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection steps include name
			     lookup, connect, pretransfer and transfer before the final  transac-
			     tion  was	started.  time_redirect shows the complete execution time
			     for multiple redirections. (Added in 7.12.3)

	      time_starttransfer
			     The time, in seconds, it took from the start until  the  first  byte
			     was just about to be transferred. This includes time_pretransfer and
			     also the time the server needed to calculate the result.

	      time_total     The total time, in seconds, that the full operation lasted. The time
			     will be displayed with millisecond resolution.

	      url_effective  The  URL  that  was  fetched last. This is most meaningful if you've
			     told curl to follow location: headers.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -x, --proxy <[protocol://][user:password@]proxyhost[:port]>
	      Use the specified HTTP proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at
	      port 1080.

	      This  option overrides existing environment variables that set the proxy to use. If
	      there's an environment variable setting a proxy, you can set proxy to ""	to  over-
	      ride it.

	      All  operations  that  are  performed over an HTTP proxy will transparently be con-
	      verted to HTTP. It means that certain protocol specific  operations  might  not  be
	      available.  This	is  not the case if you can tunnel through the proxy, as one with
	      the -p, --proxytunnel option.

	      User and password that might be provided in the proxy string  are  URL  decoded  by
	      curl.  This allows you to pass in special characters such as @ by using %40 or pass
	      in a colon with %3a.

	      The proxy host can be specified the exact same way as the proxy  environment  vari-
	      ables, including the protocol prefix (http://) and the embedded user + password.

	      From 7.21.7, the proxy string may be specified with a protocol:// prefix to specify
	      alternative proxy protocols. Use socks4://, socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h://  to
	      request  the  specific SOCKS version to be used. No protocol specified, http:// and
	      all others will be treated as HTTP proxies.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -X, --request <command>
	      (HTTP) Specifies a custom request method to use when communicating  with	the  HTTP
	      server.	The  specified	request will be used instead of the method otherwise used
	      (which defaults to GET). Read the HTTP 1.1 specification for details  and  explana-
	      tions.  Common  additional  HTTP requests include PUT and DELETE, but related tech-
	      nologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE and more.

	      Normally you don't need this option. All sorts of GET, HEAD, POST and PUT  requests
	      are rather invoked by using dedicated command line options.

	      This  option  only  changes  the	actual word used in the HTTP request, it does not
	      alter the way curl behaves. So for example if  you  want	to  make  a  proper  HEAD
	      request, using -X HEAD will not suffice. You need to use the -I, --head option.

	      (FTP)  Specifies	a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when doing file lists
	      with FTP.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --xattr
	      When saving output to a file, this option tells curl to store certain file metadata
	      in  extened  file  attributes.  Currently,  the URL is stored in the xdg.origin.url
	      attribute and, for HTTP, the content type is stored in the mime_type attribute.  If
	      the file system does not support extended attributes, a warning is issued.

       -y, --speed-time <time>
	      If  a  download  is  slower  than  speed-limit bytes per second during a speed-time
	      period, the download gets aborted. If speed-time is used, the  default  speed-limit
	      will be 1 unless set with -Y.

	      This  option controls transfers and thus will not affect slow connects etc. If this
	      is a concern for you, try the --connect-timeout option.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
	      If a download is slower than this given speed (in bytes per second) for  speed-time
	      seconds it gets aborted. speed-time is set with -y and is 30 if not set.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -z, --time-cond <date expression>|<file>
	      (HTTP/FTP)  Request  a  file  that  has been modified later than the given time and
	      date, or one that has been modified before that time. The <date expression> can  be
	      all  sorts of date strings or if it doesn't match any internal ones, it is taken as
	      a filename and tries to get the modification date (mtime) from <file> instead.  See
	      the curl_getdate(3) man pages for date expression details.

	      Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for a document that is
	      older than the given date/time, default is a document that is newer than the speci-
	      fied date/time.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -h, --help
	      Usage help.

       -M, --manual
	      Manual. Display the huge help text.

       -V, --version
	      Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

	      The  first  line	includes  the  full  version of curl, libcurl and other 3rd party
	      libraries linked with the executable.

	      The second line (starts with "Protocols:") shows all protocols that libcurl reports
	      to support.

	      The third line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features libcurl reports to
	      offer. Available features include:

	      IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

	      krb4   Krb4 for FTP is supported.

	      SSL    HTTPS and FTPS are supported.

	      libz   Automatic decompression of compressed files over HTTP is supported.

	      NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

	      GSS-Negotiate
		     Negotiate authentication and krb5 for FTP is supported.

	      Debug  This curl uses a libcurl built with Debug. This enables more  error-tracking
		     and memory debugging etc. For curl-developers only!

	      AsynchDNS
		     This curl uses asynchronous name resolves.

	      SPNEGO SPNEGO Negotiate authentication is supported.

	      Largefile
		     This curl supports transfers of large files, files larger than 2GB.

	      IDN    This curl supports IDN - international domain names.

	      SSPI   SSPI  is  supported.  If  you  use NTLM and set a blank user name, curl will
		     authenticate with your current user and password.

	      TLS-SRP
		     SRP (Secure Remote Password) authentication is supported for TLS.

	      Metalink
		     This curl supports Metalink  (both  version  3  and  4  (RFC  5854)),  which
		     describes	mirrors  and hashes.  curl will use mirrors for failover if there
		     are errors (such as the file or server not being available).

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
	      Default config file, see -K, --config for details.

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variables can be specified in lower case or upper  case.  The  lower  case
       version has precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it is only available in lower case.

       Using  an  environment  variable to set the proxy has the same effect as using the --proxy
       option.

       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for [url-protocol], where the protocol is  a  protocol
	      that  curl  supports  and  as specified in a URL. FTP, FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP, LDAP
	      etc.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is set.

       NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts>
	      list of host names that shouldn't go through any proxy. If set to  a  asterisk  '*'
	      only, it matches all hosts.

PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES
       Since  curl version 7.21.7, the proxy string may be specified with a protocol:// prefix to
       specify alternative proxy protocols.

       If no protocol is specified in the proxy string or if the string doesn't match a supported
       one, the proxy will be treated as an HTTP proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       socks4://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

       socks5h://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname

EXIT CODES
       There are a bunch of different error codes and their corresponding error messages that may
       appear during bad conditions. At the time of this writing, the exit codes are:

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this protocol.

       2      Failed to initialize.

       3      URL malformed. The syntax was not correct.

       4      A feature or option that was needed to perform the desired request was not  enabled
	      or  was explicitly disabled at build-time. To make curl able to do this, you proba-
	      bly need another build of libcurl!

       5      Couldn't resolve proxy. The given proxy host could not be resolved.

       6      Couldn't resolve host. The given remote host was not resolved.

       7      Failed to connect to host.

       8      FTP weird server reply. The server sent data curl couldn't parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login  or  denied  access  to  the  particular
	      resource	or  directory  you  wanted  to reach. Most often you tried to change to a
	      directory that doesn't exist on the server.

       11     FTP weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the PASS request.

       13     FTP weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the PASV request.

       14     FTP weird 227 format. Curl couldn't parse the 227-line the server sent.

       15     FTP can't get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got in the 227-line.

       17     FTP couldn't set binary. Couldn't change transfer method to binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part of the file was transferred.

       19     FTP couldn't download/access the given file, the RETR (or similar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

       22     HTTP page not retrieved. The requested url was not found or returned another  error
	      with  the  HTTP error code being 400 or above. This return code only appears if -f,
	      --fail is used.

       23     Write error. Curl couldn't write data to a local filesystem or similar.

       25     FTP couldn't STOR file. The server denied the STOR operation, used for FTP  upload-
	      ing.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation  timeout. The specified time-out period was reached according to the con-
	      ditions.

       30     FTP PORT failed. The PORT command failed. Not all FTP servers support the PORT com-
	      mand, try doing a transfer using PASV instead!

       31     FTP  couldn't  use  REST. The REST command failed. This command is used for resumed
	      FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error. The range "command" didn't work.

       34     HTTP post error. Internal post-request generation error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     FTP bad download resume. Couldn't continue an earlier aborted download.

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the operation.

       43     Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface error. A specified outgoing interface could not be used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maximum amount.

       48     Unknown option specified to libcurl. This indicates that you passed a weird  option
	      to curl that was passed on to libcurl and rejected. Read up in the manual!

       49     Malformed telnet option.

       51     The peer's SSL certificate or SSH MD5 fingerprint was not OK.

       52     The server didn't reply anything, which here is considered an error.

       53     SSL crypto engine not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Couldn't use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer certificate cannot be authenticated with known CA certificates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       62     Invalid LDAP URL.

       63     Maximum file size exceeded.

       64     Requested FTP SSL level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to initialise SSL Engine.

       67     The user name, password, or similar was not accepted and curl failed to log in.

       68     File not found on TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space on TFTP server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       75     Character conversion failed.

       76     Character conversion functions required.

       77     Problem with reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could not load CRL file, missing or wrong format (added in 7.19.0).

       83     Issuer check failed (added in 7.19.0).

       84     The FTP PRET command failed

       85     RTSP: mismatch of CSeq numbers

       86     RTSP: mismatch of Session Identifiers

       87     unable to parse FTP file list

       88     FTP chunk callback reported error

       XX     More  error  codes will appear here in future releases. The existing ones are meant
	      to never change.

AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
       Daniel Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of contributors  is  found  in  the
       separate THANKS file.

WWW
       http://curl.haxx.se

FTP
       ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/www/utilities/curl/

SEE ALSO
       ftp(1), wget(1)

Curl 7.27.0				   27 July 2012 				  curl(1)
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