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certtool(1)				  User Commands 			      certtool(1)

NAME
       certtool - GnuTLS certificate tool

SYNOPSIS
       certtool [-flag [value]]... [--opt-name[[=| ]value]]...

       All arguments must be options.

DESCRIPTION
       Tool  to parse and generate X.509 certificates, requests and private keys.  It can be used
       interactively or non interactively by specifying the template command line option.

OPTIONS
       -d number, --debug=number
	      Enable debugging..  This option takes an integer number as its argument.	The value
	      of number is constrained to being:
		  in the range	0 through 9999

	      Specifies the debug level.

       -V, --verbose
	      More verbose output.  This option may appear an unlimited number of times.

       --infile=file
	      Input file.

       --outfile=string
	      Output file.

       -s, --generate-self-signed
	      Generate a self-signed certificate.

       -c, --generate-certificate
	      Generate a signed certificate.

       --generate-proxy
	      Generates a proxy certificate.

       --generate-crl
	      Generate a CRL.

       -u, --update-certificate
	      Update a signed certificate.

       -p, --generate-privkey
	      Generate a private key.

       -q, --generate-request
	      Generate a PKCS #10 certificate request.	This option must not appear in combina-
	      tion with any of the following options: infile.

	      Will generate a PKCS #10 certificate request. To specify a private key use --load-
	      privkey.

       -e, --verify-chain
	      Verify a PEM encoded certificate chain..

	      The last certificate in the chain must be a self signed one.

       --verify
	      Verify a PEM encoded certificate chain using a trusted list..  This option must
	      appear in combination with the following options: load-ca-certificate.

	      The trusted certificate list must be loaded with --load-ca-certificate.

       --verify-crl
	      Verify a CRL using a trusted list..  This option must appear in combination with
	      the following options: load-ca-certificate.

	      The trusted certificate list must be loaded with --load-ca-certificate.

       --generate-dh-params
	      Generate PKCS #3 encoded Diffie-Hellman parameters..

       --get-dh-params
	      Get the included PKCS #3 encoded Diffie-Hellman parameters..

	      Returns stored DH parameters in GnuTLS. Those parameters are used in the SRP proto-
	      col. The parameters returned by fresh generation are more efficient since GnuTLS
	      3.0.9.

       --dh-info
	      Print information PKCS #3 encoded Diffie-Hellman parameters.

       --load-privkey=string
	      Loads a private key file.

	      This can be either a file or a PKCS #11 URL

       --load-pubkey=string
	      Loads a public key file.

	      This can be either a file or a PKCS #11 URL

       --load-request=file
	      Loads a certificate request file.

       --load-certificate=string
	      Loads a certificate file.

	      This can be either a file or a PKCS #11 URL

       --load-ca-privkey=string
	      Loads the certificate authority's private key file.

	      This can be either a file or a PKCS #11 URL

       --load-ca-certificate=string
	      Loads the certificate authority's certificate file.

	      This can be either a file or a PKCS #11 URL

       --password=string
	      Password to use.

       --hex-numbers
	      Print big number in an easier format to parse.

       --cprint
	      In certain operations it prints the information is C-friendly format.

	      In certain operations it prints the information is C-friendly format, suitable for
	      including into C programs.

       --null-password
	      Enforce a NULL password.

	      This option enforces a NULL password. This may be different than the empty password
	      in some schemas.

       -i, --certificate-info
	      Print information on the given certificate.

       --certificate-pubkey
	      Print certificate's public key.

       --pgp-certificate-info
	      Print information on the given OpenPGP certificate.

       --pgp-ring-info
	      Print information on the given OpenPGP keyring structure.

       -l, --crl-info
	      Print information on the given CRL structure.

       --crq-info
	      Print information on the given certificate request.

       --no-crq-extensions
	      Do not use extensions in certificate requests.

       --p12-info
	      Print information on a PKCS #12 structure.

       --p7-info
	      Print information on a PKCS #7 structure.

       --smime-to-p7
	      Convert S/MIME to PKCS #7 structure.

       -k, --key-info
	      Print information on a private key.

       --pgp-key-info
	      Print information on an OpenPGP private key.

       --pubkey-info
	      Print information on a public key.

	      The option combined with --load-request, --load-pubkey, --load-privkey and --load-
	      certificate will extract the public key of the object in question.

       --v1   Generate an X.509 version 1 certificate (with no extensions).

       --to-p12
	      Generate a PKCS #12 structure.  This option must appear in combination with the
	      following options: load-certificate.

	      It requires a certificate, a private key and possibly a CA certificate to be speci-
	      fied.

       --to-p8
	      Generate a PKCS #8 structure.

       -8, --pkcs8
	      Use PKCS #8 format for private keys.

       --rsa  Generate RSA key.

	      When combined with --generate-privkey generates an RSA private key.

       --dsa  Generate DSA key.

	      When combined with --generate-privkey generates a DSA private key.

       --ecc  Generate ECC (ECDSA) key.

	      When combined with --generate-privkey generates an elliptic curve private key to be
	      used with ECDSA.

       --ecdsa
	      This is an alias for the --ecc option.

       --hash=string
	      Hash algorithm to use for signing..

	      Available hash functions are SHA1, RMD160, SHA256, SHA384, SHA512.

       --inder, --no-inder
	      Use DER format for input certificates and private keys..	The no-inder form will
	      disable the option.

	      The input files will be assumed to be in DER or RAW format.  Unlike options that in
	      PEM input would allow multiple input data (e.g. multiple certificates), when read-
	      ing in DER format a single data structure is read.

       --inraw
	      This is an alias for the --inder option.

       --outder, --no-outder
	      Use DER format for output certificates and private keys.	The no-outder form will
	      disable the option.

	      The output will be in DER or RAW format.

       --outraw
	      This is an alias for the --outder option.

       --bits=number
	      Specify the number of bits for key generate.  This option takes an integer number
	      as its argument.

       --sec-param=security parameter
	      Specify the security level [low, legacy, normal, high, ultra]..

	      This is alternative to the bits option.

       --disable-quick-random
	      No effect.

       --template=file
	      Template file to use for non-interactive operation.

       --pkcs-cipher=cipher
	      Cipher to use for PKCS #8 and #12 operations.

	      Cipher may be one of 3des, 3des-pkcs12, aes-128, aes-192, aes-256, rc2-40, arcfour.

       -h, --help
	      Display usage information and exit.

       -!, --more-help
	      Pass the extended usage information through a pager.

       -v [{v|c|n}], --version[={v|c|n}]
	      Output version of program and exit.  The default mode is `v', a simple version.
	      The `c' mode will print copyright information and `n' will print the full copyright
	      notice.

FILES
       Certtool's template file format
       A template file can be used to avoid the interactive questions of certtool. Initially cre-
       ate a file named 'cert.cfg' that contains the information about the certificate. The tem-
       plate can be used as below:

	   $ certtool --generate-certificate cert.pem --load-privkey key.pem	 --template cert.cfg	--load-ca-certificate ca-cert.pem --load-ca-privkey ca-key.pem

       An example certtool template file that can be used to generate a certificate request or a
       self signed certificate follows.

	   # X.509 Certificate options
	   #
	   # DN options

	   # The organization of the subject.
	   organization = "Koko inc."

	   # The organizational unit of the subject.
	   unit = "sleeping dept."

	   # The locality of the subject.
	   # locality =

	   # The state of the certificate owner.
	   state = "Attiki"

	   # The country of the subject. Two letter code.
	   country = GR

	   # The common name of the certificate owner.
	   cn = "Cindy Lauper"

	   # A user id of the certificate owner.
	   #uid = "clauper"

	   # Set domain components
	   #dc = "name"
	   #dc = "domain"

	   # If the supported DN OIDs are not adequate you can set
	   # any OID here.
	   # For example set the X.520 Title and the X.520 Pseudonym
	   # by using OID and string pairs.
	   #dn_oid = 2.5.4.12 Dr.
	   #dn_oid = 2.5.4.65 jackal

	   # This is deprecated and should not be used in new
	   # certificates.
	   # pkcs9_email = "none@none.org"

	   # An alternative way to set the certificate's distinguished name directly
	   # is with the "dn" option. The attribute names allowed are:
	   # C (country), street, O (organization), OU (unit), title, CN (common name),
	   # L (locality), ST (state), placeOfBirth, gender, countryOfCitizenship,
	   # countryOfResidence, serialNumber, telephoneNumber, surName, initials,
	   # generationQualifier, givenName, pseudonym, dnQualifier, postalCode, name,
	   # businessCategory, DC, UID, jurisdictionOfIncorporationLocalityName,
	   # jurisdictionOfIncorporationStateOrProvinceName,
	   # jurisdictionOfIncorporationCountryName, XmppAddr, and numeric OIDs.

	   #dn = "cn=Nik,st=Attiki,C=GR,surName=Mavrogiannopoulos,2.5.4.9=Arkadias"

	   # The serial number of the certificate
	   serial = 007

	   # In how many days, counting from today, this certificate will expire.
	   # Use -1 if there is no expiration date.
	   expiration_days = 700

	   # X.509 v3 extensions

	   # A dnsname in case of a WWW server.
	   #dns_name = "www.none.org"
	   #dns_name = "www.morethanone.org"

	   # A subject alternative name URI
	   #uri = "http://www.example.com"

	   # An IP address in case of a server.
	   #ip_address = "192.168.1.1"

	   # An email in case of a person
	   email = "none@none.org"

	   # Challenge password used in certificate requests
	   challenge_password = 123456

	   # Password when encrypting a private key
	   #password = secret

	   # An URL that has CRLs (certificate revocation lists)
	   # available. Needed in CA certificates.
	   #crl_dist_points = "http://www.getcrl.crl/getcrl/"

	   # Whether this is a CA certificate or not
	   #ca

	   # for microsoft smart card logon
	   # key_purpose_oid = 1.3.6.1.4.1.311.20.2.2

	   ### Other predefined key purpose OIDs

	   # Whether this certificate will be used for a TLS client
	   #tls_www_client

	   # Whether this certificate will be used for a TLS server
	   #tls_www_server

	   # Whether this certificate will be used to sign data (needed
	   # in TLS DHE ciphersuites).
	   signing_key

	   # Whether this certificate will be used to encrypt data (needed
	   # in TLS RSA ciphersuites). Note that it is preferred to use different
	   # keys for encryption and signing.
	   encryption_key

	   # Whether this key will be used to sign other certificates.
	   #cert_signing_key

	   # Whether this key will be used to sign CRLs.
	   #crl_signing_key

	   # Whether this key will be used to sign code.
	   #code_signing_key

	   # Whether this key will be used to sign OCSP data.
	   #ocsp_signing_key

	   # Whether this key will be used for time stamping.
	   #time_stamping_key

	   # Whether this key will be used for IPsec IKE operations.
	   #ipsec_ike_key

	   ### end of key purpose OIDs

	   # When generating a certificate from a certificate
	   # request, then honor the extensions stored in the request
	   # and store them in the real certificate.
	   #honor_crq_extensions

	   # Path length contraint. Sets the maximum number of
	   # certificates that can be used to certify this certificate.
	   # (i.e. the certificate chain length)
	   #path_len = -1
	   #path_len = 2

	   # OCSP URI
	   # ocsp_uri = http://my.ocsp.server/ocsp

	   # CA issuers URI
	   # ca_issuers_uri = http://my.ca.issuer

	   # Certificate policies
	   # policy1 = 1.3.6.1.4.1.5484.1.10.99.1.0
	   # policy1_txt = "This is a long policy to summarize"
	   # policy1_url = http://www.example.com/a-policy-to-read

	   # policy2 = 1.3.6.1.4.1.5484.1.10.99.1.1
	   # policy2_txt = "This is a short policy"
	   # policy2_url = http://www.example.com/another-policy-to-read

	   # Options for proxy certificates
	   # proxy_policy_language = 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.21.1

	   # Options for generating a CRL

	   # next CRL update will be in 43 days (wow)
	   #crl_next_update = 43

	   # this is the 5th CRL by this CA
	   #crl_number = 5

EXAMPLES
       Generating private keys
       To create an RSA private key, run:
	   $ certtool --generate-privkey --outfile key.pem --rsa

       To create a DSA or elliptic curves (ECDSA) private key use the above command combined with
       'dsa' or 'ecc' options.

       Generating certificate requests
       To create a certificate request (needed when the certificate is	issued	by another
       party), run:
	   certtool --generate-request --load-privkey key.pem	 --outfile request.pem

       If the private key is stored in a smart card you can generate a request by specifying the
       private key object URL.
	   $ ./certtool --generate-request --load-privkey "pkcs11:..."	 --load-pubkey "pkcs11:..." --outfile request.pem

       Generating a self-signed certificate
       To create a self signed certificate, use the command:
	   $ certtool --generate-privkey --outfile ca-key.pem
	   $ certtool --generate-self-signed --load-privkey ca-key.pem	  --outfile ca-cert.pem

       Note that a self-signed certificate usually belongs to a certificate authority, that signs
       other certificates.

       Generating a certificate
       To generate a certificate using the previous request, use the command:
	   $ certtool --generate-certificate --load-request request.pem    --outfile cert.pem --load-ca-certificate ca-cert.pem    --load-ca-privkey ca-key.pem

       To generate a certificate using the private key only, use the command:
	   $ certtool --generate-certificate --load-privkey key.pem    --outfile cert.pem --load-ca-certificate ca-cert.pem    --load-ca-privkey ca-key.pem

       Certificate information
       To view the certificate information, use:
	   $ certtool --certificate-info --infile cert.pem

       PKCS #12 structure generation
       To generate a PKCS #12 structure using the previous key and certificate, use the command:
	   $ certtool --load-certificate cert.pem --load-privkey key.pem    --to-p12 --outder --outfile key.p12

       Some tools (reportedly web browsers) have problems with that file because it does not con-
       tain the CA certificate for the certificate.  To work around that problem in the tool, you
       can use the --load-ca-certificate parameter as follows:

	   $ certtool --load-ca-certificate ca.pem   --load-certificate cert.pem --load-privkey key.pem   --to-p12 --outder --outfile key.p12

       Diffie-Hellman parameter generation
       To generate parameters for Diffie-Hellman key exchange, use the command:
	   $ certtool --generate-dh-params --outfile dh.pem --sec-param normal

       Proxy certificate generation
       Proxy certificate can be used to delegate your credential to a temporary, typically
       short-lived, certificate.  To create one from the previously created certificate, first
       create a temporary key and then generate a proxy certificate for it, using the commands:

	   $ certtool --generate-privkey > proxy-key.pem
	   $ certtool --generate-proxy --load-ca-privkey key.pem   --load-privkey proxy-key.pem --load-certificate cert.pem   --outfile proxy-cert.pem

       Certificate revocation list generation
       To create an empty Certificate Revocation List (CRL) do:

	   $ certtool --generate-crl --load-ca-privkey x509-ca-key.pem		  --load-ca-certificate x509-ca.pem

       To create a CRL that contains some revoked certificates, place the certificates in a file
       and use --load-certificate as follows:

	   $ certtool --generate-crl --load-ca-privkey x509-ca-key.pem	 --load-ca-certificate x509-ca.pem --load-certificate revoked-certs.pem

       To verify a Certificate Revocation List (CRL) do:

	   $ certtool --verify-crl --load-ca-certificate x509-ca.pem < crl.pem

EXIT STATUS
       One of the following exit values will be returned:

       0 (EXIT_SUCCESS)
	      Successful program execution.

       1 (EXIT_FAILURE)
	      The operation failed or the command syntax was not valid.

       70 (EX_SOFTWARE)
	      libopts had an internal operational error.  Please report it to autogen-
	      users@lists.sourceforge.net.  Thank you.

SEE ALSO
	   p11tool (1)

AUTHORS
       Nikos Mavrogiannopoulos, Simon Josefsson and others; see /usr/share/doc/gnutls-bin/AUTHORS
       for a complete list.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2000-2012 Free Software Foundation all rights reserved.  This program is
       released under the terms of the GNU General Public License, version 3 or later.

BUGS
       Please send bug reports to: bugs@gnutls.org

NOTES
       This manual page was AutoGen-erated from the certtool option definitions.

3.1.18					   20 Dec 2013				      certtool(1)
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