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CDRDAO(1)										CDRDAO(1)

       cdrdao - reads and writes CDs in disc-at-once mode

       cdrdao	 {show-toc|toc-info|toc-size|read-toc|read-cd|read-cddb|show-data|read-test|disk-
       info|discid|msinfo|drive-info|unlock|scanbus|simulate|write|copy|blank} [--device  device]
       [--source-device  device]  [--driver  driver-id]  [--source-driver driver-id] [--simulate]
       [--speed writing-speed] [--blank-mode mode] [--datafile file] [--read-raw] [--read-subchan
       [--no-mode2-mixed]  mode]  [--tao-source]  [--tao-source-adjust	link-blocks] [--fast-toc]
       [--buffers buffer-count] [--multi] [--overburn] [--eject] [--swap]  [--session]	[--force]
       [--reload]  [--keepimage]  [--on-the-fly]  [--paranoia-mode  mode]  [--with-cddb] [--cddb-
       servers	server-list]  [--cddb-timeout  timeout]  [--cddb-directory  directory]	[--tmpdir
       directory] [--keep] [--save] [-n] [-v verbose-level] toc-file

       cdrdao  creates	audio  and  data CD-Rs in disk-at-once (DAO) mode driven by a description
       file called toc-file.  In DAO mode it is possible to create non	standard  track  pre-gaps
       that have other lengths than 2 seconds and contain nonzero audio data. This is for example
       useful to divide live recordings into tracks where 2 second gaps would be kind of irritat-

       Instead	of  a  toc-file  a  cue file (used by a famous DOS/Windows mastering tool) may be
       used. See the CUE FILES section for more details.

       The first argument must be one of the following commands:

	      Print out a summary about what will be written to the CD-R.

	      Prints out short toc-file summary.

	      Prints total number of blocks for toc.

	      Analyze each track of the inserted CD and create a toc-file that	can  be  used  to
	      make a more or less exact copy of the CD.  This command does not read out the audio
	      or data tracks, use read-cd for this purpose.

	      You can specify a filename for the data file via the --datafile option.

	      Copies all tracks of the inserted CD to an image file and creates  a  corresponding
	      toc-file.   The  name  of  the  image  file defaults to "data.bin" if no --datafile
	      option is given.

	      Tries to retrieve title and artist data from a CDDB server for the  CD  represented
	      by  the  given toc-file. The retrieved data is added as CD-TEXT data for language 0
	      to the toc-file. Existing CD-TEXT data for language 0 will be overwritten.

	      Print out all samples that would be written to the CD-R.	Each  line  contains  the
	      sample  number  (starting at 0) and the decimal sample value for the left and right
	      channel. Useful to check if the byte order of audio files is correct.

	      Check if all data can be read from the audio files that are  defined  in	the  toc-
	      file.   This  will  also	check  the  communication  with the slave process that is
	      responsible for writing the audio data to the CD-recorder. Mainly used for testing.

	      Shows information about the inserted CD-R. If the CD-R has an open session it  will
	      also  print  the	start of the last and current session which is used by mkisofs to
	      create an image for a second or higher session.

       discid Prints out CDDB information.

       msinfo Shows information required for creating multi session disks with mkisofs. The  out-
	      put is meant for processing by scripts.

	      Shows drive information.

       unlock Tries  to unlock the recorder device after a failed write or simulation run. If you
	      cannot eject the CD after a cdrdao run try this command.

       blank  Blanks a CD-RW. The CD-RW is minimally blanked by default. Use option  --blank-mode
	      to  select  another  blanking  mode.  Sometimes the blanking speed must be manually
	      reduced for a successful blanking operation. Use option --speed to  select  another
	      blanking speed.

	      Scan for devices.

	      Like write but laser stays cold. It is a shortcut for write --simulate.

       write  Write the CD-R according to the specifications in the toc-file.

       copy   Performs all steps to copy a CD. The device containing the source CD must be speci-
	      fied with option --source-device and the recorder device with option --device.   If
	      only  a  single  device is available the option --source-device must be omitted and
	      cdrdao will prompt to insert the CD-R after an image of the source CD was created.

	      The image file with name "cddata<pid>.bin" will be created in the  current  working
	      directory if no --datafile option is given. The created image will be removed after
	      it has been written.

	      If option --on-the-fly is given no image file is	created  and  the  data  will  be
	      directly piped from the reading device to the CD recorder.

       --device [prot:]bus,id,lun
	      Sets  the  SCSI  address	of  the  CD-recorder in form of a bus/id/lun triple, e.g.
	      '0,2,0' for the logical unit 0 of SCSI device with ID 2 on bus 0. ATAPI devices can
	      be  specified  by  using the prefix 'ATAPI:', e.g. 'ATAPI:0,0,0'. On some systems a
	      device node may be specified directly, e.g. '/dev/sg0' on Linux systems. Linux  2.6
	      users may also try the newer ATAPI interface with the 'ATA:' prefix.

       --source-device [prot:]bus,id,lun
	      Like above but used for the copy command to specify the source device.

       --driver driver-id:option-flags
	      Force  usage  of	specified  driver instead of the automatically determined driver.
	      Available driver IDs:
	      cdd2600, plextor, plextor-scan, generic-mmc, generic-mmc-raw, ricoh-mp6200, yamaha-
	      cdr10x, teac-cdr55, sony-cdu920, sony-cdu948, taiyo-yuden, toshiba.
	      Specifying  an  illegal  driver  ID  will give a list of available drivers.  Option
	      flags may be used to modify the behavior of some drivers. See README for details.

       --source-driver driver-id:option-flags
	      Like above but used for the device specified with option --source-device.

       --speed value
	      Set the writing speed to value.  Default is the highest possible speed.

       --blank-mode mode
	      Sets the blanking mode. Available modes are full and minimal.  Please consider that
	      the  data of minimally blanked disks may be easily recovered. Use the full blanking
	      mode for completely erasing all data. The default blanking mode is minimal.

       --datafile file
	      Used for read-toc, read-cd and copy.  Set the default data file placed in the  toc-
	      file  by	read-toc.   Use  "-" to indicate STDIN.  For commands read-cd and copy it
	      specifies the name of the created image file.

	      Only used for commands read-cd and read-toc.  All data sectors will be  written  as
	      2352  byte  blocks including the sector header and L-EC data to the image file. The
	      track mode will be set to MODE1_RAW or MODE2_RAW in the created toc-file.

       --read-subchan mode
	      Used by commands read-cd, read-toc and copy.  Specifies  the  type  of  sub-channel
	      data  that is extracted from the source CD and written to the track image or copied
	      to the destination CD.  Mode may be rw for reading packed R-W sub-channel data (de-
	      interleaved  and	error  corrected) and rw_raw for reading raw R-W sub-channel data
	      (not de-interleaved, not error corrected, L-EC data included in the  track  image).
	      If this option is not specified no sub-channel data will be extracted.

	      Only   used  for	commands  read-cd  and	read-toc.   If	we  have  MODE2_FORM1  or
	      MODE2_FORM2, don't extract it as MODE2_FORM_MIX.	toc-file.

	      This option indicates to the commands read-toc and read-cd that the source  CD  was
	      written  in TAO mode. It will be assumed that the pre-gap length between all tracks
	      (except between two audio tracks) is the standard 150 blocks  plus  the  number  of
	      link  blocks  (usually  2). The number of link blocks can be controlled with option

	      Use this option only if read-toc or read-cd give error messages in  the  transition
	      areas between two tracks. If you use this option with pressed CDs or CDs written in
	      DAO mode you will get wrong results.

       --tao-source-adjust link-blocks
	      Specifies the number of link blocks for tracks written in TAO mode. This option has
	      only an effect if option --tao-source is given.

	      Only  used  for  command	read-toc.   This option suppresses the pre-gap length and
	      index mark extraction which speeds up the read-toc process. Standard 2 second  pre-
	      gaps  (but  no  silence!)  will  be placed into the toc-file. The resulting CD will
	      sound like the source CD. Only the CD player's display will behave slightly differ-
	      ent in the transition area between two tracks.

	      This option might help, too, if read-toc fails with your drive otherwise.

       --buffers buffer-count
	      Specifies the number of buffers that are allocated to avoid buffer under runs.  The
	      minimal buffer count is fixed to 10, default is 32 except on  FreeBSD  systems,  on
	      which  default  is  20.	Each buffer holds 1 second of audio data so that dividing
	      buffer-count by the writing speed gives the maximum time for which reading of audio
	      data may be stalled.

	      If this option is given the session will not be closed after the audio data is suc-
	      cessfully written. It is possible to append another session on such disks, e.g.  to
	      create a CD-EXTRA.

	      By  default  cdrdao will not allow to write more data on a medium than specified by
	      the current medium. This option allows to ignore this condition.

	      Eject the CD-R after writing or write simulation.

       --swap Swap the byte order of all samples that are send to the CD-recorder.

       --session session-nr
	      Used for read-toc and read-cd to specify the session which should be  processed  on
	      multi session CDs.

	      Indicates  that the tray may be opened before writing without prompting the user to
	      reset the disk status after a simulation run.

	      Forces the execution of an operation that otherwise would not be performed.

       --paranoia-mode mode
	      Sets the correction mode for digital audio extraction.  0:  No  checking,  data  is
	      copied  directly	from the drive. 1: Perform overlapped reading to avoid jitter. 2:
	      Like 1 but with additional checks of the read audio data. 3: Like 2 but with  addi-
	      tional scratch detection and repair.

	      The extraction speed reduces from 0 to 3.

	      Default is the full paranoia mode (3).

	      If  a  CD is copied with command copy this option will cause that the created image
	      is not removed after the copy process has finished.

	      Perform CD copy on the fly without creating an image file.

	      Enables the automatic fetching of CDDB data for use as CD-TEXT  data  for  commands
	      copy, read-toc and read-cd.

       --cddb-servers server-list
	      Sets  space or ',' separated list of CDDB servers used for command read-cddb or for
	      commands where the --with-cddb option is active.	A server entry may have the  fol-
	      lowing forms:

	      Connect to <server>, default cddbp port (888), use cddbp protocol.

	      Connect to <server>, port <port>, use cddbp protocol.

	      Connect  to  <server>,  default  http  port (80), use http protocol, url: <cgi-bin-

	      Connect to <server>, port <port>, use http protocol, url: <cgi-bin-path>.

	      Connect to  <proxy-server>,  default  http  port	(80),  use  http  protocol,  url:

	      Connect	to   <proxy-server>,   port   <proxy-port>,   use   http  protocol,  url:

	      The <cgi-bin-path> is usually "/~cddb/cddb.cgi".

	      All servers of the server list will be tried in the given order until a  successful
	      connection  can  be  established.  For http proxy servers the first successful con-
	      nected http proxy server will be used independent of the ability to connect to  the
	      target http server.

	      Example: freedb.freedb.org:/~cddb/cddb.cgi

       --cddb-timeout timeout
	      Sets the timeout in seconds used for connections to CDDB servers.

       --cddb-directory directory
	      Specifies  the  local  CDDB  database  directory where fetched CDDB records will be
	      stored. If this option is not given a  fetched  CDDB  record  will  not  be  stored

       --tmpdir directory
	      Specifies  the directory in which to store temporary data files created from decod-
	      ing MP3 and Ogg Vorbis files. By default, "/tmp" is used.

       --keep Upon exit from cdrdao, do not delete temporary WAV files created from MP3  and  Ogg
	      Vorbis files.

       --save Saves  some  of  the current options to the settings file "$HOME/.cdrdao" and exit.
	      See section 'SETTINGS' for more details.

       -n     Suppresses the 10 second pause before writing or simulating.

       -v verbose-level
	      Sets verbose level. Levels > 2 are debug levels which produce a lot of output.

       The toc-file describes  what  data  is  written	to  the  CD-R  and  allows  control  over
       track/index positions, pre-gaps and sub-channel information. It is a simple text file, use
       your favorite text editor to create it.

       A toc-file contains an optional header and a sequence of  track	specifications.  Comments
       starting with '//' reaching until end of line can be placed anywhere.

       CATALOG "ddddddddddddd"
	      Specifies the optional catalog number of the CD. The string must contain exactly 13

       The following flags specify the type of session that will be created. It is used to create
       the  correct CD-TOC format and to check the consistency of the track modes for the desired
       session type. If multiple flags are given the last one will take effect.

       CD_DA  The disc contains only audio tracks.

       CD_ROM The disc contains just mode 1 tracks or mode 1 and audio tracks (mixed mode CD).

	      The disc contains mode 2 form 1 or mode 2 form 2 tracks. Audio tracks are  allowed,
	      too. This type must be used if multi session disks are created (option --multi).

       CD_TEXT { ... }
	      Defines  global  CD-TEXT data like the album title and the used languages.  See the
	      CD-TEXT section below for the syntax of the CD-TEXT block contents.

   Track Specification
       TRACK <track-mode> [<sub-channel-mode>]
	      Starts a new track, the track number is incremented by 1. The  length  of  a  track
	      must  be	at  least  4  seconds.	The block length of the input data depends on the
	      <track-mode>: AUDIO: 2352 bytes (588 samples), MODE1: 2048 bytes,  MODE1_RAW:  2352
	      bytes,  MODE2:  2336  bytes,  MODE2_FORM1:  2048	bytes,	MODE2_FORM2:  2324 bytes,
	      MODE2_FORM_MIX: 2336 bytes including the sub-header, MODE2_RAW:  2352  bytes.   The
	      <sub-channel-mode>  is optional. If given it specifies the type of sub-channel data
	      for each sector. RW: packed R-W sub-channel data (96 bytes, L-EC data will be  gen-
	      erated  if  required),  RW_RAW: raw R-W sub-channel data (interleaved and L-EC data
	      already calculated, 96 bytes). The block length is  increased  by  the  sub-channel
	      data  length if a <sub-channel-mode> is specified.  If the input data length is not
	      a multiple of the block length  it will be padded with zeros.

       The following flags may follow the track start statement. They are used to set sub-channel
       information  for  the  current  track.  Each  flag is optional. If not given the following
       defaults are used: copy not permitted, no pre emphasis, two channel audio, no ISRC code.

       [ NO ] COPY
	      Sets or clears the copy permitted flag.

       [ NO ] PRE_EMPHASIS
	      Sets or clears the pre emphasis flag (only for audio tracks).

	      Indicates that track contains two channel audio data (only for audio tracks).

	      Indicates that track contains four channel audio data (only for audio tracks).

	      Sets ISRC code of track (only for audio tracks).
	      C: country code (upper case letters or digits)
	      O: owner code (upper case letters or digits)
	      Y: year (digits)
	      S: serial number (digits)

       An optional CD-TEXT block that defines the CD-TEXT data for this track may follow. See the
       CD-TEXT section below for the syntax of the CD-TEXT block contents.

       CD_TEXT { ... }

       At  least  one of the following statements must appear to specify the data for the current
       track. Lengths and start positions may be expressed in samples (1/44100 seconds) for audio
       tracks  or in bytes for data tracks. It is also possible to give the length in blocks with
       the MSF format 'MM:SS:FF' specifying minutes, seconds and frames (0 <=  'FF'  <	75)  .	A
       frame equals one block.

       If more than one statement is used the track will be composed by concatenating the data in
       the specified order.

       SILENCE <length>
	      Adds zero audio data of specified length to the current  audio  track.   Useful  to
	      create silent pre-gaps.

       ZERO <length>
	      Adds  zero  data	to  data tracks. Must be used to define pre- or post-gaps between
	      tracks of different mode.

       [ FILE | AUDIOFILE ] "<filename>" <start> [ <length> ]
	      Adds the audio data of specified file to the current audio track. It is possible to
	      select  a  portion  of  an  audio  file  with <start> and <length> which allows non
	      destructive cutting. The first sample of an audio file is addressed with <start>	=
	      0.  If <length> is omitted or set to 0 all audio data from <start> until the end of
	      file is used.

	      Audio files may have raw or WAVE format with 16 bits per sample, 44.1 kHz  sampling
	      rate,  stereo.  Raw  files  must have the layout 'MSBLeft LSBLeft MSBRight LSBRight
	      ...' (big endian byte order). WAVE files are expected to have  little  endian  byte
	      order.  The  option  --swap  reverses  the expected byte order for all raw and WAVE
	      files. Only filenames with a ".wav" ending are treated as  WAVE  files,  all  other
	      names  are  assumed  to  be raw audio files. Use tools like sox(1) to convert other
	      file formats to supported formats.

	      Specifying a "-" as filename causes data to be read from STDIN. Currently only  raw
	      files are supported from STDIN.

	      If  you  are unsure about the byte order of your audio files try the command 'show-
	      data'. If the byte order is correct you  will  see  a  sequence  of  increasing  or
	      decreasing  numbers  for	both channels. Otherwise numbers are jumping between very
	      high and low values - high volume static.

       DATAFILE "<filename>" [ <length> ]
	      Adds data from given file to the current data track. If  <length>  is  omitted  the
	      actual file length will be used.

       FIFO "<fifo path>" <length>
	      Adds  data  from	specified FIFO path to the current audio or data track.  <length>
	      must specify the amount of data that will be read  from  the  FIFO.  The	value  is
	      always  in  terms  of  bytes  (scalar  value)  or in terms of the block length (MSF

       START [ MM:SS:FF ]
	      Defines the length of the pre-gap (position where index switches from 0 to  1).  If
	      the  MSF	value  is  omitted the current track length is used. If the current track
	      length is not a multiple of the block length the pre-gap length will be rounded  up
	      to next block boundary.

	      If no START statement is given the track will not have a pre-gap.

	      This  is	an alternate way to specify a pre-gap with zero audio data. It may appear
	      before the first SILENCE, ZERO or FILE statement. Either PREGAP  or  START  can  be
	      used within a track specification. It is equivalent to the sequence
	      for audio tracks or
	      for data tracks.

       Nothing	prevents mixing 'DATAFILE'/'ZERO' and 'AUDIOFILE'/'SILENCE' statements within the
       same track. The results, however, are undefined.

       The end of a track specification may contain zero or more index increment statements:

	      Increments the index number at given position within the track. The first statement
	      will  increment  from 1 to 2. The position is relative to the real track start, not
	      counting an existing pre-gap.

   CD-TEXT Blocks
       A CD-TEXT block may be placed in the global section to define data valid for the whole  CD
       and  in each track specification of a toc-file.	The global section must define a language
       map that is used to map a language-number to country codes. Up to  8  different	languages
       can be defined:

       LANGUAGE_MAP { 0 : c1  1 : c2  ...  7 : c7 }
	      The  country code may be an integer value in the range 0..255 or one of the follow-
	      ing countries (the corresponding integer value  is  placed  in  braces  behind  the
	      token): EN(9, English)
	      It is just necessary to define a mapping for the used languages.

       If no mapping exists for a language-number the data for this language will be ignored.

       For  each  language a language block must exist that defines the actual data for a certain

       LANGUAGE language-number { cd-text-item cd-text-data cd-text-item cd-text-data ... }
	      Defines the CD-TEXT items for given language-number which must be  defined  in  the
	      language map.

       The cd-text-data may be either a string enclosed by " or binary data like
	    { 0, 10, 255, ... }
       where each integer number must be in the range 0..255.
       The cd-text-item may be one of the following:

       TITLE  String data: Title of CD or track.

	      String data.

	      String data.

	      String data.

	      String data.

	      String data. Message to the user.

	      String data: Should only appear in the global CD-TEXT block. The format is usually:

       GENRE  Mixture of binary data (genre code) and string data.  Should  only  appear  in  the
	      global CD-TEXT block. Useful entries will be created by gcdmaster.

	      Binary data: Optional table of contents 1. Should only appear in the global CD-TEXT

	      Binary data: Optional table of contents 2. Should only appear in the global CD-TEXT

	      String  data:  This item should only appear in the global CD-TEXT block. Was always
	      an empty string on the CD-TEXT CDs I had access to.

       ISRC   String data: ISRC code of track. The format is usually: CC-OOO-YY-SSSSS

	      Binary data: Contains summary about all CD-TEXT data and should only appear in  the
	      global  CD-TEXT  block. The data will be automatically (re)created when the CD-TEXT
	      data is written.

	      is  defined  for	at least on track or in the global section it must be defined for
	      all tracks and in the global section. If a DISC_ID item is defined  in  the  global
	      section, an ISRC entry must be defined for each track.

       Simple track without pre-gap with all audio data from WAVE file "data.wav":
	    FILE "data.wav" 0

       Standard track with two second pre-gap, ISRC code and CD-TEXT:
	    CD_TEXT {
		0 : EN

	      LANGUAGE 0 {
		TITLE "CD Title"
		PERFORMER "Performer"
		DISC_ID "XY12345"
		UPC_EAN ""

	    ISRC "DEXXX9800001"
	    CD_TEXT {
	      LANGUAGE 0 {
		TITLE "Track Title"
		PERFORMER "Performer"
		ISRC "DE-XXX-98-00001"
	    PREGAP 0:2:0
	    FILE "data.wav" 0

       Track with 10 second pre-gap containing audio data from raw file "data.cdr":
	    FILE "data.cdr" 0
	    START 0:10:0

       Composed track with data from different files. Pre-gap data and length is taken from "pre-
       gapdata.wav". The first minute of "track.cdr" is  omitted  and  two  seconds  silence  are
       inserted at '2:0:0'. Index will be incremented after 2 and 4 minutes past track start:
	    FILE "pregapdata.wav" 0
	    FILE "track.cdr" 1:0:0 1:0:0
	    SILENCE 0:2:0
	    FILE "track.cdr" 2:0:0
	    INDEX 2:0:0
	    INDEX 4:0:0

       Mixed mode CD with a data track as first track followed by two audio tracks.
	    DATAFILE "data_1"
	    ZERO 00:02:00 // post-gap

	    SILENCE 00:02:00 // pre-gap
	    FILE "data_2.wav" 0

	    FILE "data_3.wav" 0

       Cue  files  may be used wherever a toc-file is expected. The corresponding bin file is not
       taken from the FILE statement of a cue file but constructed from  the  cue  file  name  by
       replacing ".cue" by ".bin". The cue file must have exactly one FILE statement.

       Currently,  following  track  modes  are  supported:  MODE1/2048,  MODE1/2352, MODE2/2336,
       MODE2/2352. The CATALOG, ISRC and POSTGAP statements are parsed but not evaluated, yet.

       Some of the command line options can be stored as settings  at  following  locations.  The
       files will be read on startup of cdrdao in that order:

       1. /etc/cdrdao.conf

       2. /etc/defaults/cdrdao

       3. /etc/default/cdrdao

       4. $HOME/.cdrdao

       Command	line options will overwrite the loaded settings.  The settings file contains name
       - value pairs separated by a colon. String values must be enclosed by ". The file is auto-
       matically  written  if  the  command line option --save is used but it is also possible to
       modify it manually. Following values are defined:

	      Device used for operations simulate, write,  copy,  blank,  disk-info  and  unlock.
	      Corresponding option: --device

	      Driver  (including  driver  options)  that  is used for operations simulate, write,
	      copy, blank, disk-info and unlock.  Corresponding option: --driver

	      Specifies writing speed. Corresponding option: --speed

	      Specifies fifo buffers used for recording. Corresponding option: --buffers

	      Device used for operations  read-toc,  read-cd  and  copy.   Corresponding  option:
	      --device or --source-device

	      Driver  (including  driver options) used for operations read-toc, read-cd and copy.
	      Corresponding option: --driver or --source-driver

	      Paranoia mode used for operations read-cd and copy.  Corresponding option:  --para-

	      CDDB server list for read-cddb.  Corresponding option: --cddb-servers

	      CDDB  connection	timeout  in  seconds  used  by	read-cddb.  Corresponding option:

	      Local directory where fetched CDDB records will be stored, used by read-cddb.  Cor-
	      responding option: --cddb-directory

	      Directory  where temporary WAV files will be created from decoding MP3 and Ogg Vor-
	      bis files. Corresponding option: --tmpdir

       If the program is terminated during the write/simulation process used  IPC  resources  may
       not be released. Use ipcs(8) and ipcrm(8) to delete them.

       Andreas Mueller mueller@daneb.ping.de [DEFUNCT]
       Denis Leroy <denis@poolshark.org>
       Manuel Clos <llanero@users.sourceforge.net>

       gcdmaster(1), cdrecord(1), cdda2wav(1), cdparanoia(1), sox(1), ipcs(8), ipcrm(8)

					   Jan 18, 2006 				CDRDAO(1)
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