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Pnmconvol User Manual(0)						 Pnmconvol User Manual(0)

       pnmconvol - general MxN convolution on a Netpbm image

       pnmconvol   {   -matrix=convolution_matrix  |  -matrixfile=filename[,filename[,	...]]	}

       pnmconvol convolution_matrix_file [-normalize] [-nooffset] [netpbmfile]

       Minimum unique abbreviation of option is acceptable.  You may use double  hyphens  instead
       of  single  hyphen to denote options.  You may use white space in place of the equals sign
       to separate an option name from its value.

       This program is part of Netpbm(1)

       pnmconvol reads a Netpbm image as input, convolves it with a specified convolution matrix,
       and writes a Netpbm image as output.

       Convolution  means replacing each pixel with a weighted average of the nearby pixels.  The
       weights and the area to average are determined by the convolution matrix (sometimes called
       a convolution kernel), which you supply in one of several ways.	See
	Convolution Matrix <#convolutionmatrix> .

       At  the	edges  of the convolved image, where the convolution matrix would extend over the
       edge of the image, pnmconvol just copies the input pixels directly to the output.

       The convolution computation can result in a value which is outside the range representable
       in the output.  When that happens, pnmconvol just clips the output, which means brightness
       is not conserved.

   Convolution Matrix
       There are three ways to specify the convolution matrix:

       o      directly with a -matrix option.

       o      In a file (or set of them) named by a -matrixfile option, whose contents are  simi-
	      lar to a -matrix option value.

       o      With a special PNM file.

       The  PNM  file option is the hardest, and exists only because until Netpbm 10.49 (December
       2009), it was the only way.

       The regular convolution matrix file is slightly easier to read  than  the  -matrix  option
       value, and makes your command line less messy, but requires you to manage a separate file.
       With the file, you can have separate convolution matrices for the individual color  compo-
       nents, which you can't do with -matrix.

       In  any case, the convolution matrix pnmconvol uses is a matrix of real numbers.  They can
       be whole or fractional, positive, negative, or zero.

       The convolution matrix always has an odd width and height, so that there is a center  ele-
       ment.   pnmconvol  figuratively places that center element over a pixel of the input image
       and weights that pixel and its neighbors as indicated by the convolution matrix to produce
       the pixel in the same location of the output image.

       For a normal convolution, where you're neither adding nor subtracting total value from the
       image, but merely moving it around, you'll want to make sure that all the numbers  in  the
       matrix add up to 1.  If they don't, pnmconvol warns you.

       The  elements  of the matrix are actually tuples, one for each sample in the input.  (I.e.
       if the input is an RGB image, each element of the convolution matrix has  one  weight  for
       red, one for green, and one for blue.

       Directly On the Command Line

       An example of a -matrix option is


       The  value consists of each row of the matrix from top to bottom, separated by semicolons.
       Each row consists of the elements of the row from left to right, separated by commas.  You
       must  of  course  have the same number of elements in each row.	Each element is a decimal
       floating point number and is the weight to give to each component of a pixel  that  corre-
       sponds to that matrix location.

       Note  that  when  you supply this option via a shell, semicolon (';') probably means some-
       thing to the shell, so use quotation marks.

       There is no way with this method to have different weights for different components  of	a

       The  -normalize option is often quite handy with -matrix because it lets you quickly throw
       together the command without working out the math to make sure the  matrix  isn't  biased.
       Note  that if you use the -normalize option, the weights in the matrix aren't actually the
       numbers you specify in the -matrix option.

       Regular Matrix File

       Specify the name of the matrix file with a -matrixfile option.  Or specify a list of them,
       one for each plane of the image.




       Each  file  applies  to	one plane of the image (e.g. red, green, or blue), in order.  The
       matrix in each file must have the same dimensions.  If the input  image	has  more  planes
       than the number of files you specify, the first file applies to the extra planes as well.

       pnmconvol  interprets  the  file  as text, with lines delimited by Unix newline characters
       (line feeds).

       Each line of the file is one row of the matrix, in order from top to bottom.

       For each row, the file contains a floating point decimal number for each  element  in  the
       row,  from left to right, separated by spaces.  This is not just any old white space -- it
       is exactly one space.  Two spaces in a row mean you've specified a null string for an ele-
       ment  (which  is  invalid).   If you want to line up your matrix visually, use leading and
       trailing zeroes in the floating point numbers to do it.

       There is no way to put comments in the file.  There is no signature or any other  metadata
       in the file.

       Note that if you use the -normalize option, the weights in the matrix aren't actually what
       is in the file.

       PNM File

       Before Netpbm 10.49 (December 2009), this was  the  only  way  to  specify  a  convolution
       matrix.	pnmconvol used this method in an attempt to exploit the generic matrix processing
       capabilities of Netpbm, but as the Netpbm formats don't directly allow matrices	with  the
       kinds of numbers you need in a convolution matrix, it is quite cumbersome.  In fact, there
       simply is no way to specify some convolution matrices with a legal Netpbm image,  so  make
       it  work,  pnmconvol  has  to  relax  the Netpbm file requirement that sample values be no
       greater than the image's maxval.  I.e. it isn't even a real PNM file.

       The way you select this method of supplying the	convolution  matrix  is  to  not  specify
       -matrix	or  -matrixfile.  When you do that, you must specify a second non-option argument
       -- that is the name of the PNM file (or PNM equivalent PAM file).

       There are two ways pnmconvol  interprets  the  PNM  convolution	matrix	image  pixels  as
       weights: with offsets, and without offsets.

       The  simpler  of  the  two  is without offsets.	That is what happens when you specify the
       -nooffset option.  In that case, pnmconvol simply normalizes the sample values in the  PNM
       image by dividing by the maxval.

       For  example, here is a sample convolution file that causes an output pixel to be a simple
       average of its corresponding input pixel and its 8  neighbors,  resulting  in  a  smoothed

	   3 3
	   2 2 2
	   2 2 2
	   2 2 2

       (Note  that  the  above text is an actual PGM file -- you can cut and paste it.	If you're
       not familiar with the plain PGM format, see thePGMformatspecification(1) ).

       pnmconvol divides each of the sample values (2) by the maxval (18) so the weight  of  each
       of  the	9  input  pixels  gets is 1/9, which is exactly what you want to keep the overall
       brightness of the image the same.  pnmconvol creates an output pixel  by  multiplying  the
       values of each of 9 pixels by 1/9 and adding.

       Note  that  with  maxval  18, the range of possible values is 0 to 18.  After scaling, the
       range is 0 to 1.

       For a normal convolution, where you're neither adding nor subtracting total value from the
       image, but merely moving it around, you'll want to make sure that all the scaled values in
       (each plane of) your convolution PNM add up to 1, which means all the actual sample values
       add up to the maxval.

       When  you don't specify -nooffset, pnmconvol applies an offset, the purpose of which is to
       allow you to indicate negative weights even though PNM sample values are  never	negative.
       In  this case, pnmconvol subtracts half the maxval from each sample and then normalizes by
       dividing by half the maxval.  So to get the same result as we did  above  with  -nooffset,
       the convolution matrix PNM image would have to look like this:

	   3 3
	   10 10 10
	   10 10 10
	   10 10 10

       To  see	how this works, do the above-mentioned offset: 10 - 18/2 gives 1.  The normaliza-
       tion step divides by 18/2 = 9, which makes it 1/9 - exactly what you want.  The equivalent
       matrix for 5x5 smoothing would have maxval 50 and be filled with 26.

       Note  that  with maxval 18, the range of possible values is 0 to 18.  After offset, that's
       -9 to 9, and after normalizing, the range is -1 to 1.

       The convolution file will usually be a PGM, so that the same convolution gets  applied  to
       each color component.  However, if you want to use a PPM and do a different convolution to
       different colors, you can certainly do that.

   Other Forms of Convolution
       pnmconvol does only arithmetic, linear combination convolution.	There are other forms  of
       convolution that are especially useful in image processing.

       pgmmedian  does	median	filtering,  which is a form of convolution where the output pixel
       value, rather than being a linear combination of the pixels in the window, is  the  median
       of a certain subset of them.

       pgmmorphconv  does  dilation  and  erosion, which is like the median filter but the output
       value is the minimum or maximum of the values in the window.

	      The value of the convolution matrix.  See Convolution Matrix <#matrixopt> .

	      You may not specify both this and -matrixfile.

	      This option was new in Netpbm 10.49 (December 2009).  Before that, use a	PNM  file
	      for the convolution matrix.

	      This  specifies  that  you are supplying the convolution matrix in a file and names
	      that file.  See Convolution Matrix <#matrixfile> .

	      You may not specify both this and -matrix.

	      This option was new in Netpbm 10.49 (December 2009).  Before that, use a	PNM  file
	      for the convolution matrix.

	      This  option  says to adjust the weights in your convolution matrix so they all add
	      up to one.  You usually want them to add up to one so  that  the	convolved  result
	      tends to have the same overall brightness as the input.  With -normalize, pnmconvol
	      scales all the weights by the same factor to make the sum one.  It  does	this  for
	      each plane.

	      This  can  be  quite  convenient because you can just throw numbers into the matrix
	      that have roughly the right relationship to each other and  let  pnmconvol  do  the
	      work  of normalizing them.  And you can adjust a matrix by raising or lowering cer-
	      tain weights without having to modify all the other weights to  maintain	normalcy.
	      And you can use friendly integers.


		  $ pnmconvol myimage.ppm -normalize -matrix=1,1,1;1,1,1;1,1,1

	      This  is	of  course  a  basic  3x3  average, but without you having to specify 1/9
	      (.1111111) for each weight.

	      This option has no effect when you specify the convolution  matrix  via  pseudo-PNM

	      This option was new in Netpbm 10.50 (March 2010).

	      This is part of the obsolete PNM image method of specifying the convolution matrix.
	      See Convolution Matrix <#matrixpnm> .

       The -nooffset option was new in Netpbm 10.23 (July 2004), making it  substantially  easier
       to specify a convolution matrix, but still hard.  In Netpbm 10.49 (December 2009), the PNM
       convolution matrix tyranny was finally ended with the -matrix and -matrixfile options.  In
       between, pnmconvol was broken for a while because the Netpbm library started enforcing the
       requirement that a sample value not exceed the maxval of the image.   pnmconvol	used  the
       Netpbm  library to read the PNM convolution matrix file, but in the pseudo-PNM format that
       pnmconvol uses, a sample value sometimes has to exceed the maxval.

       pnmsmooth(1) , pgmmorphconv(1) , pgmmedian(1) , pnmnlfilt(1) , pgmkernel(1) ,  pamgauss(1)
       , pammasksharpen(1) , pnm(1)

       Copyright  (C)  1989,  1991  by	Jef  Poskanzer.  Modified 26 November 1994 by Mike Burns,

netpbm documentation			 03 January 2010		 Pnmconvol User Manual(0)
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