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BSD 2.11 - man page for sendmail (bsd section 8)

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SENDMAIL(8)									      SENDMAIL(8)

       sendmail - send mail over the internet

       /usr/sbin/sendmail [ flags ] [ address ...  ]


       mailq [ -v ]

       Sendmail sends a message to one or more recipients, routing the message over whatever net-
       works are necessary.  Sendmail does internetwork forwarding as necessary  to  deliver  the
       message to the correct place.

       Sendmail is not intended as a user interface routine; other programs provide user-friendly
       front ends; sendmail is used only to deliver pre-formatted messages.

       With no flags, sendmail reads its standard input up to an end-of-file or a line consisting
       only  of  a single dot and sends a copy of the message found there to all of the addresses
       listed.	It determines the network(s) to use based on  the  syntax  and	contents  of  the

       Local  addresses  are looked up in a file and aliased appropriately.  Aliasing can be pre-
       vented by preceding the address with a backslash.  Normally the sender is not included  in
       any alias expansions, e.g., if `john' sends to `group', and `group' includes `john' in the
       expansion, then the letter will not be delivered to `john'.

       Flags are:

       -ba	   Go into ARPANET mode.  All input lines must end with a CR-LF, and all messages
		   will  be  generated	with  a  CR-LF	at  the  end.	Also,  the  ``From:'' and
		   ``Sender:'' fields are examined for the name of the sender.

       -bd	   Run as a daemon.  This requires Berkeley IPC.  Sendmail will fork and  run  in
		   background listening on socket 25 for incoming SMTP connections.  This is nor-
		   mally run from /etc/rc.

       -bi	   Initialize the alias database.

       -bm	   Deliver mail in the usual way (default).

       -bp	   Print a listing of the queue.

       -bs	   Use the SMTP protocol as described in RFC821 on  standard  input  and  output.
		   This  flag implies all the operations of the -ba flag that are compatible with

       -bt	   Run in address test mode.  This mode reads addresses and shows  the	steps  in
		   parsing; it is used for debugging configuration tables.

       -bv	   Verify  names  only - do not try to collect or deliver a message.  Verify mode
		   is normally used for validating users or mailing lists.

       -bz	   Create the configuration freeze file.

       -Cfile	   Use alternate configuration file.  Sendmail refuses	to  run  as  root  if  an
		   alternate  configuration  file is specified.  The frozen configuration file is

       -dX	   Set debugging value to X.

       -Ffullname  Set the full name of the sender.

       -fname	   Sets the name of the ``from'' person (i.e., the sender of the mail).   -f  can
		   only  be  used by ``trusted'' users (normally root, daemon, and network) or if
		   the person you are trying to become is the same as the person you are.

       -hN	   Set the hop count to N.  The hop count is incremented every time the  mail  is
		   processed.	When  it reaches a limit, the mail is returned with an error mes-
		   sage, the victim of an aliasing loop.  If not specified,  ``Received:''  lines
		   in the message are counted.

       -n	   Don't do aliasing.

       -oxvalue    Set option x to the specified value.  Options are described below.

       -q[time]    Processed saved messages in the queue at given intervals.  If time is omitted,
		   process the queue once.  Time is given as a tagged number, with `s' being sec-
		   onds, `m' being minutes, `h' being hours, `d' being days, and `w' being weeks.
		   For example, ``-q1h30m'' or ``-q90m'' would both set the timeout to	one  hour
		   thirty  minutes.  If time is specified, sendmail will run in background.  This
		   option can be used safely with -bd.

       -rname	   An alternate and obsolete form of the -f flag.

       -t	   Read message for recipients.  To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines  will  be  scanned  for
		   recipient  addresses.  The Bcc: line will be deleted before transmission.  Any
		   addresses in the argument list will be suppressed,  that  is,  they	will  not
		   receive copies even if listed in the message header.

       -v	   Go into verbose mode.  Alias expansions will be announced, etc.

       There  are  also a number of processing options that may be set.  Normally these will only
       be used by a system administrator.  Options may be set either on the  command  line  using
       the  -o	flag or in the configuration file.  These are described in detail in the Sendmail
       Installation and Operation Guide.  The options are:

       Afile	   Use alternate alias file.

       c	   On mailers that are considered ``expensive'' to  connect  to,  don't  initiate
		   immediate connection.  This requires queueing.

       dx	   Set	the delivery mode to x.  Delivery modes are `i' for interactive (synchro-
		   nous) delivery, `b' for background (asynchronous) delivery, and `q' for  queue
		   only - i.e., actual delivery is done the next time the queue is run.

       D	   Try to automatically rebuild the alias database if necessary.

       ex	   Set	error  processing  to mode x.  Valid modes are `m' to mail back the error
		   message, `w' to ``write'' back the error message  (or  mail	it  back  if  the
		   sender  is  not logged in), `p' to print the errors on the terminal (default),
		   `q' to throw away error messages (only exit status is returned), and `e' to do
		   special  processing for the BerkNet.  If the text of the message is not mailed
		   back by modes `m' or `w' and if the sender is local to this machine, a copy of
		   the	message  is  appended  to  the	file ``dead.letter'' in the sender's home

       Fmode	   The mode to use when creating temporary files.

       f	   Save UNIX-style From lines at the front of messages.

       gN	   The default group id to use when calling mailers.

       Hfile	   The SMTP help file.

       i	   Do not take dots on a line by themselves as a message terminator.

       Ln	   The log level.

       m	   Send to ``me'' (the sender) also if I am in an alias expansion.

       o	   If set, this message may have old style headers.  If not set, this message  is
		   guaranteed  to  have new style headers (i.e., commas instead of spaces between
		   addresses).	If set, an adaptive algorithm is used that will correctly  deter-
		   mine the header format in most cases.

       Qqueuedir   Select the directory in which to queue messages.

       rtimeout    The timeout on reads; if none is set, sendmail will wait forever for a mailer.
		   This option violates the word (if not the intent) of the  SMTP  specification,
		   show the timeout should probably be fairly large.

       Sfile	   Save statistics in the named file.

       s	   Always  instantiate	the  queue file, even under circumstances where it is not
		   strictly necessary.	This provides safety against system crashes during deliv-

       Ttime	   Set	the  timeout  on undelivered messages in the queue to the specified time.
		   After delivery has failed (e.g., because of a host being down) for this amount
		   of time, failed messages will be returned to the sender.  The default is three

       tstz,dtz    Set the name of the time zone.

       uN	   Set the default user id for mailers.

       In aliases, the first character of a name may be a vertical bar to cause interpretation of
       the  rest  of the name as a command to pipe the mail to.  It may be necessary to quote the
       name to keep sendmail from suppressing the blanks from between arguments.  For example,	a
       common alias is:

	    msgs: "|/usr/ucb/msgs -s"

       Aliases	may  also have the syntax ``:include:filename'' to ask sendmail to read the named
       file for a list of recipients.  For example, an alias such as:

	    poets: ":include:/usr/local/lib/poets.list"

       would read /usr/local/lib/poets.list for the list of addresses making up the group.

       Sendmail returns an exit status describing what it did.	The codes are defined in  <sysex-
	  EX_OK 	   Successful completion on all addresses.
	  EX_NOUSER	   User name not recognized.
	  EX_UNAVAILABLE   Catchall meaning necessary resources were not available.
	  EX_SYNTAX	   Syntax error in address.
	  EX_SOFTWARE	   Internal software error, including bad arguments.
	  EX_OSERR	   Temporary operating system error, such as "cannot fork".
	  EX_NOHOST	   Host name not recognized.
	  EX_TEMPFAIL	   Message could not be sent immediately, but was queued.

       If  invoked as newaliases, sendmail will rebuild the alias database.  If invoked as mailq,
       sendmail will print the contents of the mail queue.

       Except for /etc/sendmail.cf, these pathnames are all specified in /etc/sendmail.cf.  Thus,
       these values are only approximations.

       /etc/aliases		     raw data for alias names
       /etc/aliases.dir 	     data base of alias names
       /etc/sendmail.cf 	     configuration file
       /etc/sendmail.fc 	     frozen configuration
       /usr/share/misc/sendmail.hf   help file
       /var/log/sendmail.st	     collected statistics
       /usr/spool/mqueue/*	     temp files

       mail(1), rmail(1), syslog(3), aliases(5), sendmail.cf(5), mailaddr(7), rc(8);
       DARPA Internet Request For Comments RFC819, RFC821, RFC822;
       Sendmail - An Internetwork Mail Router (SMM:16);
       Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide (SMM:7)

4th Berkeley Distribution		 October 23, 1996			      SENDMAIL(8)
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