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PING(8) 										  PING(8)

       ping - send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

       ping [-dfnqrvR] [-c count] [-i wait] [-l preload] [-p pattern] [-s packetsize]

       Ping  uses  the	ICMP  protocol's  mandatory  ECHO_REQUEST  datagram  to  elicit  an  ICMP
       ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway.  ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (``pings'') have an  IP  and
       ICMP  header,  followed	by  a  ``struct timeval'' and then an arbitrary number of ``pad''
       bytes used to fill out the packet.  The options are as follows:

       -c count       Stop after sending (and receiving) count ECHO_RESPONSE packets.

       -d	      Set the SO_DEBUG option on the socket being used.

       -f	      Flood ping.  Outputs packets as fast as they come back or one hundred times
		      per  second, whichever is more.  For every ECHO_REQUEST sent a period ``.''
		      is printed, while for every ECHO_REPLY received  a  backspace  is  printed.
		      This  provides a rapid display of how many packets are being dropped.  Only
		      the super-user may use this option.  This can be very hard on a network and
		      should be used with caution.

       -i wait	      Wait  wait seconds between sending each packet.  The default is to wait for
		      one second between each packet.  This option is incompatible  with  the  -f

       -l preload     If  preload  is specified, ping sends that many packets as fast as possible
		      before falling into its normal mode of behavior.

       -n	      Numeric output only.  No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic names  for
		      host addresses.

       -p pattern     You  may	specify  up  to 16 ``pad'' bytes to fill out the packet you send.
		      This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in	a  network.   For
		      example, `` -p ff'' will cause the sent packet to be filled with all ones.

       -q	      Quiet  output.   Nothing	is  displayed except the summary lines at startup
		      time and when finished.

       -R	      Record route.  Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in the ECHO_REQUEST  packet
		      and displays the route buffer on returned packets.  Note that the IP header
		      is only large enough for nine such routes.  Many hosts  ignore  or  discard
		      this option.

       -r	      Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached
		      network.	If the host is not on a directly-attached network,  an	error  is
		      returned.   This	option can be used to ping a local host through an inter-
		      face that has no route through it (e.g., after the interface was dropped by

       -s packetsize  Specifies  the  number  of data bytes to be sent.  The default is 56, which
		      translates into 64 ICMP data bytes when combined with the 8 bytes  of  ICMP
		      header data.

       -v	      Verbose  output.	 ICMP  packets other than ECHO_RESPONSE that are received
		      are listed.

       When using ping for fault isolation, it should first be run on the local host,  to  verify
       that  the local network interface is up and running.  Then, hosts and gateways further and
       further away should be ``pinged''.  Round-trip times and packet loss statistics	are  com-
       puted.  If duplicate packets are received, they are not included in the packet loss calcu-
       lation, although the round trip time of these packets is used  in  calculating  the  mini-
       mum/average/maximum  round-trip	time  numbers.	When the specified number of packets have
       been sent (and received) or if the program is terminated with a SIGINT, a brief summary is

       This  program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and management.  Because
       of the load it can impose on the network, it is unwise to use ping  during  normal  opera-
       tions or from automated scripts.

       An  IP  header without options is 20 bytes.  An ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packet contains an addi-
       tional 8 bytes worth of ICMP header followed by an arbitrary amount of data.  When a pack-
       etsize  is given, this indicated the size of this extra piece of data (the default is 56).
       Thus the amount of data received inside of an IP  packet  of  type  ICMP  ECHO_REPLY  will
       always be 8 bytes more than the requested data space (the ICMP header).

       If  the	data space is at least eight bytes large, ping uses the first eight bytes of this
       space to include a timestamp which it uses in the computation of  round	trip  times.   If
       less than eight bytes of pad are specified, no round trip times are given.

       Ping will report duplicate and damaged packets.	Duplicate packets should never occur, and
       seem to be caused by inappropriate link-level retransmissions.  Duplicates  may	occur  in
       many  situations and are rarely (if ever) a good sign, although the presence of low levels
       of duplicates may not always be cause for alarm.

       Damaged packets are obviously serious cause for alarm and often indicate  broken  hardware
       somewhere in the ping packet's path (in the network or in the hosts).

       The (inter)network layer should never treat packets differently depending on the data con-
       tained in the data portion.  Unfortunately, data-dependent problems  have  been	known  to
       sneak  into  networks  and  remain undetected for long periods of time.	In many cases the
       particular pattern that will have problems  is  something  that	doesn't  have  sufficient
       ``transitions'',  such  as  all ones or all zeros, or a pattern right at the edge, such as
       almost all zeros.  It isn't necessarily enough to specify a data pattern of all zeros (for
       example)  on  the command line because the pattern that is of interest is at the data link
       level, and the relationship between what you type and what the controllers transmit can be

       This means that if you have a data-dependent problem you will probably have to do a lot of
       testing to find it.  If you are lucky, you may manage to find a file that either can't  be
       sent  across  your network or that takes much longer to transfer than other similar length
       files.  You can then examine this file for repeated patterns that you can test  using  the
       -p option of ping.

       The  TTL value of an IP packet represents the maximum number of IP routers that the packet
       can go through before being thrown away.  In current practice you can expect  each  router
       in the Internet to decrement the TTL field by exactly one.

       The  TCP/IP  specification  states that the TTL field for TCP packets should be set to 60,
       but many systems use smaller values (4.3BSD uses 30, 4.2 used 15).

       The maximum possible value of this field is 255, and most Unix systems set the  TTL  field
       of  ICMP  ECHO_REQUEST  packets	to  255.  This is why you will find you can ``ping'' some
       hosts, but not reach them with telnet(1) or ftp(1).

       In normal operation ping prints the ttl value from the packet it receives.  When a  remote
       system  receives  a  ping  packet, it can do one of three things with the TTL field in its

       o    Not change it; this is  what  Berkeley  Unix  systems  did	before	the  4.3BSD-tahoe
	    release.   In  this  case  the TTL value in the received packet will be 255 minus the
	    number of routers in the round-trip path.

       o    Set it to 255; this is what current Berkeley Unix systems do.  In this case  the  TTL
	    value in the received packet will be 255 minus the number of routers in the path from
	    the remote system to the ping'ing host.

       o    Set it to some other value.  Some machines use the same value for ICMP  packets  that
	    they  use  for  TCP  packets, for example either 30 or 60.	Others may use completely
	    wild values.

       Many Hosts and Gateways ignore the RECORD_ROUTE option.

       The maximum IP header length is too small for options like RECORD_ROUTE to  be  completely
       useful.	There's not much that that can be done about this, however.

       Flood  pinging  is  not	recommended  in  general, and flood pinging the broadcast address
       should only be done under very controlled conditions.

       netstat(1), ifconfig(8), routed(8)

       The ping command appeared in 4.3BSD.

7th Edition				December 22, 1995				  PING(8)
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