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htable(8) [bsd man page]

HTABLE(8)						      System Manager's Manual							 HTABLE(8)

NAME
htable - convert NIC standard format host tables SYNOPSIS
/etc/htable [ -c connected-nets ] [ -l local-nets ] file DESCRIPTION
Htable is used to convert host files in the format specified in Internet RFC 810 to the format used by the network library routines. Three files are created as a result of running htable: hosts, networks, and gateways. The hosts file may be used by the gethostbyname(3N) rou- tines in mapping host names to addresses if the nameserver, named(8), is not used. The networks file is used by the getnetent(3N) routines in mapping network names to numbers. The gateways file may be used by the routing daemon in identifying ``passive'' Internet gateways; see routed(8C) for an explanation. If any of the files localhosts, localnetworks, or localgateways are present in the current directory, the file's contents is prepended to the output file. Of these, only the gateways file is interpreted. This allows sites to maintain local aliases and entries which are not normally present in the master database. Only one gateway to each network will be placed in the gateways file; a gateway listed in the localgateways file will override any in the input file. If the gateways file is to be used, a list of networks to which the host is directly connected is specified with the -c flag. The net- works, separated by commas, may be given by name or in Internet-standard dot notation, e.g. -c arpanet,128.32,local-ether-net. Htable only includes gateways which are directly connected to one of the networks specified, or which can be reached from another gateway on a connected net. If the -l option is given with a list of networks (in the same format as for -c), these networks will be treated as ``local,'' and informa- tion about hosts on local networks is taken only from the localhosts file. Entries for local hosts from the main database will be omitted. This allows the localhosts file to completely override any entries in the input file. Htable is best used in conjunction with the gettable(8C) program which retrieves the NIC database from a host. SEE ALSO
intro(3N), gettable(8C), named(8) BUGS
If the name-domain system provided network name mapping well as host name mapping, htable would no longer be needed. 4.2 Berkeley Distribution May 22, 1986 HTABLE(8)

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gateways(4)						     Kernel Interfaces Manual						       gateways(4)

NAME
gateways - Specifies Internet routing information to the routed daemon SYNOPSIS
/etc/gateways DESCRIPTION
The /etc/gateways file identifies gateways for the routed daemon. Ordinarily, the routed daemon queries the network and builds routing tables. The routed daemon builds the tables from routing information transmitted by other hosts directly connected to the network. How- ever, there may be gateways that this command cannot identify through its queries. These unidentified gateways are known as distant gate- ways. Such gateways should be identified in the /etc/gateways file, which the routed daemon reads when it starts. The general format of an file entry in the /etc/gateways file is: Destination Name1 gateway Name2 metric Value Type The following is a brief description of each element in an /etc/gateways file entry: A keyword that indicates whether the route is to a network or to a specific host. The two possible keywords are net and host. The name associated with Destination. Name1 can be either a symbolic name (as used in the /etc/hosts or /etc/networks file) or an Internet address specified in dotted-decimal format. An indicator that the following string identifies the gateway host. The name or address of the gateway host to which messages should be forwarded. An indicator that the next string represents the hop count to the destination host or network. The hop count, or number of gateways, from the local network to the destination network. A keyword that indicates whether the gateway should be treated as active, passive, or external. The three possible keywords are as follows: An active gateway is treated like a network interface. That is, it is expected to exchange RIP (Routing Information Protocol) routing information. Information about it is maintained in the internal routing tables as long as it is active and is included in any routing information that is transmitted through RIP. If it does not respond for a period of time, the route associated with it is deleted from the internal routing tables. A passive gateway is not expected to exchange RIP routing information. Information about it is maintained in the routing tables indefinitely and is included in any routing information that is transmitted through RIP. An external gateway is identified to inform the routed daemon that another routing process will install such a route and that alternative routes to that destination should not be installed. Information about external gateways is not maintained in the internal rout- ing tables and is not transmitted through RIP. Note that these routes must be to networks. EXAMPLES
To specify a route to a network through a gateway host with an entry in the gateways file, enter: net net2 gateway host4 metric 4 passive This example specifies a route to a network, net2, through the gateway host4. The hop count metric to net2 is 4, and the gateway is treated as passive. To specify a route to a host through a gateway host with an entry in the gateways file, enter: host host2 gate- way host4 metric 4 passive This example specifies a route to a host, host2, through the gateway host4. The hop count metric to host2 is 4, and the gateway is treated as passive. To specify a route to a host through an active Internet gateway with an entry in the gateways file, enter: host host10 gateway 192.100.11.5 metric 9 active This example specifies a route to a specific host, host10, through the gateway 192.100.11.5. The hop count metric to host10 is 9 and the gateway is treated as active. To specify a route to a host through a passive Internet gateway with an entry in the gateways file, enter: host host10 gateway 192.100.11.5 metric 9 passive This example specifies a route to a specific host, host10, through the gateway 192.100.11.5. The hop metric count to host10 is 9 and the gateway is treated as passive. To specify a route to a network through an external gateway, enter a line in the following format: net net5 gateway host7 metric 11 external This example specifies a route to a network, net5, through the gateway host7. The hop count metric to net5 is 11 and the gateway is treated as external (that is, it is not advertised through RIP, but is advertised through an unspecified routing protocol). RELATED INFORMATION
Daemons: gated(8), routed(8) delim off gateways(4)

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