HTABLE(8) System Manager's Manual HTABLE(8)
htable - convert NIC standard format host tables
/etc/htable [ -c connected-nets ] [ -l local-nets ] file
Htable is used to convert host files in the format specified in Internet RFC 810 to the format used by the network library routines. Three
files are created as a result of running htable: hosts, networks, and gateways. The hosts file may be used by the gethostbyname(3N) rou-
tines in mapping host names to addresses if the nameserver, named(8), is not used. The networks file is used by the getnetent(3N) routines
in mapping network names to numbers. The gateways file may be used by the routing daemon in identifying ``passive'' Internet gateways; see
routed(8C) for an explanation.
If any of the files localhosts, localnetworks, or localgateways are present in the current directory, the file's contents is prepended to
the output file. Of these, only the gateways file is interpreted. This allows sites to maintain local aliases and entries which are not
normally present in the master database. Only one gateway to each network will be placed in the gateways file; a gateway listed in the
localgateways file will override any in the input file.
If the gateways file is to be used, a list of networks to which the host is directly connected is specified with the -c flag. The net-
works, separated by commas, may be given by name or in Internet-standard dot notation, e.g. -c arpanet,128.32,local-ether-net. Htable
only includes gateways which are directly connected to one of the networks specified, or which can be reached from another gateway on a
If the -l option is given with a list of networks (in the same format as for -c), these networks will be treated as ``local,'' and informa-
tion about hosts on local networks is taken only from the localhosts file. Entries for local hosts from the main database will be omitted.
This allows the localhosts file to completely override any entries in the input file.
Htable is best used in conjunction with the gettable(8C) program which retrieves the NIC database from a host.
intro(3N), gettable(8C), named(8)
If the name-domain system provided network name mapping well as host name mapping, htable would no longer be needed.
4.2 Berkeley Distribution May 22, 1986 HTABLE(8)
Check Out this Related Man Page
ROUTED(8) System Manager's Manual ROUTED(8)
routed - network routing daemon
routed [ -d ] [ -g ] [ -s ] [ -q ] [ -t ] [ logfile ]
Routed is invoked at boot time to manage the network routing tables. The routing daemon uses a variant of the Xerox NS Routing Information
Protocol in maintaining up to date kernel routing table entries. It used a generalized protocol capable of use with multiple address
types, but is currently used only for Internet routing within a cluster of networks.
In normal operation routed listens on the udp(4) socket for the route service (see services(5)) for routing information packets. If the
host is an internetwork router, it periodically supplies copies of its routing tables to any directly connected hosts and networks.
When routed is started, it uses the SIOCGIFCONF ioctl to find those directly connected interfaces configured into the system and marked
``up'' (the software loopback interface is ignored). If multiple interfaces are present, it is assumed that the host will forward packets
between networks. Routed then transmits a request packet on each interface (using a broadcast packet if the interface supports it) and
enters a loop, listening for request and response packets from other hosts.
When a request packet is received, routed formulates a reply based on the information maintained in its internal tables. The response
packet generated contains a list of known routes, each marked with a ``hop count'' metric (a count of 16, or greater, is considered ``infi-
nite''). The metric associated with each route returned provides a metric relative to the sender.
Response packets received by routed are used to update the routing tables if one of the following conditions is satisfied:
(1) No routing table entry exists for the destination network or host, and the metric indicates the destination is ``reachable'' (i.e.
the hop count is not infinite).
(2) The source host of the packet is the same as the router in the existing routing table entry. That is, updated information is being
received from the very internetwork router through which packets for the destination are being routed.
(3) The existing entry in the routing table has not been updated for some time (defined to be 90 seconds) and the route is at least as
cost effective as the current route.
(4) The new route describes a shorter route to the destination than the one currently stored in the routing tables; the metric of the
new route is compared against the one stored in the table to decide this.
When an update is applied, routed records the change in its internal tables and updates the kernel routing table. The change is reflected
in the next response packet sent.
In addition to processing incoming packets, routed also periodically checks the routing table entries. If an entry has not been updated
for 3 minutes, the entry's metric is set to infinity and marked for deletion. Deletions are delayed an additional 60 seconds to insure the
invalidation is propagated throughout the local internet.
Hosts acting as internetwork routers gratuitously supply their routing tables every 30 seconds to all directly connected hosts and net-
works. The response is sent to the broadcast address on nets capable of that function, to the destination address on point-to-point links,
and to the router's own address on other networks. The normal routing tables are bypassed when sending gratuitous responses. The recep-
tion of responses on each network is used to determine that the network and interface are functioning correctly. If no response is
received on an interface, another route may be chosen to route around the interface, or the route may be dropped if no alternative is
Routed supports several options:
-d Enable additional debugging information to be logged, such as bad packets received.
-g This flag is used on internetwork routers to offer a route to the ``default'' destination. This is typically used on a gateway to
the Internet, or on a gateway that uses another routing protocol whose routes are not reported to other local routers.
-s Supplying this option forces routed to supply routing information whether it is acting as an internetwork router or not. This is
the default if multiple network interfaces are present, or if a point-to-point link is in use.
-q This is the opposite of the -s option.
-t If the -t option is specified, all packets sent or received are printed on the standard output. In addition, routed will not
divorce itself from the controlling terminal so that interrupts from the keyboard will kill the process.
Any other argument supplied is interpreted as the name of file in which routed's actions should be logged. This log contains information
about any changes to the routing tables and, if not tracing all packets, a history of recent messages sent and received which are related
to the changed route.
In addition to the facilities described above, routed supports the notion of ``distant'' passive and active gateways. When routed is
started up, it reads the file /etc/gateways to find gateways which may not be located using only information from the SIOGIFCONF ioctl.
Gateways specified in this manner should be marked passive if they are not expected to exchange routing information, while gateways marked
active should be willing to exchange routing information (i.e. they should have a routed process running on the machine). Passive gate-
ways are maintained in the routing tables forever and information regarding their existence is included in any routing information trans-
mitted. Active gateways are treated equally to network interfaces. Routing information is distributed to the gateway and if no routing
information is received for a period of the time, the associated route is deleted. External gateways are also passive, but are not placed
in the kernel routing table nor are they included in routing updates. The function of external entries is to inform routed that another
routing process will install such a route, and that alternate routes to that destination should not be installed. Such entries are only
required when both routers may learn of routes to the same destination.
The /etc/gateways is comprised of a series of lines, each in the following format:
< net | host > name1 gateway name2 metric value < passive | active | external >
The net or host keyword indicates if the route is to a network or specific host.
Name1 is the name of the destination network or host. This may be a symbolic name located in /etc/networks or /etc/hosts (or, if started
after named(8), known to the name server), or an Internet address specified in ``dot'' notation; see inet(3).
Name2 is the name or address of the gateway to which messages should be forwarded.
Value is a metric indicating the hop count to the destination host or network.
One of the keywords passive, active or external indicates if the gateway should be treated as passive or active (as described above), or
whether the gateway is external to the scope of the routed protocol.
Internetwork routers that are directly attached to the Arpanet or Milnet should use the Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) to gather routing
information rather then using a static routing table of passive gateways. EGP is required in order to provide routes for local networks to
the rest of the Internet system. Sites needing assistance with such configurations should contact the Computer Systems Research Group at
/etc/gateways for distant gateways
``Internet Transport Protocols'', XSIS 028112, Xerox System Integration Standard.
udp(4), XNSrouted(8), htable(8)
The kernel's routing tables may not correspond to those of routed when redirects change or add routes. The only remedy for this is to
place the routing process in the kernel.
Routed should incorporate other routing protocols, such as Xerox NS (XNSrouted(8)) and EGP. Using separate processes for each requires
configuration options to avoid redundant or competing routes.
Routed should listen to intelligent interfaces, such as an IMP, and to error protocols, such as ICMP, to gather more information. It does
not always detect unidirectional failures in network interfaces (e.g., when the output side fails).
4.2 Berkeley Distribution November 17, 1996 ROUTED(8)