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SAIL(6) 										  SAIL(6)

NAME
       sail - multi-user wooden ships and iron men

SYNOPSIS
       sail [ -s [ -l ] ] [ -x ] [ -b ] [ num ]

DESCRIPTION
       Sail  is a computer version of Avalon Hill's game of fighting sail originally developed by
       S. Craig Taylor.

       Players of Sail take command of an old fashioned Man of War and fight other players or the
       computer.   They may re-enact one of the many historical sea battles recorded in the game,
       or they can choose a fictional battle.

       As a sea captain in the Sail Navy, the player has complete control over	the  workings  of
       his  ship.  He must order every maneuver, change the set of his sails, and judge the right
       moment to let loose the terrible destruction of his broadsides.	In addition  to  fighting
       the  enemy, he must harness the powers of the wind and sea to make them work for him.  The
       outcome of many battles during the age of sail was decided by the ability of  one  captain
       to hold the `weather gage.'

       The flags are:

       -s     Print the names and ships of the top ten sailors.

       -l     Show the login name.  Only effective with -s.

       -x     Play the first available ship instead of prompting for a choice.

       -b     No bells.

IMPLEMENTATION
       Sail  is  really  two programs in one.  Each player starts up a process which runs his own
       ship.  In addition, a driver process is forked (by the first player) to run  the  computer
       ships and take care of global bookkeeping.

       Because the driver must calculate moves for each ship it controls, the more ships the com-
       puter is playing, the slower the game will appear.

       If a player joins a game in progress, he will synchronize with the other players (a rather
       slow process for everyone), and then he may play along with the rest.

       To  implement a multi-user game in Version 7 UNIX, which was the operating system Sail was
       first written under, the communicating processes must use a common  temporary  file  as	a
       place  to  read	and write messages.  In addition, a locking mechanism must be provided to
       ensure exclusive access to the shared file.  For example, Sail uses a temporary file named
       /tmp/#sailsink.21  for  scenario 21, and corresponding file names for the other scenarios.
       To provide exclusive access to the temporary file, Sail uses a technique  stolen  from  an
       old game called "pubcaves" by Jeff Cohen.  Processes do a busy wait in the loop

			 for (n = 0; link(sync_file, sync_lock) < 0 && n < 30; n++)
						    sleep(2);

       until they are able to create a link to a file named "/tmp/#saillock.??".  The "??" corre-
       spond to the scenario number of the game.  Since UNIX guarantees that a link will point to
       only one file, the process that succeeds in linking will have exclusive access to the tem-
       porary file.

       Whether or not this really works is open to speculation.  When ucbmiro was rebooted  after
       a  crash,  the file system check program found 3 links between the Sail temporary file and
       its link file.

CONSEQUENCES OF SEPARATE PLAYER AND DRIVER PROCESSES
       When players do something of global interest, such as moving or firing,	the  driver  must
       coordinate the action with the other ships in the game.	For example, if a player wants to
       move in a certain direction, he writes a message into the temporary  file  requesting  the
       driver  to  move his ship.  Each ``turn,'' the driver reads all the messages sent from the
       players and decides what happened.  It then writes back into the temporary file new values
       of variables, etc.

       The  most  noticeable  effect  this  communication has on the game is the delay in moving.
       Suppose a player types a move for his ship and  hits  return.   What  happens  then?   The
       player process saves up messages to be written to the temporary file in a buffer.  Every 7
       seconds or so, the player process gets exclusive access to the temporary file  and  writes
       out its buffer to the file.  The driver, running asynchronously, must read in the movement
       command, process it, and write out the results.	This takes two exclusive accesses to  the
       temporary  file.   Finally,  when the player process gets around to doing another 7 second
       update, the results of the move are  displayed  on  the	screen.   Hence,  every  movement
       requires  four  exclusive  accesses  to	the temporary file (anywhere from 7 to 21 seconds
       depending upon asynchrony) before the player sees the results of his moves.

       In practice, the delays are not as annoying as they  would  appear.   There  is	room  for
       "pipelining"  in  the  movement.   After the player writes out a first movement message, a
       second movement command can then be issued.  The first message will be  in  the	temporary
       file waiting for the driver, and the second will be in the file buffer waiting to be writ-
       ten to the file.  Thus, by always typing moves a turn ahead of the time,  the  player  can
       sail around quite quickly.

       If  the player types several movement commands between two 7 second updates, only the last
       movement command typed will be seen by the driver.   Movement  commands	within	the  same
       update "overwrite" each other, in a sense.

THE HISTORY OF SAIL
       I  wrote  the  first version of Sail on a PDP 11/70 in the fall of 1980.  Needless to say,
       the code was horrendous, not portable in any sense of the word, and didn't work.  The pro-
       gram was not very modular and had fseeks() and fwrites() every few lines.  After a tremen-
       dous rewrite from the top down, I got the first working version up by  1981.   There  were
       several	annoying  bugs	concerning  firing  broadsides	and finding angles.  Sail uses no
       floating point, by the way, so the direction routines are rather tricky.  Ed Wang  rewrote
       my  angle() routine in 1981 to be more correct (although it still doesn't work perfectly),
       and he added code to let a player select which ship he wanted at the  start  of	the  game
       (instead of the first one available).

       Captain	Happy  (Craig  Leres) is responsible for making Sail portable for the first time.
       This was no easy task, by the way.  Constants like 2 and 10  were  very	frequent  in  the
       code.   I  also	became famous for using "Riggle Memorial Structures" in Sail.  Many of my
       structure references are so long that they run off the line  printer  page.   Here  is  an
       example, if you promise not to laugh.

		      specs[scene[flog.fgamenum].ship[flog.fshipnum].shipnum].pts

       Sail  received  its  fourth  and most thorough rewrite in the summer and fall of 1983.  Ed
       Wang rewrote and modularized the code (a monumental feat) almost from  scratch.	 Although
       he  introduced  many  new bugs, the final result was very much cleaner and (?) faster.  He
       added window movement commands and find ship commands.

HISTORICAL INFO
       Old Square Riggers were very maneuverable ships capable of intricate sailing.  Their  only
       disadvantage was an inability to sail very close to the wind.  The design of a wooden ship
       allowed only for the guns to bear to the left and right sides.  A few guns of small aspect
       (usually 6 or 9 pounders) could point forward, but their effect was small compared to a 68
       gun broadside of 24 or 32 pounders.  The guns bear approximately like so:

	      \
	       b----------------
	   ---0
	       \
		\
		 \     up to a range of ten (for round shot)
		  \
		   \
		    \

       An interesting phenomenon occurred when a broadside was fired down the length of an  enemy
       ship.   The  shot tended to bounce along the deck and did several times more damage.  This
       phenomenon was called a rake.  Because the bows of a ship are very strong  and  present	a
       smaller target than the stern, a stern rake (firing from the stern to the bow) causes more
       damage than a bow rake.

			       b
			      00   ----  Stern rake!
				a

       Most ships were equipped with carronades, which were  very  large,  close  range  cannons.
       American  ships	from the revolution until the War of 1812 were almost entirely armed with
       carronades.

       The period of history covered in Sail is approximately from the 1770's until  the  end  of
       Napoleanic  France  in  1815.   There  are many excellent books about the age of sail.  My
       favorite author is Captain Frederick Marryat.   More  contemporary  authors  include  C.S.
       Forester and Alexander Kent.

       Fighting ships came in several sizes classed by armament.  The mainstays of any fleet were
       its "Ships of the Line", or "Line of Battle Ships".  They  were	so  named  because  these
       ships  fought  together	in  great  lines.  They were close enough for mutual support, yet
       every ship could fire both its broadsides.  We get the  modern  words  "ocean  liner,"  or
       "liner,"  and  "battleship"  from "ship of the line."  The most common size was the the 74
       gun two decked ship of the line.  The two gun decks usually  mounted  18  and  24  pounder
       guns.

       The  pride  of  the fleet were the first rates.	These were huge three decked ships of the
       line mounting 80 to 136 guns.  The guns in the three tiers were usually	18,  24,  and  32
       pounders in that order from top to bottom.

       Various	other  ships came next.  They were almost all "razees," or ships of the line with
       one deck sawed off.  They mounted 40-64 guns and were a poor cross between a frigate and a
       line  of  battle  ship.	They neither had the speed of the former nor the firepower of the
       latter.

       Next came the "eyes of the fleet."  Frigates came in many sizes mounting anywhere from  32
       to  44  guns.   They were very handy vessels.  They could outsail anything bigger and out-
       shoot anything smaller.	Frigates didn't fight in lines of battle as the much bigger  74's
       did.   Instead, they harassed the enemy's rear or captured crippled ships.  They were much
       more useful in missions away from the fleet, such  as  cutting  out  expeditions  or  boat
       actions.  They could hit hard and get away fast.

       Lastly,	there  were  the corvettes, sloops, and brigs.	These were smaller ships mounting
       typically fewer than 20 guns.  A corvette was only slightly smaller than a frigate, so one
       might  have up to 30 guns.  Sloops were used for carrying dispatches or passengers.  Brigs
       were something you built for land-locked lakes.

SAIL PARTICULARS
       Ships in Sail are represented by two characters.  One character represents the bow of  the
       ship,  and  the	other  represents  the stern.  Ships have nationalities and numbers.  The
       first ship of a nationality is number 0, the second number 1, etc.  Therefore,  the  first
       British	ship  in a game would be printed as "b0".  The second Brit would be "b1", and the
       fifth Don would be "s4".

       Ships can set normal sails, called Battle Sails, or  bend  on  extra  canvas  called  Full
       Sails.	A  ship  under full sail is a beautiful sight indeed, and it can move much faster
       than a ship under Battle Sails.	The only trouble is, with full sails  set,  there  is  so
       much  tension  on sail and rigging that a well aimed round shot can burst a sail into rib-
       bons where it would only cause a little hole in a loose sail.  For  this  reason,  rigging
       damage is doubled on a ship with full sails set.  Don't let that discourage you from using
       full sails.  I like to keep them up right into the heat of battle.  A ship with full sails
       set  has  a  capital  letter for its nationality.  E.g., a Frog, "f0", with full sails set
       would be printed as "F0".

       When a ship is battered into a listing hulk, the last man  aboard  "strikes  the  colors."
       This  ceremony is the ship's formal surrender.  The nationality character of a surrendered
       ship is printed as "!".	E.g., the Frog of our last example would soon be "!0".

       A ship has a random chance of catching fire or sinking when it reaches the stage of  list-
       ing  hulk.   A  sinking ship has a "~" printed for its nationality, and a ship on fire and
       about to explode has a "#" printed.

       Captured ships become the nationality of the prize crew.  Therefore, if an  American  ship
       captures  a  British  ship, the British ship will have an "a" printed for its nationality.
       In addition, the ship number is changed to "&","'", "(", ,")", "*", or "+" depending  upon
       the  original  number,  be  it  0,1,2,3,4,  or  5.  E.g., the "b0" captured by an American
       becomes the "a&".  The "s4" captured by a Frog becomes the "f*".

       The ultimate example is, of course, an exploding Brit captured by an American: "#&".

MOVEMENT
       Movement is the most confusing part of Sail to many.  Ships can head in 8 directions:

					0      0      0
	       b       b       b0      b       b       b       0b      b
	       0	0					      0

       The stern of a ship moves when it turns.  The bow remains stationary.   Ships  can  always
       turn,  regardless  of the wind (unless they are becalmed).  All ships drift when they lose
       headway.  If a ship doesn't move forward at all for two turns, it will begin to drift.  If
       a  ship	has  begun to drift, then it must move forward before it turns, if it plans to do
       more than make a right or left turn, which is always possible.

       Movement commands to Sail are a string of forward moves and turns.  An  example	is  "l3".
       It  will turn a ship left and then move it ahead 3 spaces.  In the drawing above, the "b0"
       made 7 successive left turns.  When Sail prompts you for a move, it prints  three  charac-
       ters of import.	E.g.,
	    move (7, 4):
       The first number is the maximum number of moves you can make, including turns.  The second
       number is the maximum number of turns you can make.   Between  the  numbers  is	sometimes
       printed	a quote "'".  If the quote is present, it means that your ship has been drifting,
       and you must move ahead to regain headway before you turn (see note above).  Some  of  the
       possible moves for the example above are as follows:

	    move (7, 4): 7
	    move (7, 4): 1
	    move (7, 4): d	/* drift, or do nothing */
	    move (7, 4): 6r
	    move (7, 4): 5r1
	    move (7, 4): 4r1r
	    move (7, 4): l1r1r2
	    move (7, 4): 1r1r1r1

       Because	square	riggers  performed  so poorly sailing into the wind, if at any point in a
       movement command you turn into the wind, the movement stops there.  E.g.,

	    move (7, 4): l1l4
	    Movement Error;
	    Helm: l1l

       Moreover, whenever you make a turn, your movement allowance drops to min(what's left, what
       you  would  have at the new attitude).  In short, if you turn closer to the wind, you most
       likely won't be able to sail the full allowance printed in the "move" prompt.

       Old sailing captains had to keep an eye constantly on the wind.	Captains in Sail  are  no
       different.   A ship's ability to move depends on its attitide to the wind.  The best angle
       possible is to have the wind off your quarter, that is, just off the stern.  The direction
       rose on the side of the screen gives the possible movements for your ship at all positions
       to the wind.  Battle sail speeds are given first, and full sail speeds are given in paren-
       thesis.

			    0 1(2)
			   \|/
			   -^-3(6)
			   /|\
			    | 4(7)
			   3(6)

       Pretend the bow of your ship (the "^") is pointing upward and the wind is blowing from the
       bottom to the top of the page.  The numbers at the bottom "3(6)" will be your speed  under
       battle  or  full sails in such a situation.  If the wind is off your quarter, then you can
       move "4(7)".  If the wind is off your beam, "3(6)".  If the wind is off your bow, then you
       can only move "1(2)".  Facing into the wind, you can't move at all.  Ships facing into the
       wind were said to be "in irons".

WINDSPEED AND DIRECTION
       The windspeed and direction is displayed as a little weather  vane  on  the  side  of  the
       screen.	 The  number  in  the middle of the vane indicates the wind speed, and the + to -
       indicates the wind direction.  The wind blows from the + sign (high  pressure)  to  the	-
       sign (low pressure).  E.g.,

			   |
			   3
			   +

       The wind speeds are 0 = becalmed, 1 = light breeze, 2 = moderate breeze, 3 = fresh breeze,
       4 = strong breeze, 5 = gale, 6 = full gale, 7 = hurricane.  If a hurricane shows  up,  all
       ships are destroyed.

GRAPPLING AND FOULING
       If  two	ships  collide,  they  run the risk of becoming tangled together.  This is called
       "fouling."  Fouled ships are stuck together, and neither can move.  They can  unfoul  each
       other if they want to.  Boarding parties can only be sent across to ships when the antago-
       nists are either fouled or grappled.

       Ships can grapple each other by throwing grapnels into the rigging of the other.

       The number of fouls and grapples you have are displayed on the upper right of the screen.

BOARDING
       Boarding was a very costly venture in terms of human life.  Boarding parties may be formed
       in  Sail  to  either  board  an enemy ship or to defend your own ship against attack.  Men
       organized as Defensive Boarding Parties fight twice as hard to save their ship as men left
       unorganized.

       The boarding strength of a crew depends upon its quality and upon the number of men sent.

CREW QUALITY
       The  British  seaman was world renowned for his sailing abilities.  American sailors, how-
       ever, were actually the best seamen in the world.  Because the American Navy offered twice
       the  wages  of the Royal Navy, British seamen who liked the sea defected to America by the
       thousands.

       In Sail, crew quality is quantized into 5 energy levels.  "Elite" crews can  outshoot  and
       outfight  all  other  sailors.	"Crack" crews are next.  "Mundane" crews are average, and
       "Green" and "Mutinous" crews are below average.	A good rule of thumb is that  "Crack"  or
       "Elite"	crews  get one extra hit per broadside compared to "Mundane" crews.  Don't expect
       too much from "Green" crews.

BROADSIDES
       Your two broadsides may be loaded with four kinds of shot: grape, chain, round,	and  dou-
       ble.   You  have guns and carronades in both the port and starboard batteries.  Carronades
       only have a range of two, so you have to get in close to be able to fire them.	You  have
       the  choice of firing at the hull or rigging of another ship.  If the range of the ship is
       greater than 6, then you may only shoot at the rigging.

       The types of shot and their advantages are:

ROUND
       Range of 10.  Good for hull or rigging hits.

DOUBLE
       Range of 1.  Extra good for hull or rigging hits.  Double takes two turns to load.

CHAIN
       Range of 3.  Excellent for tearing down rigging.  Cannot damage hull or guns, though.

GRAPE
       Range of 1.  Sometimes devastating against enemy crews.

       On the side of the screen is displayed some vital information about your ship:

		      Load  D! R!
		      Hull  9
		      Crew  4  4  2
		      Guns  4  4
		      Carr  2  2
		      Rigg  5 5 5 5

       "Load" shows what your port (left) and starboard (right) broadsides are	loaded	with.	A
       "!"  after  the type of shot indicates that it is an initial broadside.	Initial broadside
       were loaded with care before battle and before the decks ran red with blood.  As a  conse-
       quence,	initial  broadsides  are a little more effective than broadsides loaded later.	A
       "*" after the type of shot indicates that the gun crews are still loading it, and you can-
       not fire yet.  "Hull" shows how much hull you have left.  "Crew" shows your three sections
       of crew.  As your crew dies off, your ability to fire decreases.  "Guns" and  "Carr"  show
       your  port  and starboard guns.	As you lose guns, your ability to fire decreases.  "Rigg"
       shows how much rigging you have on your 3 or 4 masts.  As rigging is shot away,	you  lose
       mobility.

EFFECTIVENESS OF FIRE
       It  is very dramatic when a ship fires its thunderous broadsides, but the mere opportunity
       to fire them does not guarantee any hits.  Many factors influence the destructive force of
       a broadside.  First of all, and the chief factor, is distance.  It is harder to hit a ship
       at range ten than it is to hit one sloshing alongside.  Next is raking.	Raking	fire,  as
       mentioned  before, can sometimes dismast a ship at range ten.  Next, crew size and quality
       affects the damage done by a broadside.	 The number of guns  firing  also  bears  on  the
       point, so to speak.  Lastly, weather affects the accuracy of a broadside.  If the seas are
       high (5 or 6), then the lower gunports of ships of the line can't even be  opened  to  run
       out the guns.  This gives frigates and other flush decked vessels an advantage in a storm.
       The scenario Pellew vs. The Droits de L'Homme takes advantage  of  this	peculiar  circum-
       stance.

REPAIRS
       Repairs	may  be  made  to your Hull, Guns, and Rigging at the slow rate of two points per
       three turns.  The message "Repairs Completed" will be printed if no more  repairs  can  be
       made.

PECULIARITIES OF COMPUTER SHIPS
       Computer  ships	in Sail follow all the rules above with a few exceptions.  Computer ships
       never repair damage.  If they did, the players could never  beat  them.	 They  play  well
       enough  as  it  is.  As a consolation, the computer ships can fire double shot every turn.
       That fluke is a good reason to keep your distance.  The Driver figures out  the	moves  of
       the  computer  ships.   It computes them with a typical A.I. distance function and a depth
       first search to find the maximum "score."  It seems to work fairly well, although I'll  be
       the first to admit it isn't perfect.

HOW TO PLAY
       Commands  are  given  to Sail by typing a single character.  You will then be prompted for
       further input.  A brief summary of the commands follows.
COMMAND SUMMARY
	   'f'	Fire broadsides if they bear
	   'l'	Reload
	   'L'	Unload broadsides (to change ammo)
	   'm'	Move
	   'i'	Print the closest ship
	   'I'	Print all ships
	   'F'	Find a particular ship or ships (e.g. "a?" for all Americans)
	   's'	Send a message around the fleet
	   'b'	Attempt to board an enemy ship
	   'B'	Recall boarding parties
	   'c'	Change set of sail
	   'r'	Repair
	   'u'	Attempt to unfoul
	   'g'	Grapple/ungrapple
	   'v'	Print version number of game
	  '^L'	Redraw screen
	   'Q'	Quit

	   'C'	    Center your ship in the window
	   'U'	      Move window up
	   'D','N'  Move window down
	   'H'	      Move window left
	   'J'	      Move window right
	   'S'	    Toggle window to follow your ship or stay where it is

SCENARIOS
       Here is a summary of the scenarios in Sail:

Ranger vs. Drake:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Ranger	     19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
       (b) Drake	     17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

The Battle of Flamborough Head:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       This is John Paul Jones' first famous battle.  Aboard the Bonhomme Richard, he was able to
       overcome the Serapis's greater firepower by quickly boarding her.

       (a) Bonhomme Rich     42 gun Corvette (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (b) Serapis	     44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (12 pts)

Arbuthnot and Des Touches:
       Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

       (b) America	     64 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (20 pts)
       (b) Befford	     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Adamant	     50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) London	     98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (b) Royal Oak	     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Neptune	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Duc Bougogne      80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Conquerant	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Provence	     64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Romulus	     44 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (10 pts)

Suffren and Hughes:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Monmouth	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Hero 	     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Isis 	     50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Superb	     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Burford	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Flamband	     50 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (14 pts)
       (f) Annibal	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Severe	     64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Brilliant	     80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (f) Sphinx	     80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)

Nymphe vs. Cleopatre:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Nymphe	     36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (f) Cleopatre	     36 gun Frigate (average crew) (10 pts)

Mars vs. Hercule:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
       (b) Mars 	     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Hercule	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (23 pts)

Ambuscade vs. Baionnaise:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Ambuscade	     32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Baionnaise	     24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)

Constellation vs. Insurgent:
       Wind from the S, blowing a gale.

       (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Insurgent	     36 gun Corvette (average crew) (11 pts)

Constellation vs. Vengeance:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Vengeance	     40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)

The Battle of Lissa:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Amphion	     32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (b) Active	     38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (18 pts)
       (b) Volage	     22 gun Frigate (elite crew) (11 pts)
       (b) Cerberus	     32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (f) Favorite	     40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (f) Flore	     40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (f) Danae	     40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Bellona	     32 gun Frigate (green crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Corona	     40 gun Frigate (green crew) (12 pts)
       (f) Carolina	     32 gun Frigate (green crew) (7 pts)

Constitution vs. Guerriere:
       Wind from the SW, blowing a gale.

       (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Guerriere	     38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

United States vs. Macedonian:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) United States     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Macedonian	     38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

Constitution vs. Java:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Java 	     38 gun Corvette (crack crew) (19 pts)

Chesapeake vs. Shannon:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Chesapeake	     38 gun Frigate (average crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Shannon	     38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (17 pts)

The Battle of Lake Erie:
       Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

       (a) Lawrence	     20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
       (a) Niagara	     20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
       (b) Lady Prevost      13 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
       (b) Detroit	     19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
       (b) Q. Charlotte      17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

Wasp vs. Reindeer:
       Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

       (a) Wasp 	     20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
       (b) Reindeer	     18 gun Sloop (elite crew) (9 pts)

Constitution vs. Cyane and Levant:
       Wind from the S, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (a)  Constitution       44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts) (b) Cyane		   24 gun
       Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts) (b) Levant		 20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (10 pts)

Pellew vs. Droits de L'Homme:
       Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

       (b) Indefatigable     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Amazon	     36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
       (f) Droits L'Hom      74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

Algeciras:
       Wind from the SW, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (b) Caesar	     80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (b) Pompee	     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Spencer	     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Hannibal	     98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (s) Real-Carlos	     112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (s) San Fernando      96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
       (s) Argonauta	     80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)
       (s) San Augustine     74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)
       (f) Indomptable	     80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Desaix	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

Lake Champlain:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Saratoga	     26 gun Sloop (crack crew) (12 pts)
       (a) Eagle	     20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (a) Ticonderoga	     17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
       (a) Preble	     7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
       (b) Confiance	     37 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Linnet	     16 gun Sloop (elite crew) (10 pts)
       (b) Chubb	     11 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)

Last Voyage of the USS President:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) President	     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Endymion	     40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Pomone	     44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (20 pts)
       (b) Tenedos	     38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

Hornblower and the Natividad:
       Wind from the E, blowing a gale.

       A scenario for you Horny fans.  Remember, he sank the Natividad	against  heavy	odds  and
       winds.  Hint: don't try to board the Natividad, her crew is much bigger, albeit green.

       (b) Lydia	     36 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (s) Natividad	     50 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (14 pts)

Curse of the Flying Dutchman:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       Just for fun, take the Piece of cake.

       (s) Piece of Cake     24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Flying Dutchy     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)

The South Pacific:
       Wind from the S, blowing a strong breeze.

       (a) USS Scurvy	     136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
       (b) HMS Tahiti	     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (s) Australian	     32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Bikini Atoll      7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)

Hornblower and the battle of Rosas bay:
       Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

       The only battle Hornblower ever lost.  He was able to dismast one
       ship and stern rake the others though.  See if you can do as well.

       (b) Sutherland	     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Turenne	     80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Nightmare	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Paris	     112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Napolean	     74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)

Cape Horn:
       Wind from the NE, blowing a strong breeze.

       (a) Concord	     80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (a) Berkeley	     98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (b) Thames	     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (s) Madrid	     112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Musket	     80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)

New Orleans:
       Wind from the SE, blowing a fresh breeze.

       Watch that little Cypress go!

       (a) Alligator	     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (b) Firefly	     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Cypress	     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)

Botany Bay:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Shark	     64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Coral Snake	     44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Sea Lion	     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)

Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea:
       Wind from the NW, blowing a fresh breeze.

       This one is dedicated to Richard Basehart and David Hedison.

       (a) Seaview	     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (a) Flying Sub	     40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Mermaid	     136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
       (s) Giant Squid	     112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)

Frigate Action:
       Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Killdeer	     40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (b) Sandpiper	     40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (s) Curlew	     38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

The Battle of Midway:
       Wind from the E, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (a) Enterprise	     80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (a) Yorktown	     80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (a) Hornet	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (j) Akagi	     112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (j) Kaga 	     96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
       (j) Soryu	     80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)

Star Trek:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Enterprise	     450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Yorktown	     450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Reliant	     450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Galileo	     450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (k) Kobayashi Maru    450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (k) Klingon II	     450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (o) Red Orion	     450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (o) Blue Orion	     450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)

CONCLUSION
       Sail has been a group effort.

Ken Arnold Code
       curses library (pu!)

AUTHOR
       Dave Riggle

CO-AUTHOR
       Ed Wang

REFITTING
       Craig Leres

CONSULTANTS
       Chris Guthrie
       Captain Happy
       Horatio Nelson
       Nancy Reagan
	    and many valiant others...

REFERENCES
       Wooden Ships & Iron Men, by Avalon Hill
       Captain Horatio Hornblower Novels, (13 of them) by C.S. Forester
       Captain Richard Bolitho Novels, (12 of them) by Alexander Kent
       The Complete Works of Captain Frederick Marryat, (about 20) especially
	    Mr. Midshipman Easy
	    Peter Simple
	    Jacob Faithful
	    Japhet in Search of a Father
	    Snarleyyow, or The Dog Fiend
	    Frank Mildmay, or The Naval Officer

SEE ALSO
       midway(PUBLIC)

BUGS
       Probably a few, and please report them to "riggle@ernie" and "edward@arpa."

4.3 Berkeley Distribution		   May 6, 1986					  SAIL(6)
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